Экосистемы Казахстана представлены лесостепью, степью, пустынями, горными, водно-болотными и морскими природными комплексами. Особенностью Казахстана является его внутриконтинентальное положение в центре Евроазиатского материка, что сказывается на всем физико-географическом облике территории, особенностях его гидрографии, почвенно-растительного покрова и животного мира.
Implementation of ecosystem approach for improving wetlands management in kazakhstan моsсow 2011_eng
Implementation of Ecosystem Approach for Improving Wetlands Management in Kazakhstan Talgat KERTESHEV
Demonstration on Three Sites : Ural river delta with adjacent Caspian coast , Teniz-Korgalzhyn and Alakol-Sassykkol Lakes
Key Threats to the Wetlands <ul><li>Uncontrolled visits / tourism in the wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Unsustainable use of water resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsustainable use of biological resources </li></ul></ul>
Assessment of the current biodiversity status in three wetlands based on the ecosystem approach <ul><li>In 2004-2006 the Project conducted comprehensive field surveys to assess the current status of the biodiversity , terrestrial and aquatic habitats as well as social and economic conditions in three wetlands. </li></ul><ul><li>For the first time in Kazakhstan, research methodologies based on the specification of aquatic and terrestrial types of ecosystems were endorsed. Key and monitoring higher plant and animal species were identified with a reference to the identified types of ecosystems . </li></ul><ul><li>The research findings became the basis for expanding the Alakol and Korgalzhyn Reserves as well as for establishing a new nature reservat, Akzhaiyk, in the Ural river delta with adjacent Caspian coast ( based on key species ) and for arranging monitoring of biodiversity and habitats ( based on monitoring species ) . </li></ul>
Cartographic Method The map of ecosystems is a linchpin which structures the natural information as the basis for future PAs system planning, ecological networks and conservation activities. ecosystems sample points overlay analysis ecosystem valuation
Ecosystems in Three Wetlands Project Sites Alakol-Sassykkol Lakes Tengiz-Korgalzhyn Lakes Ural river delta and adjacent Caspian coast Ecosystems identified: 59 Ecosystems identified: 116 Ecosystems identified: 23
Functional Zoning <ul><li>The basis for land-use planning by the Project is the identification of functional zones in the entire project site (URL, TK and AS). </li></ul><ul><li>A functional zone is based on the key principle of wetland protection which is implemented at two levels: 1) through targeted protection of protected areas ; and 2) creation of an effective system for nature use regulation throughout a wetland site. </li></ul>
Biodiversity and PAs Indicators Ural river delta Tengiz-Korgalzhyn Alakol-Sassykkol Higher plants Fish Birds 204 76 103 166 17 112 249 17 107 PA status Akzhaiyk Reservat Korgalzhyn Reserve Alakol Reserve Area of globally significant wetlands , 000 ha 2 80.0 1 , 602.6 9 14 . 7 PA area , 000 ha 111 . 5 543 . 2 65 . 2 % PA coverage 39 . 8 (0% - 2004) 33 . 9 (16 . 2% - 2004) 7 . 1 (1.4% - 2004)
Ecotourism: Ecosystem Cultural Services The National Programme of Accelerated Industrial and Innovative Development identifies the following targets : ‘taking 2008 as the baseline level, to increase, by 2015 , the aggregate income of tourist service providers by, at least, 12%, increasing, in parallel, revenues from inbound tourism’ . In this context, most revenues should stay in a local economy which will have a positive effect on local community wellbeing . In 2011, there are plans to provide 550,000 jobs in the inbound tourism sector , and this will facilitate reducing income poverty in the country.
Community-Based Ecotourism <ul><li>Ecological tourism should be based on local community to bring maximum benefits to local people. Ecotourism sustainability is based on the principle of equitable distribution of benefits from the biodiversity use and conservation by social and economic mechanisms . In this case local people will be directly involved in tourism development and management in their region . This will result in an increased local community ownership and readiness to invest into tourism development. </li></ul>
Ecosystem Management Status Recently it has become evident that ecosystems are managed as driven by a priority of obtaining only one dominant product ( e.g., oil, gas, wood, etc.) or service ( traffic artery, etc. ). Such product or service is obtained without full understanding of all advantages and disadvantages of such approach not just for natural ecosystems but for all products and services associated with ecosystem functioning ( clean air , soil carbon sequestration , water, plant and other resources ) as well . Hence, there are conflict situations between local community and executive and legislative authorities , mainly as related to the natural environment quality and damage compensation. From the ecosystem approach perspective this can be considered as valuation of ecosystem products and services ( various natural resources ), as well as resource levels withdrawn or transformed by people from the perspective of thresholds for normal functioning of natural ecosystems and society .
Ecosystem Management Status The implementation of practices to reduce pressure on the natural ecosystems and to ensure optimal water regime ( construction and reconstruction of dams and coffer dams ), reproduction and biotechnical activities to improve habitat and reproduction conditions of lake wildlife , development of regulated hunting and fishing tourism , sustainable fishery management – all these activities create an inducing environment for developing the biodiversity and facilitate maintaining the ecosystem balance and sustainable development of an area . In addition, these activities help to improve social and economic status of local community as they can derive income from the ecosystem services.
Water Resources as Resource Services <ul><li>Reduction of water consumption from the Tentek river through rehabilitation of the irrigation network and use of water efficient processes in the Alakol-Sassykkol project site </li></ul><ul><li>Eight rural water users’ cooperatives have been established in AS project site ( there are plans to bring them together into water users’ associations ); </li></ul><ul><li>A digger and a welding machine were purchased and handed over to Zhagatal cooperative ; </li></ul><ul><li>Bushes and small forest were extracted at the area of 5 ha , 4.5 km of channel was cleaned , 3.3 km collector was cleaned , 18 km of channel was cut and levelled , and 4 dam beans were repaired . </li></ul><ul><li>Water overflows from the supply channel were reduced , irrigation schedules were normalized and the irrigating draft was reduced from the Tentek river according to the project’s recommendations ( by a factor of 1 . 5). </li></ul>
Water Resources as Resource Services Reduction of water consumption from the Tentek river through rehabilitation of the irrigation network and use of water efficient processes in the Alakol-Sassykkol project site Production of vegetables and cucurbit crops at the area of 3 ha using plastic mulch film . Implemented by DAN Farm Results : 1) with slow water absorption and lasting water conservation in the ribs the water consumption was proven to reduce by 30-35%; 2) due to longer vegetation period by 25-45 days the maturation was accelerated and the productivity doubled ; 3) the crops were irrigated 8-9 times rather than 21-23 times ; 4) the productivity increased by 2.5 times and the maturation reduced by 20-25 days ; 5) the profit from 3 ha is equal to the profit of soy cultivation at 40 ha
Pastures Fire threat Carbon sequestration 0 . 1-0 . 3 t / ha СО 2 absorption – 0 . 3-0 . 9 t / ha Carbon sequestration - 0,6 t / ha СО 2 absorption - 1. 8 t / ha Natural pastures 0.2-0.3 t / ha Lucerne 4.0-7.0 t / ha
Payments for Ecosystem Services In Kazakhstan, the system of payments for ecosystem services ( PES ) is represented by several payments : subsoil use payments , duties for wildlife use and for water bioresources use , water tax , payments for forest resources use , land tax , pollution charges . In 2009, KZT 97 billion was collected as environmental payments , and nature users implemented environmental management activities worth of KZT 124 billion . Kazakhstan has quite reasonable policies for environmental payments , however, a mechanism for using funds for conservation activities is still missing . Payments for environmental emissions are not earmarked in the local budgets and, as a rule, most of the funds are used at the discretion of local governments to address current life support issues , to support social sphere , to address infrastructure issues, etc. Therefore ecological projects are often financed far inferior to the need . Thus, for example, in 2009 , the allocations for conservation activities were KZT 23.8 billion, or 27.9% of total environmental payments and fines .
Payments for Ecosystem Services To be compliant with the principles of sustainable development of resources the current system of payments for biodiversity conservation should be specified and fine-tuned on the basis of international recommendations and best practice , and should also consider the valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services by more or less accurate valuation methods, depending on a particular situation. At the moment, some regulations are prepared in pursuance of the key provisions of the Ecological Code , including as related to the system of environmental load rationing . In addition to a legal framework, successful implementation of payments for environmental services requires the availability of users who recognize the value of service provided and ready to pay for ; users should have confidence in the newly implemented mechanism of payments and could be sure that their monies are indeed used for the ‘production’ of this service and help to improve its quality . In addition, provisions should be made to make sure that payments adequately compensate users’ efforts for service delivery and cover opportunity costs . The mechanism of payments should fit well into the overall environmental strategy .