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Final proposal

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Final proposal

  1. 1. THE STUDY ON TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICS THROUGH ART BY USING EDUCATIONAL GAME AMONG STUDENTS AT SECONDARY SCHOOL IN MALAYSIA NUR NABIHAH BINTI MOHAMAD NIZAR 2013151033 FACULTY OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA SHAH ALAM 2014
  2. 2. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1..........................................................................................................................................6 1.0 Introduction................................................................................................................................6 1.1 Background Of Study...............................................................................................................7 1.2 Statement of the research.......................................................................................................8 1.3 Research Objectives..............................................................................................................10 1.4 Research Questions ..............................................................................................................10 1.5 Hypothesis...............................................................................................................................11 1.6 Operational Definition ............................................................................................................11 1.6.1 Learning.................................................................................................................................11 1.6.2 Mathematics..........................................................................................................................11 1.6.3 Art ...........................................................................................................................................12 1.6.4 Games....................................................................................................................................12 1.7 Limitation of the Study...........................................................................................................13 1.8 Significant of the Study..........................................................................................................14 CHAPTER 2........................................................................................................................................16 2.0 Literature Review ...................................................................................................................16 2.1 Learning theories relate to educational games..................................................................16 2.1.1 Gagne’s Nine Events Applied to Games ....................................................................17 2.1.2 Multiple Intelligent by Howard Gardner.......................................................................19 2.2 Type of game..........................................................................................................................23 2.2.1 Technological Games....................................................................................................23 2.2.2 Non-Technological Games ...........................................................................................23 2.3 Benefit of educational games...............................................................................................24 2.3.1 Students...........................................................................................................................24 2.4 Drawback learning through games......................................................................................27 2.4.1 Students and Teachers .................................................................................................27 2.4.2 Violence Games .............................................................................................................27 2.5 Conceptual framework...........................................................................................................29 CHAPTER 3........................................................................................................................................31 3.0 Introduction..............................................................................................................................31 3.1 Research Design....................................................................................................................31 3.2 Population and Sample .........................................................................................................31 3.3 Instrumentation.......................................................................................................................32
  3. 3. 3.4 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................34 3.5 Data Analysis ..........................................................................................................................37 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................40
  4. 4. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction The advanced of digital technology now make major changes to the world, the birth of a variety of digital technology are getting progressive. Human being is the inventor of the technology and whether we ourselves were under the control and shaped by technology? Undoubtedly, with the help of technology making life better and easier. As Wu (2006) mentions at the same time, it has been transforming the ways people live, think, learn, communicate, work and this transformation that brings problems to be address. Multimedia is one of the advanced technology nowadays. The combination of graphic, text, sound, audio and video are called multimedia. Multimedia can be divided into two which are linear and non-linear multimedia. The different between these two is interactive. Linear multimedia can be define as a something that we can't interact. For example, when we watching a movie at cinema. We just watch the movie until the end without giving a chance to change the ending or any part that we dislike. Its different with non-linear multimedia, while designing game using Adobe Flash for example, we can interact with the games and the score and lives is depends on how we control it. In short, it Is something that not fixed, something that we can interact or change according to what we want. By using multimedia, we can use visual in the process of learning to make students more understand about certain topic. In U.S they believe the uses of art in education is important to help student in learning process. Institute Education of Sciences (IES) in U.S recommended the uses of visual widely in mathematics. We recommend that interventionists use such abstract visual representations extensively and consistently
  5. 5. in mathematics (IES, 2009). In 21st century there are a lots of changes in technology thereby the way of learning also should be improve to help students in learning process. Games is one of the digital technology and as reported in Entertainment Software Association (2012), the most gamers player are teenagers around 12-14 years old. There are games that designs for the educational purpose to help student in process of learning. Usually educational games is the purpose to develop their skill in certain subject and introduced the students to the technologies in effort to make them prepare for the future. Games can be your best friends to get the meaningful content in information without throw away the traditional method. 1.1 Background Of Study This paper focuses on the technologies used in academic context and specially focuses on learning mathematics through art by using video game. Presently, traditional educational approaches have resulted in a mismatch between what is taught to the students and what the industry needs (Neo M, T.K.Neo, 2001). As we can see, technologies increase rapidly so that the learning process also should run parallel with the increases of technology. Some educators see games as a useful and perhaps even necessary learning environment suitable for learners of all ages (Blunt, 2008). Barbara & Chu (2008) stated, based on the role in teaching and learning process, “Games are effective tools for learning because they offer students a hypothetical environment in which they can explore alternative decisions without the risk of failure” (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011). In his research, he find out the difference in students' performance for those who are use video games in learning and who are not. Based on the result, the students that use videos games as their
  6. 6. learning aids got good achievement compare for those are not use it and it proved that video games can help students to get good academic achievement (Blunt, 2008) Thus, this paper deal with a question on how the uses of art through educational games can fit into the mathematics subjects among students at secondary school in order to improve students' academic achievement. 1.2 Statement of the research The purpose of education through art is to make students aware of their environment and more understanding of themselves and others (Pattemore, 1974). Video games are related with art which is in process on producing video games there will be the uses of art or visual. Video games is one of the educational approach that can be use as learning aids to improve students' achievement. Games can be used as a tool in the classroom to engage students (Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011). As according to Corti (2006) cited by (Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011) games engage people psychologically and physiologically and the people engaged in the games can have emotional experiences. In this 21st century, we are a modern society with rapid technological and technology comes with mathematics. Over the years, mathematics becoming one of the subject that important and compulsory in school curriculum. In the development of highly technological societies, competencies for setting up, analysing, and criticising mathematical models are of crucial importance (Blomhøj, 2009). Based on result of Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) 2013, there are reduction of achievement in Mathematics while all other subjects increased. In addition, Minister of Education state in Berita Harian Online (20 March 2013), that it might due on method of teacher's teaching and the understanding of students towards the subject itself.
  7. 7. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in playing games. The Entertainment Software Association (SAE, 2012) carried out a gamer demographics which are 47% of game players is female while the balance 53% are male which are the gamers have been playing for an average of 14 years. In Malaysia, 14 years old are among secondary school students. In this report, SAE analysed that 70% of households have their own console to playing a games, while 65% reported playing games on their pc. Besides, 38% are reported using their smart phone to playing games while 26% using their own wireless device such as ipad and tablets. 90% parents feels that, games its fun for the entire family while 52% of parents say video games are a positive part of their child's life and 66% agree that games can provide mental stimulation in education (SAE, 2012) The report show that games are familiar among the society especially towards teenagers. It can help people to discover ideas with each other. By playing games we can learn new skills and interact with other people in order to learn something news (Forsyth, 2012). Educators already start using multimedia as a teaching aids but it is more towards linear multimedia. Since in Malaysia, there are reduction of achievement in Mathematics subject among secondary school and games are proved as effectives learning aids, so that games can be another purpose in learning process in improving students' performance in mathematics subject. Thus, another study should be carried out to determine the effectiveness on learning mathematics through art by using educational games among students at secondary school.
  8. 8. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives of this study are : 1. To identify the approach of teaching and learning process in mathematics subjects among students at secondary school. 2. To gauge the level of interest among secondary school students towards teaching and learning Mathematics through Art Education by using an educational game. 3. To determine the effectiveness of educational game as learning aids on students’ achievement in mathematics. 4. To investigate the difference of students' achievement in learning mathematics through art by using educational game and using conventional method of teaching. 1.4 Research Questions The research questions of this study are : 1. What is the approach used of teaching and learning process in mathematics subjects among students at secondary school.? 2. What is the level of interest among secondary school students towards teaching and learning Mathematics through Art Education by using an educational game ? 3. How effective is educational game as learning aids on students’ achievement in mathematics ? 4. What is the difference of students' achievement in learning mathematics through art by using educational game and conventional way ?
  9. 9. 1.5 Hypothesis The hypothesis for this research is : H1 : There is a significant difference of students' performance in learning mathematics through art by using educational games compare with using conventional way. H2 : Students can perform better in learning mathematics by through art by using educational games 1.6 Operational Definition 1.6.1 Learning Learning is a complex process due to the complexity of human nature (Javed Mustafam, Alam Khan, Atta Ullah, 2011). Difference in the human nature causes different learning requirements for learning. They cited from Ediger & Rao (2000), in order to improve students’ performance having various learning styles, there is often a need .to explore various learning opportunities which can address the 152 complexity of learners in the classroom to capture pupils’ interest and purpose and it should be for fast, average and slow learners . For the purpose of this study, it is focusing towards the learning process that fill with joy and excitement through games in mathematics subject. 1.6.2 Mathematics According to (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 1989) as cited by Burton (1992) mathematics is a complex and compact symbol system, and unless meanings are attached to those symbols. Burton (1992) stated that personal experience, years of observation and reading the autobiographies of over 750 pre service teachers have convinced me that the typical mathematics lesson in
  10. 10. elementary school is more often characterized by teacher presentations and independent silent work than by group discussions. Mathematics is largely taught as an abstract subject in the traditional 'chalk and board' manner (Ghosh, 2012). Teaching and learning process of mathematics in secondary school is important to prepare students for their future and fit careers' requirements in Malaysia. In this paper, mathematics can be defined as a teaching and learning by using art through games in order to improve students academic achievement based on school's syllybus. 1.6.3 Art Pearl Greenberg, in his book entitled Art and Ideas for Young People stated that Joe Demarais said " Philosophers define art in many ways. Some describe it as an insight into reality. Picasso says it is a lie and some say it is an escape. Others compare it to an adult form of children's game (Greenberg, 1970). The term of art embraces a vast array of diverse expression and activities all of which share one central attribute which is creativity (Greenberg, 1970). Different people will define as different meaning according to their own understanding. For the purpose of this study, art refers to visual creativity are use as one of the way to learn mathematics subject. 1.6.4 Games Games are considered to be unavoidable factor for enhancing and accelerating the teaching learning process (Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011). They also cited that games can help to create and provide and environment for the users in which they learn the process of explaination, description, construction, assessment and the evaluation of advanced problem solving skills (Corti, 2005).
  11. 11. (Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011) cited from Corti (2006), games engage people psychologically and physiologically and the people engaged in the games can have emotional experiences. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that games can be used as a learning aid tool in the classroom to engage students. For the purpose of study, games in this paper are used as a learning aid to improve students' academic achievement among secondary school. 1.7 Limitation of the Study The first limitation is the respondents of this study. The respondents is only limited to secondary schools students only. Males and females from other contexts such as who are not playing games may be affected differently when they are using games as a learning aid. As example, students who are a game players maybe easily can adapt the learning process compare with those are not playing a games. Students who are not playing a games might take time to adapt the process. The second limitation of this study is the sample size. The sample size is only limited to 107 respondents consists of student from Government's secondary school only. The sample size is too small in order to make a general conclusion based the effectiveness on learning mathematics through art by using education games among students at secondary school in students' academic performance. The sample size should be in large amount in order to make a general conclusion based on how art through educational games can help students to improve academics' performance towards mathematics subject. The third limitation is the place that this study will be conducted. The samples were only takes from Government's secondary school in few schools at Perak and Selangor only that will choose randomly. Because of this study is only conducted for
  12. 12. students from Government's secondary school in few schools at Perak, Johor and Selangor only, thus the sample cannot be the representative of the rest of the population. Students in other school such as others Government's secondary school and Private's secondary school because it might show different results from the samples that chosen. Furthermore, the study only focuses in Malaysian context only because this study is only conducted for secondary school students in Malaysia. The result will be conclude based on the sample and it might be not same for others country but it can be used worldwide if there is any further or related study regarding the effectiveness on learning mathematics through art by using education games among students at secondary school in students' academic performance. 1.8 Significant of the Study Firstly, the study on learning mathematics through art by using education games is to identify whether the uses of art through educational games can helps in improving secondary school students' academic performance in mathematics subject. The significance of the study is to determine either the use of educational games in mathematics can help or not in improving students' academic achievement. If the use of educational games in mathematics can helps in improving secondary school students' academic leaning process is proven, thus students can apply these educational games as their learning aid and will benefit to all students. Thus, it is very crucial to identify whether educational games can helps in improving secondary school students' academic performance in mathematics subject. Besides that, this study tends to determine how educational games can help secondary school students' to improve their academic performance. For example, with the learning aid of educational games, the students manage to improve their thinking skill, creativity skills and help to understand the lesson easily compare using
  13. 13. conventional ways. Therefore, it is necessary for the students to know how educational games can helps in improving secondary school students' academic performance in mathematics subject In addition, the study on learning mathematics through art by using education games in mathematics subjects will help students to know the exact effects of using educational games and the benefits. The study to determine whether the uses of educational games in learning process can help or not students to gain better results in their examination. For example, it is necessarily to students to know whether the educational games in learning can help them to get high score in examination. If the theory is proven, students have new alternatives of learning aid since they can score high marks in their examination with the aid of educational games instead of using the conventional ways. From the result the researcher can make a comparison when students used educational games as learning aid and when are not used based on a test will given. Thus, the students would have the opportunity to use educational games as learning aid in mathematics subjects to enhance their academic performance through the innovative learning process.
  14. 14. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Literature Review This study will expose the role of art through educational game to improving students' academic performance in mathematics subject among secondary school. The main objective of this chapter is to analyze and review past studies and obtain information on benefits of games in learning process and the effects of using game. This is followed by deeper discussion on learning theories related to educational games. The second part focused on type of games and who are the gamers. The last two parts of this chapter illustrates the benefits and drawbacks of using a game in teaching learning process. Therefore, the chapter intends to the role of art through educational game to improving students' academic performance in mathematics subject among secondary school. 2.1 Learning theories relate to educational games Technology is improving and growing rapidly. Previously game is one of the exciting entertainment, now it can be one of the approach of teaching and learning. Through Pedagogy, a convincing case be made cans for the applicability of games for learning (Becker, 2005). In this point, we can see the relationship between Gagne's Theories and Howard Gardner's Theories in learning process through games. Basically, there are nine events applied in games through Gagne's Theories and have 7 Multiple Intelligent are introduced by Howard Gardner that we can relate in games for learning approach. These both theory are referred from article entitled 'How Are Games Educational? Learning Theories Embodied in Games' written by Katrin Becker in 2005 who is from Department of Educational Research, Faculty of Education, University of Calgary.
  15. 15. 2.1.1 Gagne’s Nine Events Applied to Games Gagne's theory stated that there are various stage or differences in learning and each requires a different approach. Games in one of the channel. According to Gagne, "An instructional plan cans generate both appropriate environmental stimuli and instructional interactions and thereby Chinese bringing about change in the cognitive structures and operations of the learner ". Intellectual skill is a basic thing in a strategy game where it helps to solve the problem. In addition, the game will not only generate our minds, it also increasing our gross motor and fine motor skills. Attitude is a main role in the game. Learning are embodied in Gagne's well-known "Nine Events of Instruction". Thus, nine events will explained about all the criteria listed in producing good games. Not necessarily all nine events should be combined but they are interconnected depends on game's objective. The Nine Events of Instruction as stated below. 1. Gaining Attention It is refer as a reception to attract gamers to play a games Introduction of a game is belief as a key point of beginning to attract the gamers continuing the game. It is often starting with a high production quality of video clips in order to make the gamers are interested to play it. 2. Informing learners of the objective Different games have different objective and expectancy. This is a part of back story which is the production need to describe the games is all about and how to score in that games.
  16. 16. 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning To build up the knowledge and skills, it required to have the concept of level. It means that, for the beginning the game starting with the easy things to play and continuously with the high level. The concept of levels is important in order to increase gamers knowledge and skills from previous to finish up certain level. 4. Presenting the stimulus Life are no fun if there is no challenge. Similarly, to attract players game is recommended designed to provide encouragement and challenges. It is to make sure the players achieve the objectives of the game. If the player cannot pass certain challenge, then it affected their scores. 5. Providing learning guidance In games, players are not use manual book and there are no facilitators that can help. Learn how to play the game is achieved within the game itself. Games itself represent a tutor. Players needs to explore the games in order to understanding the flow of the game and accomplish the game. 6. Eliciting performance Game one of non linear multimedia which is an interactive. It means that the players can interact with the game and respond through playing itself. Without this interactivity there really is no game.
  17. 17. 7. Providing feedback Feedback can be obtained through various ways. The feedback of game is obtained through scores, displays, queries and verbal feedback. Without all these, players are unable to determine whether they are progressing towards the achievement or not. 8. Assessing performance Feedback and evaluation are usually added in the game. Indefinite objectives in game will make that game became less popular. Evaluation is part of the game, when players feel the game does not give benefit to increasing their knowledge and skills, they will leave the game. Therefore, the objective of a game should be clear. 9. Enhancing retention and transfer By playing a game, players need to remember the knowledge skills and strategies. Thus, the rising of level should be done at a small scale. Overall, the skills and strategies learned in one game is often applied in a large scale. 2.1.2 Multiple Intelligent by Howard Gardner In learning theorist, one of the most significant development is Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. This theory is related to internal strengths and capabilities that have in a person. It have been come out since last quarter of the 20th century that can be classified into 8 categories and the number are increasing. This intelligence are embodied with game which can be seen from linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body- kinaesthetic, intrapersonal , interpersonal and naturalistic perspective. The main purpose of Multiple Intelligences theory to produced effective learning if
  18. 18. we focus and develop these intelligences. Based on Gardner's theory, it is relevant to the design of games for each intelligence functions in games. Below mentioned the 8 relationship between game and Garner's theory. 1. Linguistic Intelligent Linguistic ability is correlated with Gagne's Verbal Information. In game also has elements of speaking and writing which can be found in giving direction and help. The main uses of language are to let gamers understanding and as a helper in game. 2. Musical Intelligent Games application may require the use of speech, music and sound effects. These are called audio or the sound element. Almost all games have own sound effect to enhance play. For example when we play the game, there will always sound effect or background music in the game. With its sound effect there will be so much more interesting game. When playing a game sound are used as reinforcement and enjoyment (Becker, 2005). There are two basic types of audio or sound which are analogue and digital audio. Analogue refer to traditional format that we save in tape while digital audio is reproduction and transmission of sound stored in a digital format like CDs or any sound files stored in a computer. 3. Logical-mathematical Intelligent Counting and arithmetic are requires in strategy's game and it one of the main elements in play. As a example, in order to solve puzzle games needs logical and mathematical intelligences to win. There are
  19. 19. also have games that need to do a simple calculations to complete certain level. 4. Spatial Intelligence Spatial something related to space. Games usually have more than one dimension. There is a game such as Grand Auto Thief (GTA) provided more than one dimension. So, gamers have choice to play with different angle and surely games are highly visual. It include various of colour and environment depends on what is all about. Commonly, gamers can see view from other first and third person simultaneously. It means that gamers are not only exposed into one spatial intelligence. In fact, they can learn to use the view in game. 5. Body - kinaesthetic Intelligent Although the gamers can not yet replace themselves virtually into the games but they still can follow the movement and action through physical movements. Defence Of The Ancient (DOTA) is one of famous game among teenagers, it required efficiency using the hands motions to handle a mouse. It is also related with logical- mathematical intelligence in order to arrange the strategies and win in this game. Some games are famous on their ' kinaesthetic Intelligent' attraction. As example, Dance Dance Revolution is dancing game that designed specifically to involve medium to heavy physical activity. Means that, gamers can interact through body movement.
  20. 20. 6. Intrapersonal Intelligent Intrapersonal in simple word is something to do with inner of an individual. Once again, strategy is important in playing a games. Gamers need to discover and practice what they can and cannot do, needs to do and how to react with the games in order to achieve a goals. Different games have different theme either it giving a moral or immoral effects to a gamers. 7. Interpersonal Intelligent Interpersonal is relationship between a person to another person. In games we also can interact with other persons. Mostly online games have multi-player modes. As example, DOTA can been played in a group of person and during playing they can chat with each other to arranges group strategies. 8. Naturalistic Intelligent There are various type of theme in games and naturalistic theme is one of it. It including realistic, fantasy or both combination. Zoom Tycoon one of game with natural characteristic which gamers need to identify various animals to matching it with their housing and care. Besides, game in objective to create a world with geography and various of inhabitants also needs naturalistic skills. Eventhough there are another four Gardner's Intelligence besides these 8 intelligence but not all are embody with games. Mostly games are embodied with these 8 inteligence and it is not possible to create specific game that can embodied to another intelligence.
  21. 21. 2.2 Type of game The world is developed, the more sophisticated technology. The use of games in teaching and learning is something good for the purpose of education in order to increase students' academic achievement. Whenever there is discussion about games-based teaching and learning, it is considered as technological games or computer games (Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011). Here, we will see 2 types of game which are technological games and non technological games. 2.2.1 Technological Games Technological games are easily define as games with the uses of electronic devices. Simply word, any games that need electronic devices such as computer, smartphone and etc to run the games. As example of technological game is Candy Crush, a strategies game in order to complete the mission. Games are played through technology have their own advantages. Various subject can be taught through video games. Students might be more excited in learning process compare by using book as conventional way. Mustafam.J, Khan.A and Ullah.A ( 2011 ) stated that video games provide oppurtunities. These technologies afford us the ability to convey concepts in new ways that would otherwise not be possible, efficient or effective with other instructional methods (Klopfer.E, Osterweil.S, Groff.J, Haas.J, 2009). 2.2.2 Non-Technological Games While the world is getting more sophisticated, but there are still some areas that lack of technology facilities. Ground reality shows that in this global world technological games are not available everywhere (Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011) It is not an excuse for not using games in teaching and learning. In fact, the function of technological games and non technological game are same, the different which non technological game can be run without using any device. Besides, the exist of non-technological games are important in order to make
  22. 22. educators stimulate their creativity to think about those who are lack of technological facilities. According to Mustafam.J, Khan.A & Ullah.A (2011), non technological games of low cost or no cost can meet the needs of those students who have no technological games in schools. The benefits of having non- technological games are it can be run everywhere either in rural schools or in urban school and students can practice it individually in their home. 2.3 Benefit of educational games 2.3.1 Students Games are joyful and belief to engage people. As cited by (Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011), according to Corti (2006), games engage people psychologically and physiologically and the people engaged in the games can have emotional experiences. Simulations engage users because of their similarity to complex real-world situations ( Pohl.M, Rester.M, Judmaier.P, 2009). Initial reports show that gamers have well developed skills including enhanced visual perception (Klopfer.E, Osterweil.S, Groff.J, Haas.J, 2009). The real learning process should full fill with joy, excitement and passion of learning and these can be created through games.Through games the students become active learners (Pravita, 2010). . Games are considered to be an unavoidable factor for enhancing and accelerating the teaching learning process ( Mustafam.J, Khan.A, Ullah.A, 2011). With the uses of games through learning can improving students' academic achievement. Every educators have their own ways of teaching. Even though some educators may not seen game as teaching method in order to improving students' academic performance but past studies found that games can assist students through their learning process.
  23. 23. The use of game in education has showed many positive impacts towards students' academic performance. Based on article entitled "Investigating Students' Achievement in Mathematics through Non Technological Game Based Teaching", this article briefly about an initiative taken by Javed Mustafa, Alam Khan and Atta Ullah to do an experimental in order to improving students' achievement in mathematics subject through non technological game based teaching. In these research, they want to know the difference in students' performance when the educators used game 'Guess and Tell' as non technological games in teaching aid. The achievement will be compare with students' achievement when are not using non technological games as teaching aid. It involves both gender of students who are in grade eight children. As a result, they found that the uses of game 'Guess and Tell' can improving both female and male students' achievement compare without using in learning. According to Richard Blunt (2008) they was a study among East Coast University to know the difference in students' performance for those who are use video games in learning and who are not. It involves 3 types group of students which are from 1st year business students, 3rd year economics students and 3rd year students. The purpose of this research to identify the relationship between the use of video games and learning by using causal comparative approach. This approach are used to find out the effect (test scores) and the possible causes ( game play ). Study one involved 1028 students from 1st year business courses which 801 individual who are not use games as learning aids and 227 individual who are used. The purpose to examine the effectiveness of using video games as learning aids for the Introduction to Business and Technology class. One test have been done and as a result, around 92% of students who are used
  24. 24. games can perform well in the test compare with who are not used which is 80% can perform. In addition, around 72% students who are used games got A's in the test while around 32% student who are not used games got A's. To be compare, there are no students who are used games as learning aids that failed in this test compare for those who are not used a games. Study two are among Economics students from different genders which are 73 individual female and 161 individual male who are not used game while 133 individual female and 189 individual male who are used game with total of sample 556 individual. The purpose is to find out the different between students who use games as learning aid and who are not by using statistical test. Result shown that females and males who are used games can perform well in the test compare with those who are not used. Based on the test score, around 82% students that used game got A's in the statistical test and around 42% students who are not used game got A's in the test and there are no students who are used games got grade D and F compare with students who are not used game which around 5% got D's and 10% got F's. Study three involved 578 Management students which are 252 individual are not used game as learning aid and 326 individual are used game. It involved students from 18 until 50 years old. The main purpose is the find out the academic achievement between students who are use video games and who are not by using ANOVA test. Result shown that female and male who are used game as learning aid can perform well compare those who are not used. There are around 75% individual who are used game got A's in the test and only 18% individual who are not used game got A's.
  25. 25. Based on the findings, it clearly show that students who are used game as their leaning aid can perform well in academic achievement compare for those who are not use it. 2.4 Drawback learning through games 2.4.1 Students and Teachers Although the past studies have shown that games can give benefits to students but undoubtedly there are also have drawback from learning using games. As we know, in process to teaching and learning using digital games somehow we need technology and supported facilities. So, some places without supported facilities are limited to using games in their teaching and learning process. Firstly, games will make students becoming more active and noisy because it attracting student's during teaching and learning process. This condition made the teacher difficult to control them and sometimes they too mvch moved and spoke while learning process (Pravita, 2010). Ussually all the process on how to learn, how to play already told indirectly in games. Due of this, there is limitation on teachers to explain or briefly something important in certain topic because students are more attracting in games. As cited by Pravita (2010), there was no longer time for teacher to explain more and help them. Because of games are more attractive, in future the role of teachers might be reduce. There are others drawback by using games in teaching and learning process. From the above explaintaion, it shows that even games give a lots of benefit but undoubtly it also have some drawback from it. 2.4.2 Violence Games Violence games becoming one of the choice for a gamers especially male gender. This type of games sometimes gives the negative effects to the
  26. 26. gamers. If they are a students, this affects their attitude in school. Based on the findings studies by Prot.S, McDonald.K.A , Anderson.C.A (2012) as stated in article entitle Video Games: Good, Bad, or Other? , it confirm that video game violence can significantly increase aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior over both the short term and the long term. Figure 2.1 Figure 2.1 shows the Effects of violent video games on aggression and related variables in Eastern and Western countries. The variables included 6 outcome as stated on the Figure 2.1. K, refer to to number of effects while N is sample size. Based on this study, violence type of games can give 2 side effect which negative and positive. As we can see from the negative side, it affects the increasing of aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, reducing prosocial behaviour and empathy. While, from the positive side it increasing the physiological arousal. These effects may consider as important thing to take an action because it proven among 6 outcome, it increased more toward aggressive behaviour among gamers.
  27. 27. 2.5 Conceptual framework Figure 2.1 shown the conceptual framework for this study and it illustrates how the variables used in this study which is educational games are related with learning process in order to improving students' academic achievement. Figure 2.1 In this study, students‘ perception on games, effects of games towards academic learning process and how an educational game would affects students' academic achievement will be investigated in depth. These three variables will perceive the literal role of games in improving students' academic achievement at secondary school. As shown in Figure 2.1, the use of eduational game in academic will influence students‘academic learning process as well as their academic achievement. From past studies, games will affect the students in positive way but in this study it is not possible to get something negative.
  28. 28. Thus, this study intends to see the role of games or specifically educational games towards students‘ academic achievement in mathematical subjects. In this study, the use of games in learning process is believed to give impact on students' academic achievement. At the end of study, the uses of games will determine either it can be implement to help students in improving their academic achievement or not especially in mathematical subject.
  29. 29. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This chapter will discuss the following; Research Design, Population and Sample, Instrumentation, Data Collection, and Data Analysis Plan. 3.1 Research Design This are a mixed method approach. It combine both quantitative and qualitative approach. In quantitative approach employed a survey research. The design was meant to know the way of teaching and learning process in mathematics subject among secondary school. It will be done through observation and questionaire. For the qualitative approach, an experimental research design is choosen. This design for the purpose to determine the effect of educational game as learning aids on students’ achievement in mathematics in order to know the difference of students' achievement in learning mathematics through art by using educational game and conventional way. 3.2 Population and Sample The population for this study will be 3 Goverment's secondary school students in Perak and Selangor. Specific sample it is among lower secondary students.This study used both random and non random sampling. Firstly, cluster sampling choose by group is chosen in order to selecting the school in Perak and Selangor. When some of school in Perak and Selangor are selected, this process will continue by using purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is targeted to specific group of people . The purpose of using purposive sampling is to determine which students will be selected to full fill this study. Students will be chosen based on the criteria that needed. The criteria include their background in learning mathematics
  30. 30. either they are good or not and students' performance in mathematics. Mostly, students that moderate weak in mathematics will be chosen in order to see their achievement before and after using art through game in learning process. All of the respondents consist of students from various class since they were selected based on their achivement in mathematics subject. The sample sizes for this study are 107 respondents. 3.3 Instrumentation As for data collection, the instruments used in this research study are questionnaire, obeservations and document analysis. Some of the items in the questionaire are designed to know the way of teaching and learning process in mathematics subject among secondary school. The items in the questionnaire are designed to fit with the first two objective which are to gauge the level of interest among secondary school students towards teaching and learning Mathematics through Art Education by using an educational game and to determine the effectiveness of educational game as learning aids on students’ achievement in mathematics. This first two objective also done through observation. For the purpose of this study, the questionnaire included closed-ended questionnaire based on the questionnaire created. It brought to quantitative data. The close-ended questionnaire involved all 107 respondents. The total number of questionnaire was 19 items that divided into four sections which are section A, B, C and D. Section A is for personal information of respondents, Section B is designed to identify the teaching and learning approach in Mathematics subject, Section C is question related to determine the level of interest to learn Mathematics through Art Education among respondents and the last part Section D is to know respondents perception towards game in improved their academic performance. Beside,document analysis is got through experimental research. There is an educational game that
  31. 31. constructed to achieve two objectives which it consists to determine the effectiveness of educational game as learning aids on students’ achievement in mathematics and to investigate the difference of students' achievement in learning mathematics through art by using educational game and using conventional method of teaching. There are test give before and after applying an educational game to make a conparison. This instruments are important in this study as a guidelines for researcher to planned the strategies in order to achieve all objectives of this study. Table 3.1: Descriptions of the Questionnaire SECTIONS DESCRIPTIONS NUMBER OF ITEMS Section A Demographic Information This sections is designed to carry out the general demographic data of respondents. It is included type of gender, age and race. 3 items Questions 1 - 3 Section B Teaching and learning approach This section carries of several questions that are related to the teaching and learning approach used in secondary school. These questions would help to identify the conventional approach that used among teachers in selected secondary school while teaching Mathematics subject. 6 items Question 4 - 9 Section C Interest to learn Mathematics through Art Education This section consist questions regarding the respondents perception. It is to determine whether respondents are interest to use art education in learning mathematics subject or not. This learning process will be done by using an educational games which has an elements of 6 items Question 10 - 16
  32. 32. art. These questions is to determine the level of interest towards using Games in learning Mathematics subject. Section D Games improve academic performance While section C focused on students perception, this final section emphasized on how games can help in improving students' academic performance. It is consist a questions either educational games would give the positive impacts towards students' academic performance or not. These is also an open- ended question. 3 items Questions 17 -19 These questionaire were chose in order to get the result and make conclusion on the aproach used in teaching and learning process and the level of interest towards teaching and learning by using Art Education through educational games in Mathematics subject.The data for the 107 respondents were collected within three Government's secondary school each at Perak and Selangor state. 3.4 Data Collection The respondents of this questionnaire are students within three Government's secondary school each at Perak and Selangor state. There will be a short briefing and explaination on what this research is all about and the procedure before the respondents answer the questionnaire. This session took about five minutes. The questionnaire is distributed on weekdays during class sessions or lunch break. The time needed to complete all the questions is around three to six minutes. The survey process was monitored by the researcher herself. This is to make sure the data give
  33. 33. are valid and help respondents who faced problems while answering the questions given. The questionnaire is collected after respondents finish answering the questionnaire. The data collection was as follows: Design of Questionnaire : The questionnaire has four sections which are Section A: Demographic Information, Section B: Teaching and learning approach,Section C: Interest to learn Mathematics through Art Education and Section D: Games improve academic performance. Sample Selection : The respondents of this questionnaire are 107 students within three Government's secondary school each at Perak and Selangor state. Questionnaire Distribution : The questionnaire is distributed on weekdays during office hours, class sessions or lunch break. Time Taken : The time needed to complete the all questions is around three to six minutes.
  34. 34. Survey Process: The survey process was monitored by the researcher. This is to make sure the data give are valid and help respondents who faced problems while answering the questions given. Questionnaire Collection: The questionnaire is collected after respondents finish answering the questionnaire. Design An Educational Game An application to applying learning teaching Mathematics through art by using games will be design to determine the effectiveness of educational games as learning aids on students' achievement. This is an application used for students and teachers to help themselves in teaching learning process. Time taken for running this application is flexible depends on the students or teachers Giving a test To investigate the difference of students' achievement between by using an educational games and conventional method of teaching, there will be a test given based on the topic chosen in the application. Test will given before and after applying educational game in teaching learning process. Both before and after used the same test. The difference is the approach of answering a test. Before using an application, respondents will answering questions used conventional way while after using an educational game, they will answering through an educational game.
  35. 35. Data Collection After collected the test given. Researcher will find out the difference before and after using an educational game. Then, conclusion and findings will make based on the data collections. Figure 3.1: Summary of the Data Collection Procedures 3.5 Data Analysis All the data were collected based on observation, questionnaire and experimental research in order to answering four research questions for this study. To analyze and interpreted the data from questionnaire,the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software was used. The data was keyed- in and descriptive statistics in this system to analyze and interppret data. In addtion, to get data from experimental research the researcher used Adobe Flash Professional version Cs 5.5 software. Adobe Flash as a platform for the educational game. Table 3.2: Summary of Data Analysis Research Objectives Section Analysis To identify the approach of teaching and learning process in Mathematics subject among secondary school students Section B (Question 4 - 9) This open-ended question was analysed and categorized used five scale which are : 1 : Strongly Disagree
  36. 36. 2 : Disagree 3 : Mixed Feeling 4 : Agree 5 : Strongly Agree Data was determine to find the frequency and percentage of respondents. To gauge the level of interest among secondary school students towards teaching and learning Mathematics through Art Education by using an educational game. Section C and D ( Question 10 - 18 ) Section D ( Question 19 ) This open-ended question was analysed and categorized used five scale which are : 1 : Strongly Disagree 2 : Disagree 3 : Mixed Feeling 4 : Agree 5 : Strongly Agree Data was determined to find the frequency and percentage of respondents. Respondents oppinion towards teaching and learning process.
  37. 37. The survey research data through questionnaire from Section A, B, C, and D were analysed and be construed in the form of tables. As for the open-ended questions, based on the respondents' answer, the researcher then categorized them into five different level groups started from strongly disagree, disagree, mixed feeling, agree and strongly agree. After categorized the data, researcher keyed-in it to Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software to analyzed it. The last process is compile it into a simple chart for ease to of reference.
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