Communicative competence

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Communicative competence

  1. 1.  Defining Communicative Competence Language Functions Halliday’s Seven Functions of Language Functional Approaches to LanguageTeachingCHAPTER 8:COMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCENurhazwani Abd Halim, Nurul Hanani Hasan & Noraisya Sofea MuhammadPrepared by:Instructor: Mr Suthagar NarasumanSECONDLANGUAGEACQUISITION
  2. 2. Prepared by:Nurhazwani Abd HalimDEFININGCOMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE
  3. 3. CC was coined by Dell Hymes(1972, 1967), a sociolinguist who wasconvinced that Chomsky’s notion ofcompetence was too limited.Chomsky’s “rule-governedcreativity” did not account for thesocial and functional rules of language.CC – aspects of our competence thatenables us to convey and interpretmessages and to negotiate meaningsDEFINING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
  4. 4. LINGUISTIC VS COMMUNICATIVELinguistic Competence- Knowledge “about”language formsCommunicativeCompetence -Knowledge that enables aperson to communicatefunctionally andinteractivelyCognitive/academiclanguage proficiency(CALP) – often used inclassroom exercises andtests that focus on formBasic interpersonalcommunicative skills(BICS) – communicativecapacity acquired tofunction in dailyinterpersonal exchanges
  5. 5. LINGUISTIC SYSTEMGrammatical competence (mastering thelinguistic code of a language)Discourse competence (ability to connectsentences in stretches of discourse to form ameaningful utterances)FUNCTIONAL ASPECTSociolinguistic competence (knowledge of thesociocultural rules of language and of discourse)Strategic competence (verbal and non-verbalstrategies to compensate for breakdowns inCONSTRUCT OF COMMUNICATIVECOMPETENCE (CANALE, 1983)
  6. 6. LanguageCompetenceOrganizationalCompetenceGrammaticalCompetenceTextualCompetencePragmaticCompetenceIllocutionaryCompetenceSociolinguisticCompetenceCOMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE COMPETENCE(BACHMAN, 1990)
  7. 7. STRATEGICCOMPETENCEKNOWLEDGESTRUCTURESKnowledge of theworldLANGUAGECOMPETENCEKnowledge oflanguagePSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICALMECHANISMSCONTEXT OFSITUATIONCOMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATIVELANGUAGE ABILITY (BACHMAN, 1990)
  8. 8. Prepared by:Nurul Hanani HasanHALLIDAY’S SEVENFUNCTIONS OFLANGUAGE
  9. 9. Instrumental function serves to manipulate theenvironment, to cause certain events to happen.Regulatory function of languageis the control of events.Representational function is the use oflanguage to make statements, convey factsand knowledge, explain, or reportInteractional functional serves to ensure social maintenance.HALLIDAY’SSEVENFUNCTIONSOFLANGUAGE
  10. 10. HALLIDAY’SSEVENFUNCTIONSOFLANGUAGEPersonal function allows a speaker to expressfeelings, emotions, personality, “gut-level” reactions.Heuristic function involves language used to acquireknowledge, to learn about the environment.Imaginative function serves to createimaginary systems or ideas.
  11. 11. Prepared by:Noraisya Sofea MuhammadFUNCTIONALAPPROACHES TOLANGUAGE TEACHING
  12. 12. FUNCTIONAL APPROACHES TOLANGUAGE TEACHINGNotional-functional syllabusesAttended to functions as organizingelements of foreign language curriculum.“Notions” referred to abstract concepts suchas existence, space, time, quantity, andquality. Also, “contexts” or “situations”, suchas travel, health, education, shopping andfree time.“Functional” is language functions such asidentifying, reporting, denying, declining and
  13. 13. NFS also known as functionalsyllabuses.(Example on page 225) A typical unit in this textbook includesan eclectic blend of conversationpractice with a classmate, interactivegroup work, role plays, grammar andpronunciation focusexercises, information-gaptechniques, Internet activities, andFUNCTIONAL APPROACHES TOLANGUAGE TEACHING (CONT.)
  14. 14. There was some controversy over theireffectiveness.Berns (1984b, p15) warned teachers thattextbooks that claim to have a functional basemay be “sorely inadequate and even misleadingin their representation of language asinteraction”.She went on to show how context is the real keyto giving meaning to both form and function.Therefore, just because a function is “covered”does not mean that learners have internalized itfor authentic, unrehearsed use in the real world.FUNCTIONAL APPROACHES TOLANGUAGE TEACHING (CONT.)

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