Schizophrenia is psychotic disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of strange perceptions, disturbed thought processes, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities.Approximately one out of every 100 people in the world suffer from schizophrenia during his/her lifetime. Schizophrenia appears in all socioeconomic groups, it is found more frequently in the lower levels.Equal numbers of men and women receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, heightened perceptions and hallucinations, and inappropriate affect are the ones most often found in schizophrenia.
DSM-IV calls for a diagnosis of schizophrenia only after symptoms of the disorder continue for six months or more. In addition, people suspected of having this disorder must show a deterioration in their work, social relations, and ability to care for themselves. The DSM distinguishes five types of schizophrenia: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual. The central symptoms of disorganized type of schizophrenia are confusion, in- coherence, and flat or inappropriate affect. Attention and perception problems, extreme social withdrawal, and odd mannerisms or grimaces are common.
Biological, psychological, and sociocultural theorists have each proposed explanations for schizophrenia. The leading psychological explanations for schizophrenia come from the psycho- dynamic and cognitive models. One sociocultural explanation holds that society expects persons who are labeled as having schizophrenia to behave in certain ways and that these expectations actually lead to further symptoms. Another sociocultural view points to family dysfunctioning as a cause of schizophrenia. Research has not yet pinpointed the specific roles of such factors.
For more than half of the twentieth century, most people with schizophrenia were institutionalized in a public mental hospital. Eventually, however, the state hospital system faced serious problems. Between 1845 and 1955 nearly 300 state hospitals opened in the United States, and the number of hospitalized patients on any given day rose from 2,000 in 1845 to nearly 600,000 in 1955. During this expansion, wards became overcrowded, admissions kept rising, and state funding was unable to keep up.Research has repeatedly shown that antipsychotic drugs reduce symptoms in the majority of patients with schizophrenia (Grilly, 2002). Moreover, in direct comparisons the drugs appear to be a more effective treatment for this disorder than any of the other approaches used alone, such as psychotherapy, milieu therapy, or electroconvulsive therapy (May, Tuma, & Dixon, 1981; May & Tuma, 1964). A variety of insight therapies, from cognitive to psychodynamic, may be used in cases of schizophrenia (Johns et al., 2002; Pilling et al., 2002; Tarrier & Haddock, 2002). Such approaches may be offered in individual or group formats.
Understanding schitzophrenia and how to treat the condition can be complex. A combination of antipsychotic drugs and psychotherapy along with the community approach seem to provide the best treatment.
Introduction<br />*Schizophrenia is psychotic disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorate as a result of strange perceptions, disturbed thought processes, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities.<br />*Approximately one out of every 100 people in the world suffer from schizophrenia during his/her lifetime. <br />*Schizophrenia appears in all socioeconomic groups, it is found more frequently in the lower levels.<br />*Equal numbers of men and women receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia.<br />