The challenge from sociology of science-philoshopy of science


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this presentation pages was arranged by my group in december12, the material taken from Peter Godfrey -Smith's E-book. an introduction to philosophy of science, THEORY AND REALITY

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The challenge from sociology of science-philoshopy of science

  1. 1. SOCIOLOGY SCIence 5 #Nurhijrah Ismail #Sri Mulyati S. Aldit Prima A. #Alvianus T. Rerung #Muhammad Mahmudin M #Nurhijrah Ismail #Sri Mulyati S. Aldit Prima A. #Alvianus T. Rerung #Muhammad Mahmudin M
  3. 3. Acc to Cambridge Dictionary : Sociology  the study of the relationships between people living in Enterprise  an organization, especially a business, or a difficult and SOCIOLOGY Social Enterprise important plan, especially one that will earn money groups, especially in industrial societies But we have to understand the fact that Sociology is the general study of human structure
  4. 4. developed in the middle of 20th century Robert King Merton The founder of the field and the central figure for many years SOCIOLOGY F SCIence
  5. 5. 4 Norms or Basic Values that Govern Scientific Communities Merton’s Account of Science Reward System of Science
  6. 6. universalism personal attributes and social background irrelevant to value of person’s ideas communalism common ownership of scientific ideas and results organized skepticism challenge and test ideas instead of taking them on trust or authority disinterestedness scientists act for the greater benefit of the scientific enterprise, not for their personal gain
  7. 7. Merton’s Reward System Recognition the basic currency for scientific reward, especially recognition for being The First Person to come up with an idea Published a scientists rewarded by having the idea named after him Ex : Boyle’s Law and etc evidence for this is found in fervor with which priority disputes are fought collateral damage: deviant behavior (fraud, plagiarism, libel, slander) Christian
  8. 8. “Too much willingness to receive basic beliefs makes for chaos in science” -Kuhn-
  9. 9. SOCIOLOGY SCIence Changed, expanded, and become more ambitious in the 1970s OLD NEW Before Strong Program description of social structure of science as whole explain particular scientific belief in sociological terms sociology has ambition to replace phil of science
  10. 10. Strong Program in the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge Symmetry Principle “ all forms of beliefs and behaviour must be given the same kind of explanations” all communities (not just scientific ones) have socially established local norms for regulating beliefs Scientists are people who work in an unusual kind of local community which is characterized by high prestige, lengthy training and initiation, notoriously bad fashion choices
  11. 11. LEVIATHAN AND THE AIR PUMP Seen as a very important case for our understanding of science very important for its historical role in establishing the social structure that science has illustrating the social structure clearly Seen as sophisticated development of the strong program (new sociology of science) the rise of experimental science in 17th century England
  12. 12. Robert Boyle S&S argue that Boyle’s treatment of terms like “vacuum” established new “language game”, i.e. pattern of linguistic habits that contribute to a “form of life” Boyle and friends engage in the manufacture of facts, i.e. ideas are made rather than found
  13. 13. based on a guess and not on informationan idea or explanation for something that is based on known facts but has not yet been proved Boyle wanted to show that scientific argument was compatible with social order
  14. 14. “It is ourselves and not reality that is responsible for what we know.” -(p. 344)-
  15. 15. LABORATORY LIFE LAB Chemicals, sm all animals, paper, etc. Scientific papers, tech nical report objects of scientific study are constructed within lab and thus cannot be attributed with an independent existence scientific activity as system of beliefs, oral traditions and local practices, i.e. not as procedure, method, or principles but as a culture both S&S and Latour close to social constructivism
  16. 16. T H A N K S F O R T H E A T T E N T I O N