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Design for safety

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Design for safety

  1. 1. DESIGN FOR SAFETY NURUL IKHMAR IBRAHIM SCHOOL OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING UNIMAP
  2. 2. Course Outcome CO 3: Ability to analyze and evaluate products’ safety using suitable methods.
  3. 3. Today’s topic Safety Definition Safety Problems & Human Failures Designing Safe Products
  4. 4. In Malaysia , home is second to road as a place for injury morbidity and mortality. There were 13,401 home injury cases and of which 44 cases (0.3%) were fatal. Products such as floor and flooring surface, stairs, furniture, toys and baby walkers had been identified as factors that could contribute to injury. Source: Hasni, H., Junainah S. and Jamaliah J., 2003, Epidemiology of Home Injury in Malaysia SAFETY DEFINITION
  5. 5. WHY? PRODUCTS ARE UNSAFE TO USE SAFETY DEFINITION
  6. 6. Most product safety problems arise from improper product use rather than product defects. THOMAS A. HUNTER
  7. 7. SAFETY IS FREEDOM FROM DANGER, INJURY OR DAMAGE
  8. 8. HARM Physical injury or damage to the health of people or damage to property or the environment. [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, definition 3.3] SAFETY DEFINITION
  9. 9. HAZARD Potential source of harm. [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, definition 3.5] SAFETY DEFINITION
  10. 10. ERGONOMICS HAZARD In terms of users’ mental & physical capabilities, which include: 1. Body dimension. 2. Strength & posture. 3. Frequency, duration & intensity of task/work. 4. Information processing (Human error) 5. Environmental factors SAFETY DEFINITION
  11. 11. RISK Combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm. [ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, definition 3.2] SAFETY DEFINITION
  12. 12. DANGER A combination of risk and probable hazard consequences. SAFETY DEFINITION
  13. 13. Today’s topic Safety Definition Safety Problems & Human Failures Designing Safe Products
  14. 14. INFLUENCES OF CONSUMER SAFETY macro SAFETY INFORMATION Government Standards Industry micro PRODUCT DESIGN Conditions of use Consumer behaviour CONSUMER SAFETY
  15. 15. People can cause or contribute to accidents – human failures.
  16. 16. THERE ARE 2 CAUSES OF HUMAN FAILURES
  17. 17. THERE ARE 2 CAUSES OF HUMAN FAILURES VIOLATIONS + ERRORS = INJURY, DEATH & DAMAGE
  18. 18. HUMAN ERROR IS THE FAILURE OF PLANNED ACTIONS TO ACHIEVED THEIR DESIRED NEEDS
  19. 19. It is suggest that human error is a primary cause of 60-90% major accidents.
  20. 20. There are 2 basic types of human error: 1.Skill-based error 2.Mistakes HUMAN ERRORS
  21. 21. Skill-based error  Involve routine tasks in familiar situations.  May cause by inattention or over attention.  Two categories – slips and lapses HUMAN ERRORS
  22. 22. Slips  Failure of execution of planned tasks i.e. ‘action-not asplanned’.  May be due to distraction from task or preoccupation with other things. SKILL-BASED ERROR
  23. 23. Slips – examples  Picking up the wrong component from a mixed box.  Omitting a step or series of steps from a task.  Performing the action in the wrong direction (e.g. turning a control knob to the right rather than the left. SKILL-BASED ERROR
  24. 24. Lapses  Failures to carry out an action due to forgetfulness (memory failures).  Can be reduced by minimising distractions and interruptions to tasks and by providing effective reminders. SKILL-BASED ERROR
  25. 25. Lapses – example SKILL-BASED ERROR
  26. 26. Mistakes  Do the wrong thing believing it to be right.  Two types of mistakes – rulebased and knowledge-based. HUMAN ERRORS
  27. 27. Rule-based mistakes  Occur when our behaviour is based on remembered rules or familiar procedures.  It is called rule-based because we apply rules of the kind: if (this situation) then do (these actions). MISTAKES
  28. 28. Rule-based mistakes example MISTAKES
  29. 29. Knowledge-based mistakes  May occur when we have to think our way through a novel situation for which we do not have a procedure or “rule”.  Make wrong judgement due to insufficient knowledge or experience (lack of expertise). MISTAKES
  30. 30. Knowledge-based mistakes - example MISTAKES
  31. 31. VIOLATIONS ARE ANY DELIBERATE DEVIATIONS FROM RULES, PROCEDURES, INSTRUCTIONS & REGULATIONS
  32. 32. There are 3 categories of violations: 1.Routine 2.Situational 3.Exceptional HUMAN ERRORS
  33. 33. Routine  Breaking the rule or procedure has become a normal way of working within the work group. VIOLATIONS
  34. 34. Routine - example VIOLATIONS
  35. 35. Situational  Breaking the rule is due to pressures from the job such as being under time pressure, the right equipment not being available, or even extreme weather conditions. VIOLATIONS
  36. 36. Situational – design features which increase violation VIOLATIONS
  37. 37. Situational - example VIOLATIONS
  38. 38. Exceptional  Rarely happen and only then when something has gone wrong. VIOLATIONS
  39. 39. Exceptional - example VIOLATIONS
  40. 40. Today’s topic Safety Definition Safety Problems & Human Failures Designing Safe Products
  41. 41. SAFE PRODUCT DESIGN CAN BE ACHIEVED VIA 3 COMBINED APPROACHES
  42. 42. Intrinsic Safety  Focused on immediate/initial use.  Minimizes direct injury from device (e.g. sharps, burns) DESIGNING FOR SAFETY
  43. 43. Ergonomic Safety  Focused on repetitive and/or long-term use.  Minimizes fatigue and cumulative injury effects (e.g. carpal tunnel) DESIGNING FOR SAFETY
  44. 44. Usable Safety  Focused on full life-space of product use.  Minimizes opportunities for incorrect use (e.g. overdose) DESIGNING FOR SAFETY
  45. 45. SAFE PRODUCTS CAN BE DESIGNED THROUGH ERGONOMICS EVALUATION METHOD
  46. 46. What should you evaluate? #1  The features of the product. DESIGNING FOR SAFETY
  47. 47. What should you evaluate? #2  The physical and psychological characteristics of the user. DESIGNING FOR SAFETY
  48. 48. What should you evaluate? #3  How the product will be used, associated with tasks and activities. DESIGNING FOR SAFETY
  49. 49. What should you evaluate? #4  Environmental factors. DESIGNING FOR SAFETY
  50. 50. The evaluation must consider all stages of product’s lifecycle.
  51. 51. A FRAMEWORK FOR PRODUCT EVALUATION PROCESS
  52. 52. Some useful guidelines: Designer must avoid any design which expects or requires individual/users to:     Exceed their physical strength. Perform too many functions simultaneously. Detect and process more information than is possible. Perform meticulous task under difficult environmental conditions.  Work at peak performance for long periods.  Work with tools in cramped spaces, etc.
  53. 53. EXAMPLES OF EVERYDAY PRODUCTS
  54. 54. Figure 1 : Labelling around the programme control is difficult to read Figure 2 : Protruding dials are easy to grip and the labelling easy to see
  55. 55. A B C Figure 3 : Interface design of microwave ovens. Design A combines simplicity and functionality. Design B and C leads to confusion and many user errors
  56. 56. A B Figure 4 : Switches which are identical in shape and arranged in onedimensional row make it more possible to commit error. There are two solutions: place a visual display with the switches (A) or arrange the switches to match the room layout (B)
  57. 57. Figure 5 : Which control goes to which burner?
  58. 58. Figure 6 : Full natural mapping of controls and burners
  59. 59. Figure 7 : A typical power plant control room Figure 8 : Make the controls look and feel different. The control-room operators in a nuclear power plant tried to over come the problem similar-looking knobs by placing beer-keg handles over them
  60. 60. Make sure that the user can figure out what to do!
  61. 61. Make sure that the user can tell what is going on!
  62. 62. References  Ergonomics and Safety in Consumer Product Design, B. Norris and J.R. Wilson in Human Factors in Product Design: Current Practice and Future Trends. (2001) Patrick W. Jordan and William S. Green  Rapid Alert System for non-food products posing a serious risk (RAPEX). http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/ipm/risk_assesment_guid elines_non_food.pdf  Designing safety into products, Beverley Norris and John R. Wilson http://person.hst.aau.dk/pm/ab/DSP.pdf
  63. 63. References  MS ISO 12100:2012 Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment and risk reduction

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