Many languages have a CASE SYSTEM.What is a CASE SYSTEM
Example of Case System:a set of affixes (almost always suffixes) that markthe relations that NPs bear to their governors....
CASE SUFFIXES         SUFFIXES                SENTENCESNominative              -Ø          The dog ran away (INTRANSITIVE ...
 The nominative is used for nouns in isolation and for the subject of an intransitive verb. It  characteristically expre...
 The ergative marks the subject of a transitive verb. It expresses the role of agent. It also encodes the role of instr...
 The accusative marks the direct object expressingthe characteristics role of affected patient.karna-lu pithi-ka piyawarl...
The dative function of –ku is restricted.It marks the complement:yatha ‘to like’tiwa ‘be jealous of’wapa ‘to look for’...
 The pergressive function:‘through’‘across’‘along’      karna       yurta-ka    ngarraru-ku      man         swam-past   ...
Exampe of purposive:     karna        karnta-ka kupi-nga     man          go-past    fish-purp     The man went for (to ge...
 It indicates location in general. Adverbs are used to give specific orientation of oneentity in relation to another.   ...
It indicates destinations.-inya ablativeIt indicates ‘from’, i.e. source. karna     karnta-ka       Mount Isa-inya    Daja...
It marks causes ‘sick from (drinking) whisky, and entitiesthat are to be avoided.Example:Bad spirits – not just bad whisky...
LATINCase System of Latin :  a.Suffixes express case  b.Number  c.Gender class  d.Irregularities, etc
1st declesion    2nd declesion    3rd declesion             ‘girl’         ‘slave’           ‘king’            ā stem     ...
Notes :-The cases are distinguished on the basis ofdifferentiation in a single paradigm.-The vocative is marked by a separ...
Nominative : marks the subjectVocative     : used to address someoneAccusative   : marks direct object and the object     ...
Adjective and determiners agree with theirhead nouns in number, case and genderThe adjective used in the sentences belowde...
Rex bonus dat unum servum puellae(The good king gives one/a slave to the girl)Regis servus iit ex Britaniā in Italiam(The ...
English,   like   the   other   Indo-Europeanlanguages, once had a case system like theLatin. Old English had a case syste...
During the middle this period these werelost (very careless) except for the sibilantending of the genitive (cognate with t...
The dog’s boneThe man down the street’s dogThe man over there’s dogWe write the genitive or possessive ‘swith an apostroph...
With pronouns there is a two-way casedistinction: nominative versus oblique(non-nominative). This distinction is madesuppl...
nominative   obliqueFirst person singular       I          meThird person singular      he          him                   ...
In text book English the nominativeforms are used for subject and theoblique forms for all otherfunctions. In real English...
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Case Power point

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Case Power point

  1. 1. Many languages have a CASE SYSTEM.What is a CASE SYSTEM
  2. 2. Example of Case System:a set of affixes (almost always suffixes) that markthe relations that NPs bear to their governors.CASE SYSTEM occurs in Australian Language, Pitta-Pitta.Each case is represented by a single form.There is one complication.The subject of an intransitive verb is unmarked.The subject of a transitive verb is marked by a suffix–lu (the ergative case) that marks instruments.
  3. 3. CASE SUFFIXES SUFFIXES SENTENCESNominative -Ø The dog ran away (INTRANSITIVE SUBJECT)Ergative / -lu The man hit the dog with a stickinstrumental (TRANSITIVE SUBJECT and instrumental)Accusative -nha The dog bit the man (direct object)Dative / pergressive -ku The dog is fond of the man, The dog swam through the floodPurposive / possesive -nga The woman’s dog went for the paperlocative -ina The dog swam in the creekallative -inu The dog went to the creekablative -inya The dog name back from the creekcausal -la The dog hid from the policeman
  4. 4.  The nominative is used for nouns in isolation and for the subject of an intransitive verb. It characteristically expresses the role of neutral patient, including entities that ‘locomote’ (with ‘go’, ‘come’, etc). These might seem to have agent subjects, but the mover is also the moved and the activity does not extend to an external entity. karna karnta-ka man go-past The man went
  5. 5.  The ergative marks the subject of a transitive verb. It expresses the role of agent. It also encodes the role of instrument.karna-lu pithi-ka piyawarli-nha parnkuparnku-luman-erg hit past dog-acc walking:stick-erg (insr)The man hit the dog with a stick.
  6. 6.  The accusative marks the direct object expressingthe characteristics role of affected patient.karna-lu pithi-ka piyawarli-nha parnkuparnku-luman-erg hit past dog-acc walking:stick-erg (insr)The man hit the dog with a stick.
  7. 7. The dative function of –ku is restricted.It marks the complement:yatha ‘to like’tiwa ‘be jealous of’wapa ‘to look for’wantili ‘to wait for’ karna yatha-ya piyawarli-ku man like-pres dog-dat The man likes the dog.
  8. 8.  The pergressive function:‘through’‘across’‘along’ karna yurta-ka ngarraru-ku man swam-past flood-dat (pergressive) The man swam through the flood
  9. 9. Exampe of purposive: karna karnta-ka kupi-nga man go-past fish-purp The man went for (to get) fishExample of possesive: karna-nga piyawarli pantyi-ya man-purp dog ail-pres The man’s dog is sick
  10. 10.  It indicates location in general. Adverbs are used to give specific orientation of oneentity in relation to another. karna nhangka-y kunti-ina kukuina man sit-pres house-loc behind The man is (sitting) behind the house
  11. 11. It indicates destinations.-inya ablativeIt indicates ‘from’, i.e. source. karna karnta-ka Mount Isa-inya Dajarra-inu man go-past Mt Isa-abl Dajarra-allative The man went from Mt Isa to Dajarra
  12. 12. It marks causes ‘sick from (drinking) whisky, and entitiesthat are to be avoided.Example:Bad spirits – not just bad whisky! karna wilakana-ya yampi-la man hide-pres m:in:law-causalThe man is hiding from (sc. to avoid) his mother-in-law
  13. 13. LATINCase System of Latin : a.Suffixes express case b.Number c.Gender class d.Irregularities, etc
  14. 14. 1st declesion 2nd declesion 3rd declesion ‘girl’ ‘slave’ ‘king’ ā stem o stem Cons. stemNom. Puella Servus RēxVoc. Puella Serve RēxAcc. Puellam Servum RēgemGen. Puellae Servī RēgisDat. Puellae Servō RēgīAbl. puellā Servō RēgeNom. Puellae Servī RēgēsVoc. Puellae Servī RēgēsAcc. Puellās Servōs RēgēsGen. Puellārum Servōrum RēgumDat. Puellīs Servīs RēgibusAbl. Puellīs Servīs Rēgibus
  15. 15. Notes :-The cases are distinguished on the basis ofdifferentiation in a single paradigm.-The vocative is marked by a separate form onlyin the second declension singular.-There is SYNCRETISM (neutralisation) betweenthe nomative and vocative.
  16. 16. Nominative : marks the subjectVocative : used to address someoneAccusative : marks direct object and the object of some prepositionsGenitive : correspons to ‘s and of in EnglishDative : marks indirect object of dare ‘to give’ and the complement of a score or so of verbsAblative : marks a number of distict roles
  17. 17. Adjective and determiners agree with theirhead nouns in number, case and genderThe adjective used in the sentences belowdecline like puella, servus, or bellumaccording to the gender of the noun theymodify
  18. 18. Rex bonus dat unum servum puellae(The good king gives one/a slave to the girl)Regis servus iit ex Britaniā in Italiam(The king’s slave went from Britain to Italy)Illa puella manet in Italiā cum amicis(That girl is staying in Italy with friends)
  19. 19. English, like the other Indo-Europeanlanguages, once had a case system like theLatin. Old English had a case system almostidentical with that of modern German (thesystem was almost identical not the forms,although the forms were very similar tothose of German)
  20. 20. During the middle this period these werelost (very careless) except for the sibilantending of the genitive (cognate with the –isof Latin regins in the paradigms above) westill have this, but it is not case makeranymore. It is derivational affix that isadded to noun phrases to producepossessive determiners.
  21. 21. The dog’s boneThe man down the street’s dogThe man over there’s dogWe write the genitive or possessive ‘swith an apostrophe to distinguish itfrom the plural –’we’ means educatedpeople over 35
  22. 22. With pronouns there is a two-way casedistinction: nominative versus oblique(non-nominative). This distinction is madesuppletively, i.e. by using different stems.Me supplies the oblique case of I, him ofhe and so on
  23. 23. nominative obliqueFirst person singular I meThird person singular he him she her it itFirst person singular we usSecond person plural you youThird person plural they them
  24. 24. In text book English the nominativeforms are used for subject and theoblique forms for all otherfunctions. In real English thenominative forms are used incertain other constructions, eg:between you and I.

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