The circulatory and respiration system

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The circulatory and respiration system

  1. 1. The Circulatory and Respiration System By Nurul Washifa binti Ruzlan
  2. 2. LET SAY THAT A HEALTHY PERSON, MALE, AGED 20-30 YEARS OLD WANTS TO CLIMB MOUNT EVEREST . PLEASE DESCRIBE THE CHANGES IN HIS CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WHEN HE a) IS CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN b) WHEN HE REACHED THE HIGHEST PEAK c) IF HE WERE TO SUFFER FROM HYPOXIA/HIGH ALTITUDE SICKNESS. WHAT ARE HIS SYMPTOMS AND WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT? 2
  3. 3. a) IS CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN Circulatory system  An increase in the flow of blood  An increase in the ability of the blood to carry oxygen 3
  4. 4. a) IS CLIMBING THE MOUNTAIN Respiratory system  An increase in breathing  The pressure of oxygen raises in the lungs, which allows more oxygen to be carried in the blood to vital organs like the brain and muscles 4
  5. 5. b) WHEN HE REACHED THE HIGHEST PEAK Circulatory system • The heart beats faster • The stroke volume is slightly decreased • Non-essential bodily functions are suppressed 5
  6. 6. b) WHEN HE REACHED THE HIGHEST PEAK Respiratory system • The lack of oxygen is sensed by the carotid bodies, which causes an increase in the breathing rate (hyperventilation) • The adverse effect of respiratory alkalosis, inhibiting the respiratory center from enhancing the respiratory rate as much as would be required 6
  7. 7. c) IF HE WERE TO SUFFER FROM HYPOXIA/HIGH ALTITUDE SICKNESS. WHAT ARE HIS SYMPTOMS AND WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT? Circulatory system  Hemoglobin in red cells cannot fully saturate with oxygen  Affect cardiac output 7
  8. 8. c) IF HE WERE TO SUFFER FROM HYPOXIA/HIGH ALTITUDE SICKNESS. WHAT ARE HIS SYMPTOMS AND WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT? Respiratory system  Inadequate amounts of O2 in the alveoli  Abnormal breath sounds 8
  9. 9. c) IF HE WERE TO SUFFER FROM HYPOXIA/HIGH ALTITUDE SICKNESS. WHAT ARE HIS SYMPTOMS AND WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT? The symptoms are:  Acute mountain sickness (AMS)  High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE)  High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) 9
  10. 10. c) IF HE WERE TO SUFFER FROM HYPOXIA/HIGH ALTITUDE SICKNESS. WHAT ARE HIS SYMPTOMS AND WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT? The possible treatments are: AMS  Ascend slowly  Avoid strenuous efforts at the initial phase of acclimatization  Provide a good hydration ingesting at least 3 litres of water per day  Eat light meals in which carbohydrates predominate 10
  11. 11. c) IF HE WERE TO SUFFER FROM HYPOXIA/HIGH ALTITUDE SICKNESS. WHAT ARE HIS SYMPTOMS AND WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT? The possible treatments are: HAPE  Use of nifedipine  Inhalation of nitric oxide HACE  A slow ascent  Good hydration  Avoidance of strenuous exercises 11
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  13. 13. BONUS QUESTION WOULD IT MAKE ANY DIFFERENCE IS THE CLIMBER IS THE FEMALE? 13
  14. 14. THE ANSWER IS….. 12/19/2013 14
  15. 15. YES!!!BECAUSE…..  Climbing was fundamentally different for female and male  Female have far lower levels of muscle-building hormones  Female have weak upper body 12/19/2013 www.brainybetty.com 15

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