Designing call-1


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Designing call-1

  2. 2. Presented by Group 4 <ul><li>Bambang Triatmojo </li></ul><ul><li>Iesye Faisha </li></ul><ul><li>Nurul Umama </li></ul><ul><li>Rima Sulastika Chandra </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is designing CALL…? <ul><li>Prior to designing CALL programs, a careful plan consisting of a number o f tasks needs to be performed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Initial Planning <ul><li>Determining Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>ChoosingTypes of Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing Software </li></ul><ul><li>Determining Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring Program Design </li></ul>The initial process of designing a model of self-access Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Program comprises of a set of tasks as follows :
  5. 5. Determining Objectives <ul><li>Russel (1972:775) states : </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is important to identify the purpose – objective – the materials are intended to serve” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Choosing Types of Programs There are several types of computer based programs commonly used in language learning such as : drill and practise, games, tutorials, simulations, problem solving, and demonstration Criswell (1989:9) point out that these are two types of Tutorials : Linear program and Branching program
  7. 7. Linear program <ul><li>Presents every frame to every student. </li></ul><ul><li>It programs may be paced by the student and may include inter e sting graphics . </li></ul><ul><li>Present information in carefully sequenced small bits, and the student is required about each bit. The student cannot alter the toward progression of the program, except to pace it. </li></ul>Choosing Types of Programs
  8. 8. Branching program <ul><li>It is an improvement over linear programs because of the greater control it gives to learners in the sense that students may start to learn any topic without necessarily following a particular learning sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Criswell (1989:9) </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights some characteristics of brancing programs: </li></ul><ul><li>Include pre-test of major sections in the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Computes the student score and advives the student to either skip over or complete the section </li></ul><ul><li>Include review sequences that the student can select as needed. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hartoyo’s CALL Tutorial Program <ul><li>1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to assist students in learning EFL, especially grammar, in their spare time without reducing their classroom contact for other subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>It is designed using multimedia authoring software to enable students to choose any topic or information they want to learn based on their own interests, and to enable them to review any part of a topic or information without any limitation. </li></ul><ul><li>It is non-sequential tutorial </li></ul>Choosing Types of Programs
  10. 10. Selecting Materials <ul><li>Johnson (1991) states that it is important that multimedia authors and teachers do not fall back into the trap of setting the same dull old task, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Performomg meaning drills </li></ul><ul><li>Copying out list of words </li></ul><ul><li>Doing vocabulary or grammar tests with one word answers </li></ul><ul><li>Memorizing ‘paired associates’ out of context </li></ul><ul><li>Authors and teachers need to recognize that language is not just an assemblage of distinct vocabulary items and structure to be learned, but a heaving, swirling, dynamic whole, the means by which men, women and children communicate with each other </li></ul>
  11. 11. Selecting Material by Hartoyo (1998) <ul><li>Consist of grammatical structures which are considered to be the main problems for Indonesian learners of English </li></ul><ul><li>Five problematic aspects of grammar: </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns (plural noun reflections) </li></ul><ul><li>Articles (definite and indefinite articles) </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-verb agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Tenses </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Choosing Software <ul><li>There are some multimedia software that can be used to design/develop a CALL program. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CALL program developed by Hartoyo was designed using Asymetrix Multimedia ToolBook 3.0, an authoring system running under windows ToolBook
  14. 14. ToolBook is also hypermedia that it is able to manage a collection of information that can be accessed non-sequentially ToolBook
  15. 15. Considerations in using ToolBook 3.0 for designing CALL program by Hartoyo <ul><li>ToolBook 3.0 is expansive and flexible in its ability to provide access to text, pictures and other media. </li></ul><ul><li>ToolBook is supported by text, graphics and visual illustrations, and it can also be combined with audio as well as video. </li></ul><ul><li>ToolBook is mainly run on PCs (IBM) which are widely used in the place where the study was carried out </li></ul>
  16. 16. Determining Tasks <ul><li>Task in computer based programs are essential in stimulating interaction both between learners and the computer </li></ul><ul><li>CALL program disigners must be able to analyze what learning tasks should be provided to stimulate interaction between the user and the computer </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tasks in the CALL program developed by Hartoyo were presented in the form of a set of exercises following material presentation section, and learners were asked to practice them Tasks
  18. 18. Designing Structure of the program <ul><li>The program normally consists of three parts : </li></ul><ul><li>The first part consists of information / explanation about the tutorial program to help the user use the program easier </li></ul><ul><li>The second part presents materisl highlighted in the program </li></ul><ul><li>The third part is a set of exercises that enables the user to assess his/her understanding toward the materials he/she has just learn. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Principles for Designing and Testing the CALL Program <ul><li>Interactivity (feedback and Instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Usability (flexibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>
  20. 20. Principles for Designing and Testing the CALL Program Interactivity (feedback and Instruction) Interactivity refer to how the program can stimulate interaction, especially interaction between the computer and the user It includes the effectiveness of the instructions and feedback provided in the program <ul><li>Interactivity (feedback and Instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Usability (flexibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>
  21. 21. Principles for Designing and Testing the CALL Program Usability (flexibility) Refers to the flexibility, easy and inherent interest of the program used, and how easy it is to navigate within the program <ul><li>Interactivity (feedback and Instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Usability (flexibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>
  22. 22. Principles for Designing and Testing the CALL Program Content Appropriateness Content appropriateness is concerned with the amount of material presented in the program, how easy the material is learned and understood, and how far the material meets the students’ need <ul><li>Interactivity (feedback and Instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Usability (flexibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>
  23. 23. Principles for Designing and Testing the CALL Program <ul><li>Interactivity (feedback and Instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Usability (flexibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>Effectiveness Refers to how effectively the program assist language leraners to improve their mastery of grammar.
  24. 24. Principles for Designing and Testing the CALL Program Performance Refers to the presentation, layout of the screen, the colour, and the illustration (picture, diagram, charts, etc.) used in the program <ul><li>Interactivity (feedback and Instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Usability (flexibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>
  25. 25. THANK YOU