Topic 8: developing an instructional strategy


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Topic 8: developing an instructional strategy

  2. 2. SELECTION OF A DELIVERY SYSTEM (pg. 166-168)  There is usually a general methodology that is used for managing and delivering the teaching and learning activities that we call instruction  This general methodology is referred to as the delivery system  Delivery system and instructional strategies are not synonymous
  3. 3.  The best way to define delivery system more precisely is through a list of examples.  Traditional model  Large-group lecture with small group  Telecourse  Computer based instruction  Site based internship and mentoring
  4. 4.  In an ideal instructional design process, one would first consider the goal, learner characteristics , learning, and performance context, objectives, and assessment requirements, and then work through the following considerations and decisions to at arrive at the selection of the best delivery system
  5. 5. 1. Review the instructional analysis and identify logical clusters of objectives that will be taught in appropriate sequences 2. Plan the learning components that will be used in the instruction 3. Choose the most effective student groupings for learning 4. Specify effective media and materials that are within the range of cost, convenience, and practicality for the learning context 5. Assign objectives to lesson and consolidate media
  6. 6. CONTENT SEQUENCING AND CLUSTERING (pg. 168-171)  CONTENT SEQUENCE  The first step in developing an instructional strategy are : 1) Identifying a teaching sequence 2) Manageable content of learning
  7. 7. WHAT SEQUENCE SHOULD FOLLOW IN PRESENTING CONTENT TO THE LEARNER ??  The most useful tool in determining the answer to this question is your instructional analysis.  You will generally begin with the lower level subordinate skills on the left and work your up way through hierarchy until you reach the main goal step.
  8. 8.  It is not a good idea to present information about a skill until you have presented information on all related subordinate skill.  Work your own way from left, the beginning point and proceed to the right.  If there are subordinate capabilities for any of the major steps, then they would be taught prior to going on to the next major component.
  9. 9. CLUSTERING INSTRUCTION  The next question is how you will group your instructional activities.  You may decide to present one objective at time, or cluster several related objectives.
  10. 10.  Five factor when determining the amout of information to be presented ( or the size of “cluster”) 1. The age level of your learners 2. The age complexity of the material 3. The type of learning taking place 4. Whether the activity can be varied,thereby focusing attention on the task 5. The amount of time required to include all the events in the instructional strategy for each cluster of content presented
  11. 11. LEARNING COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY (pg. 171-177)  An instructional strategy describes the general components of a set of instructional materials and the procedures that will be used with those materials to enabled student mastery of learning outcomes  The concepts of an instructional strategy originated with the events of instruction described in Gagne`s Conditions of Learning (1985). In this cognitive psychologist`s view, nine events represent external instructional activities that support internal mental processes of learning
  12. 12.  Gaining attention  Informing learner of the objective  Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning  Presenting the stimulus material  Providing learning guidance  Eliciting the performance  Providing feedback about performance correctness  Assessing the performance  Enhancing retention and transfer
  13. 13.  The Dick and Carey model is based on this cognitive perspective, and we teach it in this text for several reasons  It is grounded in learning theory  It conforms to currently prevailing views of instruction in public education (standards based accountability), higher education accreditation and business/industry/military training (performancebased)  It is a necessary foundational system of instructional design for new students of the field and the most intuitive system to learn
  14. 14.  To facilities the instructional design process, we have organized Gagne`s event of instruction into five major learning components that are part of an overall instructional strategy 1. Preinstructional activities 2. Content presentation 3. Learner participation 4. Assessment 5. Follow-through activities
  15. 15.  Preinstructional Activities  Prior to beginning formal instruction, you should consider three factors. 1. Motivating learner 2. Informing the learner of the objectives 3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite skills
  16. 16.  Motivating learner  One of the typical criticisms of instruction is its lack of interest and appeal to the learner  One instructional designer who attempts to deal with this problem in a systematic ways in John Keller (1987),who developed the ARCS model based on his review of the psychological literature on motivation.  The 4 parts of his model Attention, Relevance, Confidence and satisfaction  The first aspect of motivations is to gain the attention of learners and subsequently sustain it throughout the instruction  Their initial attention can be gained by using emotional or personal information, asking questions, creating mental challenges, and perhaps the best method of all, using human-interest example
  17. 17.  The second aspect of motivation is relevance  Instruction must be related to important goals in the learners` lives  For learners to be highly motivated , they must be confident that they can master the objectives for the instruction  If they lack confidence, then they will be less motivated  Learners who are overconfident are also problematic , they see no need to attend to the instruction because they already know it all  High motivation depends on whether the learner derives satisfaction from the learning experience
  18. 18. SUMMARY OF LEARNING COMPONENTS (pg. 178-179)  The learning components of a complete instructional strategy are summarized below in their typical chronological sequences A. Preinstructional Activities 1) Gain attention and motivate learners 2) Describe objective 3) Describe and promote recall of prerequisite skills.
  19. 19. B. Content Presentation 1) Content 2) Learning Guidance C. Learner Participation 1) Practice 2) Feedback
  20. 20. D. Assesment 1) Entry skills test 2) Pretest 3) Posttest E. Follow through activities 1) Memory aids for retention 2) Transfer considerations
  21. 21. LEARNING COMPONENTS FOR LEARNERS OF DIFFERENT MATURITY AND ABILITY -pg. 179 Consider different learners’ needs for instructional strategies  All learners could manage their own intellectual processing; foster learning  They would be independent learners or had “learned how to learn”  Should be planned selectively rather than being provided slavishly for all learners.
  22. 22. LEARNING COMPONENTS FOR VARIOUS LEARNING OUTCOMES (pg. 180-187)  Intellectual skills  Verbal information  motor skills  Attitudes
  23. 23. LEARNING COMPONENTS FOR CONSTRUCTIVIST STRATEGIES (pg. 187-194)  Constructivism has roots in cognitive psychology and has two branches:  Cognitive constructivism  Social constructivism  Cognitive ID Models and constructivist planning practices  Table 8.2 provides a comparison of the steps in a cognitive ID model with constructivist planning practices.
  24. 24.  Theoretical considerations  A theoretical difference pervading comparisons of cognitive and constructivist views is rooted in the roles of content and the learner.  Cognitive assumption is that the content drives the system  The learner is the driving factor in constructivism  Previously, more focuses on products and outcomes but now more focuses on process  The CLE is an instructional strategy includes goals for learners that spring from the inquiry process instead of from the content domain
  25. 25.  Driscoll (2005) describes 5 aspects of constructivism that should be considered in ID:      1)reasoning, critical thinking, and problem solving 2)retention, understanding, and use 3) cognitive flexibility 4) self-regulation 5) mindful reflection and epistemic flexibility  no. 3, 4, and 5 collectively called metacognition  Other capabilities that Gagne described as cognitive strategies.  Reason for choosing CLEs – when the original goal is learning to solve ill-defined problems and develop cognitive strategies
  26. 26.  Designing Constructivist Learning Environments  Reasoning, critical thinking, and problem solving  Complex, realistic and relevant  Retention, understanding, use  Providing for interaction among learners, peers, and teachers  Cognitive flexibility  Ability to adapt and change one’s mental organization of knowledge and mental management of solution strategies for solving new, unexpected problem  Self-regulation  Identifying learning outcomes of personal interest or value and choosing to pursue them  Mindful reflection and epistemic flexibility  Reflected by learners who maintain awareness of their own process of constructing knowledge and choosing ways of learning and knowing
  27. 27.  Planning Constructivist Learning Environments  The designer must also decide the best path for lear  Considerations of several factors: Considerations of learners’ characteristic - ability, maturity, and experience  The skills of the teacher, trainer, or instructional manager
  28. 28. STUDENT GROUPINGS (pg. 194-195)  Planning the learning components of an instructional of an instructional strategy – need to plans the details of student groupings and media selections  Type of student grouping – individual, pairs, small group and large group – depends on specific social interaction requirements
  29. 29. SELECTION OF MEDIA AND DELIVERY SYSTEM (pg. 195-199)  Media selection for domains of learning •Intellectual skills •Verbal information •Psychomotor skills •Attitudes     Media selection for certain learner characteristics Media selection for certain task requirements found in objectives Media selection for replacing the need for instruction Practical considerations in choosing media and delivery systems