Research proposal

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Research proposal

  1. 1. RESEARCH PROPOSAL AN INVESTIGATION OF STUDENT’S PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS EFEECTIVE APPROACH OF A COUNSELOR IN SCHOOL NURUL IFFAH BINTI MOHAMED ARIS
  2. 2. Contents Contents......................................................................................................................................................2 CHAPTER 1...................................................................................................................................................3 1.0INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................3 1.1RESEARCH PROBLEM..............................................................................................................................6 1.2RESEARCH OBJECTIVE.............................................................................................................................8 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION..........................................................................................................................8 1.4RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS..........................................................................................................................9 1.5OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS...................................................................................................................9 1.5.1Counseling ......................................................................................................................................9 1.5.2Perceptions......................................................................................................................................9 1.5.3Boarding school.............................................................................................................................10 1.6LIMITATION OF THE STUDY...................................................................................................................10 1.7SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY ................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 2.................................................................................................................................................12 LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................................................................................12 2.0 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................................12 2.1 PSYCOSOSIAL DEVELOPMENT..........................................................................................................13 2.2 PSYCOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT.........................................................................................................14 2.3 GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING..........................................................................................................14 2.4 COUNSELING THERAPY....................................................................................................................15 3.3 Data collection.................................................................................................................................21 3.4 Data Analysis....................................................................................................................................23
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION Education plays an important role in developing of human capital who has a strong identity, knowledgeable and highly skilled to achieve the need of the countries by 2020. Human capital that being produced must be able to think critically and creatively, skills and problem solving ability to create new opportunities, resilience and ability to cope with the environment. All of us value the opinion of others as to their perceptions of how well they do their jobs. We may or may not agree with the evaluator’s opinions, but they make an impact upon our actions. Involvement in the evaluation process lets us know the administration cares about what they do and includes them in the core of the environment. Administrators tend to evaluate those things that they value. Counseling is a two-way process between counselor and client intended to guide the client to source oneself and experience the process of learning through interaction with a counselor.
  4. 4. Counseling is also done to normal individual whom able to manage themselves but facing problems such as depressed that need professional discussions at a time. The priority of a counseling session is the client but not their problem (Khairunisak & Mohamed, 2013). Counseling Service in Malaysia started in 1939. Ministry of Education (MOE ), then known as Education Department Of The Straits Settlements and The Federated Malay States published a book of career guidance for pupils entitled A Guide to Careers in Malaya for Parents, Teachers and Pupils. Steps taken in the publication of the book follow the education system in the United States that create career guidance and counseling units in schools. In 1966, the MOE through the Schools Division also publishes a book called SCHOOL GUIDANCE SERVICES. The book was funded by UNESCO and has been written by expert guidance and career counseling named RK McKenzie from Canada. He is assisted by 11 officers from the Student Affairs State Education Department (NRD) across the country to write it. The statistics from the Global Youth Online Behaviour Survey were recently released by Microsoft Corp shown that 84% report being bullied online and/or offline (most bullying is offline), 33% of Malaysian children say they have been subjected to a range of online activities that some may consider to be online bullying, 15% admit to bullying someone else online; 45% admit to bullying someone else offline, 27% said their parents talk to them about online risks, 30% of parents monitor their use of the computer, 18% of parents teach them online manners, 13% of parents ask them if they’ve been bullied online. The survey covered 7,600 children from age eight to 17. It was conducted from Jan 11-Feb 19, 2012, in 25 countries including Malaysia. The counseling services at the school was recognized by the MOE as an example in the early 1960s until the 1980s. However, schools did not have a special room for the counseling session
  5. 5. but the government has ensured these services have a special room to run services in until 1996. Before 1996, there was no full-time employment for guidance and counseling teachers, but starting in 1996, the government agreed to approve the full-time employment. Counseling students can determine the selection theory based on experience sessions with clients, recognizing that a theory which does not meet all of the clinical situation which can cause great flexibility and huge change of approach. Thus, the selection of theory is an ongoing process that can increase the confidence, the effectiveness of the counselor and fulfill client needs. Study by (Hickson, Housley, & Wages, 2000) show 90% of respondents of the study namely counselor believe the spiritual elements can become a powerful psychological agent in the practice of counseling (Khairunisak & Mohamed, 2013). In this case, all counselor must understand that the service is in over and above the school counselor at the school are not the same as the teachers of academic subjects. Enrollment eligibility for each school is for high school, 500 pupils and a teacher ratio for primary schools, 350 pupils to one teacher. Counselor is a full-time teacher means counseling services considered as a full-time working hours in the school day as normal subjects teachers . Today, issues affecting the discipline cannot be solved as a whole. Although the data collected by the Ministry of Education is still can be controlled, where the 5-year period (2007 to 2011) shows that it is at an average rate of 2.07 %, but in terms of the amount involved is huge. For example, in 2011, cases involving discipline nearly 110 218 or 2:05 %. These cases include cases of hitting, fighting, truancy and disciplinary such as neatness themselves. About 2 to 3 percent of the number of students who still need to be addressed accordingly where 72.873
  6. 6. ( 66.1 % ) are involved secondary school students and a total of 37.345 ( 33.9 % ) are of primary school pupils. Based on this information, the MOE still dealing with the issues affecting the character and discipline. It turns out that the Ministry of Education needs to make changes to the service. Add to that the issues being faced now more complex as the background of the various sources. In light of this, this research will magnify several aspects that would contribute to a better understanding on firstly, what are student’s confident of a school counselor as one of their consultant; secondly, what are student’s satisfaction after take part in counseling programmes or counseling session and lastly in which way can help in improving the effective approach of a counselor by students. 1.1 RESEARCH PROBLEM On Tuesday October 8, 2013, The Star online had publish an article about ‘ Ragging in Malaysia boarding schools widespread, say students ‘ by Dina Murad. This issue was so worried especially the students themselves. By the time they entering the boarding school, meaning that they entering new world. School counselor play the main role for the students to talk, discuss, or share problem. However, some students did not confidence with the counselor. They worried if their ‘secret’ will spread. Moreover, the counseling programmes provided by the counselor also play as an important approach and it relate to student’s satisfaction towards the service or programmes. If the programmes give positive impact to students, then the problem on ragging or other discipline problems can be decrease.
  7. 7. Besides, on 13 September 2013, Sinar Harian online published an article about ‘ Pelajar Bersalin dalam bilik asrama’. At boarding school, students also expose to the relationship between male and female. To avoid the incidents happen, awareness on sexually relationship is very noteworthy to students. As a students, they still cannot think rationally on what they going to do and that the role of a counselor to guide and consult them. According to a study by (Khairunisak & Mohamed, 2013), at the beginning of the counseling session the counselor highlights confidential ethics to client. Confidential ethics assure client and give a sense of precautions to the client to continue sharing with the counselor. Counselors also apply total positive principle regard to the client. I will accept any condition of the client and I will attend the client as who are for hire. Besides, I also tell the client the role of the counselor and client in this session Selatan is as a counselor, I will help the client to explore her potential in order to find solution for her issues. While as a client, she can tell anything regarding her thinking, emotion and behavior in this session. The research conducted by Laurie & Nathalie from the side of school counselor’s perceptions showed that school counselors indicated confidence regarding counseling skills and comfort with typical student issues, yet expressed a certain degree of discomfort in working extensively with students living with a mental health diagnosis. Survey results further indicate that revisions in education and training may contribute to a decrease in this discomfort, but would likely do little to address challenges regarding provision of mental health services within the current nature of job expectations. Innovative training and an expanded understanding by administrators regarding the critical role that school counselors play in providing mental health services to students seem to be needed to effect positive change. Thoughtful and robust school counselor training,
  8. 8. professional development opportunities and resources such as this special issue dedicated to the mental health role of school counselors, professional advocacy driven by school counselors in the field, and praiseworthy cross-disciplinary partnerships will enhance the possibility of greater mental health outcomes for the youth in our schools (Laurie & Nathalie) Since there are positive result on behalf of counselor thus another study should be carried out in order to determine the actual situation towards student’s perceptions about the school counselor which can contribute in increasing school counselor’s management in school. 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE The research objectives of this study are : 1.2.1 To determine the level of student’s satisfaction towards counseling programmes. 1.2.2 To determine counselor’s management towards counseling programmes. 1.2.3 To identify ways that can help in improving the effective approach of a counselor. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION The research questions are : 1.3.1 What are the level of student’s satisfaction towards a counselor?
  9. 9. 1.3.2 How are counselor’s management towards counseling programmes? 1.3.3 What are the ways that can help in improving the effective approach of a counselor? 1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS The research hypothesis for this research is Ha : There is a positive perception of the students towards effective approach of a counselor. 1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS The definitions used in this study are as follow : 1.5.1 Counseling American Counseling Association (ACA,1997) define that “Counseling is the application of mental health, psychological, or human development principles, through cognitive, affective, behavioral, or systemic interventions, strategies that address wellness, personal growth, or career development, as well as pathology”. In this study, counseling is defined as counseling session or counseling programmes that students had done. 1.5.2 Perceptions According to online oxford dictionary, the definition of perceptions is the ability to see, hear and become aware of something through sense. It also defines as the way in which something is regarded, understand or interpreted.
  10. 10. In this study, perceptions refer to what students see and understand on counseling services or programme in school. 1.5.3 Boarding school According to Cambridge dictionary, boarding school is a school where students live and study. The school will provide accommodation and meals for the students during term time. In this study, the boarding school refer to the same definition. 1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The first limitation is the respondent of this study. The respondents is only limited to students level 2, primary school. Males and females from other context such as aware about the environment may be affected differently. Females attract to have a good relationship with all the classmates and teachers and they will find solution regarding their problems so that they can focus on their study compared to males. The second limitation of this study is the sample size. The sample size is too small. The sample size is only limited to 100 respondents consists of students from SK Petaseh, Negeri Sembilan. In order to make general conclusion on student’s perceptions towards effective approach of a counselor in school, the sample size with 100 respondents is too small. The bigger the sample size can make the general conclusion acceptable. The third limitation is the place that this study will be conducted. The sample in this study were only made up of primary boarding school. Because of this study only conducted for students in primary boarding school, thus the sample cannot be the representative of the rest
  11. 11. population. Students in primary daily school might show different result as both daily and boarding school experience different management of school. 1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY Firstly, the study on the investigation of student’s perceptions towards effective approach of a counselor in school is to determine the level of student’s confidence towards counselor. The significant of this study is to determine whether students are ready enough to come and see and also sharing their problem with others especially school counselor. If the level of student’s confidence is lower, than the school counselor should take step to overcome which can help students in their needs. This can help the counselor in improving their approach towards students. Thus, it is one of the important objectives that this study must be done and gain the result. In addition, this study tends to identify the degree of student’s satisfaction towards the counseling programmes. This study will assist the students to express their feeling before and after counseling programmes. For example, the input from the programme held should corresponding with the environment and situation to life as a students. If the students satisfied after undergo the programmes, it proves that the counselor doing well in their management n understanding student’s need. In this study, the counselor can identify the weakness in their programmes which can be covered in the next programmes in order to improve their management in future. Moreover, the study on an investigation of student’s perceptions towards effective approach of a counselor in school will help the counselor to identify ways that can help in improving the
  12. 12. effective approach of a counselor. Kenneth Dunn once said that “if students do not learn the way we teach, then let us teach the way they learn”. Therefore, this study will help counselor to find ways that students comfortable which can help both students and school counselor themselves. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, the researcher describes the theories related to development of a child in psychology. This chapter also will explain how counseling session can be done by school counselor and type of approach that counselor do. Besides, this section also provide the framework so that can be shown how the journey of this research will be conducted.
  13. 13. 2.1 PSYCOSOSIAL DEVELOPMENT According to Kendra Cherry, Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. He also describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan. One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is a self sense that being develop through daily social interface. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others. Identity referring to the beliefs, ideals, and values that develop and guide a person's manners. The identity begins in childhood and becomes particularly important during adolescence which it is a process that continues throughout life. Our personal identity related in the formation of consistence self and continues to grow as we age. In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions. However, if the sense of competence fail to manage, the person will come out with a sense of insufficiency. Erikson also believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. These conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
  14. 14. 2.2 PSYCOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior. If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. Certain issues which cannot be solved at the appropriate stage can lead to more problem. 2.3 GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING Guidance is the provision if information to groups or individuals with common general problems so that those individuals can reach informed choices. Counseling is the context of distance learning system means “ the advice, help and support given to students to enable them to make satisfactory progress in the system” (Caled, Kangai, Shillah, 2011). According Blocer ( Shertzer & Stone, 1974), that counseling is the process of meaningful interaction toward understanding oneself and the environment as well as producing formation, goals and values clarification for future behavior ( Khairunisak & Mohamed, 2013). ( Mokhtar, 2006 ) define that counseling is a process that help people to learn about their self, environment and how to handle the tasks and relationships (Khairunisak & Mohamed, 2013). Mizan Adiliah and Halimatun Halilah state counseling is a professionals help that aims to assist individuals to understand themselves and the environment’s influence to themselves. Among the things that distinguish counseling from a chat session is it has a clear objectives and structure ( Khairunisak & Mohamed, 2013 ).
  15. 15. 2.4 COUNSELING THERAPY 2.4.1 Existential Therapy According Nelson-Jones, 2001, defined that existential therapy is to seeks to assist client to understand their “ inner conflicts in relation to the ultimate existential concern of death, freedom, isolation and meaninglessness “ by sharing their story ( Heather V. Lovelady, 2006). 2.4.2 Behavior Therapy According to Nelson-Jones, 2001, defined that behavior therapy is to assists clients to “ overcome maladaptive habits “ by using “ experimentally derived principles and paradigm of learning” ( Heather V. Lovelady, 2006). 2.4.3 Cognitive Therapy According to Nelson-Jones, 2001, defined that cognitive therapy is to aims explicitly to “ reenergize the reality-testing system ” by teaching clients “ how to think about their thinking “ ( Heather V. Lovelady, 2006 ). 2.5 Counseling Techniques Counseling techniques includes : 2.5.1 Face-to-face counseling Face –to-face counseling remains the most important medium for counseling of all kinds. However, time constrain is the main reason. However, it is good because counselor can see the expression and attitude on how their clients react to the problem. This can give more privacy to the client to tell what they feel and can have better solution and guidance. 2.5.2 Group counseling
  16. 16. Group counseling take place when a few clients have same problem for example drug addict. Group counseling seem loses to one-to-one relationship of counselor and clients but group counseling provide opportunity to the clients to share their concerns with each other. 2.5.3 Telephone counseling This technique involve the counselor staying at different location from the clients. This technique usually being conducted by the clients who do not have time to travel or need to make decision at that time but need someone to guide them. 2.6 Conceptual Framework Student’s awareness Student’s frequently Student’s satisfaction Student’s perception Student’s confident
  17. 17. Figure 1 : The conceptual framework In this study, student’s awareness about the existence and the role of a school counselor is the main factor that being highlight. Then, did the student always see the counselor to share problem or to have counselor’s opinion in their decision making and did the students confident with the counselor in context of trust. After that, this study will identify student’s satisfaction toward the counselor approach and then this study can get the student’s perception towards the effective approach of a counselor. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter will discuss the following; Research design, Population and Sample, Instrumentation, Data collection, and Data analysis plan. 3.1 Research Design The quantitative method of research approach is selected for this study since it provides a more appropriate opportunities for the researcher in addressing the research questions and to better evaluate the extent the research findings. Specifically, a survey research design is employed as it accommodate a quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes or opinion of a population by studying a sample of that population (Crestwell (2014).
  18. 18. The design was mean to determine the level of student’s confidence towards counselor, to identify the degree of student’s satisfaction towards the counseling programmes and to identify ways that can help in improving the effective approach of a counselor. 3.2 Population and sample Population is the group of interest to the researcher, the group to whom the researcher would like to generalize the result of the study ( Jack, Norman, Helen,2012). The population for this study will be all the level 2 student in SK Petaseh. In educational research, the population of interest is usually a group of persons for example teachers, students and other group of individuals who possess certain characteristics. This study used non-probability sampling procedures to choose respondents. Non-probability sampling is the selection of participant because they are available, convenient or represent some characteristics to investigator wants to study. The method used was purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is different from convenient sampling in that researcher do not simply study whoever is available but rather use their judgment to select a sample that they believe based on prior information, will provide the data they need. For this research, students year 4,5 and 6 already expose to the school and also the teachers including school counselor. All the respondent will randomly selected. 3.2 Instrument The instrument used for data collection in this research study is questionnaire. The questionnaire are designed in order to analyze the student’s perceptions towards effective approach of a counselor in school. For the purpose of this study, the questionnaire used close- ended question as Likert Scale will be used.
  19. 19. Likert (1932) developed the principle of measuring attitudes by asking people to respond to a series of statements about a topic, in terms of the extent to which they agree with them, and so tapping into the cognitive and affective components of attitudes. Likert-type or frequency scales use fixed choice response formats and are designed to measure attitudes or opinions (Bowling 1997, Burns & Grove 1997). These ordinal scales measure levels of agreement/disagreement. The researcher used 5 points Likert Scale to obtain the respondent’s preferences or degree of agreement with set of statements that is constructed in the questionnaire. In this study, the respondents are asked to indicate their level of agreement with a given statement by way of an ordinal scale. In addition, 5 points Likert Scale allows the respondents to have wider choices of answer where the neutral option can be seen as an easy option to take when a respondent is unsure on the statement that is constructed in the questionnaire set. Table 3 shows the sample of Likert Scale that is used in the questionnaire Table 3:Likert Scale Score Responses 1 Totally Disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Totally Agree Questionnaire was sent out to the respondents by hand to help out in answering the research questions of this study. The questionnaire was constructed by adapting and modifying several
  20. 20. previous questionnaires that are very much related under the topic of study. The questionnaire consist of 30 items that have been divided into five sections that are A, B, C, D and E. Every section within the questionnaire also needs to be qualified based on the objectives of the study. The descriptions of each section are as follows : SECTIONS DESCRIPTIONS NUMBER OF ITEMS Section A : Demographic Information This section carries the general questions on demographic data of the respondents such as gender and age. Moreover, there are also additional questions on respondent’s background at the school. 4 items : Question 1 - 5 Section B : Counseling Background This section consists of several questions that are related to the relationship between students and school counselor. These questions will help to identify whether or not a student has a good relationship with the school counselor. 5 items : Question 6 - 10 Section C : Student’s Satisfaction This section wanted to answer the first research question regarding the student’s perceptions on level of student’s satisfaction towards counselor. This section along with section D and E comprised of a 5 point Likert scale measuring to what extend do the respondents agree or disagree of the given statement. 6 items : Question 11 - 16
  21. 21. Section D : Counseling Management This section constructed to answer the second research question. It focus on counselor’s management towards counseling programmes. By identifying the management, it help the counselor to attract students to join counseling program and get more information. 8 items : Question 17 - 24 Section E : Improve effective approach This final section emphasize on what are the ways that can help in improving the effective approach of a counselor towards students. This section may help to find student’s preference or which approach mostly comfortable for students towards counseling programmes. 9 items : Question 25 - 30 These elements are choose in order to get the result and make conclusion on student’s perception towards effective approach of a counselor in school. The data for 100 respondent were collected at SK Petaseh, Negeri Sembilan. 3.3 Data collection There are two types of data collection methods that were used in collecting data for this study. The first data is known as the primary data and the second data is known as the secondary data. The primary data is a type of method that was used by the researcher to collect and gather the data, such as using the questionnaire method. The secondary data is the data that is basically from books, related journal or article.
  22. 22. I. Primary Data For the primary data, the early stage that the researcher did was by sending out the consent letter by hand to the SK Petaseh, Negeri Sembilan. Once the researcher has received the permission and feedback from the school, the researcher started to distribute the survey questionnaire directly by hand to the respondents at the studied organization. The distributed questionnaires were collected at the same day prior to completion. Then, the researcher has to recheck the number of the survey questionnaires that are submitted back to ensure that the number of the survey questionnaires that were being sent out to the respondents stay the same as the number of the survey questionnaires that were received from the respondents after they have answered them. The data collection was as follow : Sample selection The respondents of this questionnaire are 100 students from SK Petaseh, Negeri Sembilan. Questionnaire distribution The questionnaire is distributed on weekday during office hour, classroom session. Design of Questionnaire The questionnaire has five section which are Section A: Demographic information, Section B: counseling background, Section C: student’s satisfaction, Section D: counseling management, Section E: improve effective approach.
  23. 23. 3.4 Data Analysis Time taken The time needed to complete the all question is around eight to ten minutes. Survey process The survey process were monitor by the researcher herself. This was to ensure the data given by the respondent are valid and any requires or problems face by the respondents during the survey can be attended. Questionnaire collection The questionnaire collected after the respondents completed answering the questionnaire.
  24. 24. As this study utilized the quantitative method, the data obtain will be screen and analyze through descriptive statistics and inferential statistics by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0. According to Information Technology Services (2012), SPSS is an analysis invention for data management, besides, SPSS software also compatible for a survey research. In this system, all the data will be key-in and descriptive statistic will be use in order to analyze and interpret data and gather information. Research objectives Section Analysis i) To determine the level of student’s satisfaction towards counseling program. C (question 11-16) Data will be analyze to the frequency, mean and standard deviation of each item. ii) To determine counselor’s management towards counseling program. D (question 17-24) Data will be analyze to the frequency, mean and standard deviation of each item. iii) To identify ways that can help in improving the effective approach of a counselor. E (question 25-30) Data will be analyze to the frequency, mean and standard deviation of each item. Thus, by using SPSS, a descriptive statistics about all items can be analyze. The quantitative data from section A, B, C, D and E of the questionnaire will be analyze and present in the form of charts and tables.
  25. 25. REFERENCES www.oxforddictionary.com/definition/english/perception. dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/boarding-school?q=boarding+school. the star online, Tuesday, October 8, 2013. Kendra Chenny. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development: development in infancy and early childhood.Web :psycosocial.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm. www.sinarharian.com.my/pelajar-bersalin-dalam-bilik-asrama-1.201480. Caleb, Gift, Shillah. (2011). Student’s Perceptions on the quality and effectiveness of guidance and counseling services at the Zimbabwe Open University. The African
  26. 26. Symposium. 13. Sally, Wiilliam, George. (2001). Best practices for school counseling in connecticut. Khairunisak, Mohamed. (2031). Spiritual approach with a muslim female student dealing withAdultery Case. International Journal of Fundamental Psychology and Social Sciences. 59-62. Heather V. Lovelady. (2005). The Role of Silence in the Counseling relationship. CTPDC. 1747- 4973. Jack, Norman, Helen. (2012). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York. McGraw.Hill. Crestwell, J.W. (2014). Research Design. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Sage Publications Ltd. UK. Bowling, A. (1997). Research Methods in Health. Buckingham: Open University Press. Burns, N., & Grove, S. K. (1997). The Practice of Nursing Research Conduct, Critique, & Utilization. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders and Co.

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