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REPORTED SPEECH

      USED to explain things later.
         USED for storytelling.


                 Adapted by Nur Garriga
Direct speech                      Indirect speech

    Present simple                       Past simple
                              ›
   She said, "It's cold."           She said that it was cold.

 Present continuous                     Past continuous
 She said, "I'm teaching      ›   She said that she was teaching
    English online."                     English online.
 Present perfect simple               Past perfect simple
She said, "I've been on the   ›   She said that she had been on
    web since 1999."                  the web since 1999.
Past perfect continuous
Present perfect continuous
                                  She said that had been
She said, "I've been teaching   ›
                                  teaching English for seven
English for seven years."
                                  years.

Past simple                       Past perfect
She said, "I taught online      › She said that she had taught
yesterday."                       online yesterday.

Past continuous                   Past perfect continuous
She said, "I was teaching       › She said that she had been
earlier."                         teaching earlier.


Past perfect                      Past perfect
She said, "The lesson had         NO CHANGE - She said that
                                ›
already started when he           the lesson had already started
arrived."                         when he arrived.


                                  Past perfect continuous
Past perfect continuous
                                  NO CHANGE - She said that
She said, "I'd already been     ›
                                  she'd already been teaching for
teaching for five minutes."
                                  five minutes.
Modal verb forms also sometimes change:
            Direct speech                         Indirect speech
 will                                       would
 She said, "I'll teach English online   ›   She said she would teach
 tomorrow."                                 English online tomorrow.
 can                                        could
 She said, "I can teach English         ›   She said she could teach
 online."                                   English online.

                                            had to
 must
                                            She said she had to have a
 She said, "I must have a computer      ›
                                            computer to teach English
 to teach English online."
                                            online.

 shall                                      should
 She said, "What shall we learn         ›   She asked what we should
 today?"                                    learn today.
 may                                        might
 She said, "May I open a new            ›   She asked if she might open a
 browser?"                                  new browser.

Note: could, would, should, might and ought to NEVER CHANGE.
Time and place references often have to change:
 If the reported sentence contains an expression of time,
  you must change it to go with the time of the reporting.

now                    ›   then
today                  ›   that day

here                   ›   there

this                   ›   that

this week              ›   that week
                           the following day
tomorrow               ›   the next day
                           the day after
IMPERATIVES


positive imperative           tell + object+infinitive
“Shut up!”                    He told me to shut up.


                              tell + object +not + infinitive
negative imperative
                              He told me not to do that
“Don't do that again!”
                              again.


                             ask + object +infinitive
imperatives as requests
                             He asked me to lend him
“Please lend me some money.”
                             some money.
the following week
next week       ›   the next week
                    the week after

yesterday       › the previous day
                  the day before

last week       › the previous week
                  the week before

ago             › previously
                  before

2 weeks ago     › 2 weeks previously
                  2 weeks before
tonight         › that night
last Saturday   › the previous Saturday
                  the Saturday before
                    the following Saturday
                    the next Saturday
next Saturday   ›   the Saturday after
                    that Saturday
Examples:
 I went to the movies last night.
  He said that he had gone to the movies the night before.
 I'm staying here until next week.
  He said he was staying there until the following week.

 If you report something that someone said in a different place
  to where you heard it:
 you must change the place (here) to the place (there).
  Example:


        At work                      At home

  "How long have you     She asked me how long I had
  worked here?"          worked there.
 In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.
        For example:

                   Me                        You
                                   She said that she teaches
       "I teach English online."
                                   English online.



You also need to be careful with personal pronouns.

They need to be changed according to the situation.

You need to know the context and who is speaking, and to
whom.
Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in
indirect speech.

We use “asked” to report questions:
 I asked Lynne/her what time the lesson had started.

We use “told” with an object.
 Lynne told me that she felt tired.

We usually use “said” without an object.
 Lynne said that she was going to teach online.

If “said” is used with an indirect object we must include “to”
    Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China.
verb +        verb +       verb     verb + gerund verb + object      verb +
 object +     infinitive    (that)                          +       preposition+
infinitive                                          preposition +      gerund
                                                       gerund
  advise       agree        admit         deny         accuse        apologize
encourage      decide       agree      recommend       blame           insist
  invite         offer      decide      suggest      congratulate
 remind        promise       deny
   warn         refuse     explain
   beg         threaten      insist
  forbid     recommend     promise
 instruct
Examples:
Jack encouraged me to look for a new job. They invited all
  their friends to attend the presentation.


She offered to give him a lift to work. My brother refused to
  take no for an answer.


Tom admitted (that) he had tried to leave early. She agreed
  (that) we needed to reconsider our plans.


He denied having anything to do with her. Ken suggested
  studying early in the morning.

They accused the boys of cheating on the exam. She blamed
  her husband for missing the train.

He apologized for being late. She insisted on doing the
  washing up.
 In reported speech, the word “that” is often used AFTER
  SAID and TOLD.
        He told me that he lived in Greenwich.

 “That” is optional, MORE FORMAL though.
        He told me he lived in Greenwich.

 “That” is never used in questions. We use “if” or “whether”
  instead.
        He asked me if I would come to the party.
 verbs of speech for questions:
  asked, wondered, enquired, wanted to know, tried to find out

 question words:
  where, when, who, why, how

 Changing verb tenses, pronouns, and time expressions
 question word order description
  question word + subject + verb + (O) + (…)

     He asked when they would arrive.

     My friend asked if I was coming.
QUESTIONS IN
                   REPORTED SPEECH
DIRECT SPEECH

Are you happy      My friend asked me if I was happy
today? Yes, I am   that day


What are you doing My friend asked me what I was
this afternoon?    doing that afternoon.


Where did you go   My friend asked me where had I
yesterday?         gone yesterday

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Reported speech part ii

  • 1. REPORTED SPEECH USED to explain things later. USED for storytelling. Adapted by Nur Garriga
  • 2. Direct speech   Indirect speech Present simple Past simple › She said, "It's cold." She said that it was cold. Present continuous Past continuous She said, "I'm teaching › She said that she was teaching English online." English online. Present perfect simple Past perfect simple She said, "I've been on the › She said that she had been on web since 1999." the web since 1999.
  • 3. Past perfect continuous Present perfect continuous She said that had been She said, "I've been teaching › teaching English for seven English for seven years." years. Past simple Past perfect She said, "I taught online › She said that she had taught yesterday." online yesterday. Past continuous Past perfect continuous She said, "I was teaching › She said that she had been earlier." teaching earlier. Past perfect Past perfect She said, "The lesson had NO CHANGE - She said that › already started when he the lesson had already started arrived." when he arrived. Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said that She said, "I'd already been › she'd already been teaching for teaching for five minutes." five minutes.
  • 4. Modal verb forms also sometimes change: Direct speech Indirect speech will would She said, "I'll teach English online › She said she would teach tomorrow." English online tomorrow. can could She said, "I can teach English › She said she could teach online." English online. had to must She said she had to have a She said, "I must have a computer › computer to teach English to teach English online." online. shall should She said, "What shall we learn › She asked what we should today?" learn today. may might She said, "May I open a new › She asked if she might open a browser?" new browser. Note: could, would, should, might and ought to NEVER CHANGE.
  • 5. Time and place references often have to change:  If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to go with the time of the reporting. now › then today › that day here › there this › that this week › that week the following day tomorrow › the next day the day after
  • 6. IMPERATIVES positive imperative tell + object+infinitive “Shut up!” He told me to shut up. tell + object +not + infinitive negative imperative He told me not to do that “Don't do that again!” again. ask + object +infinitive imperatives as requests He asked me to lend him “Please lend me some money.” some money.
  • 7. the following week next week › the next week the week after yesterday › the previous day the day before last week › the previous week the week before ago › previously before 2 weeks ago › 2 weeks previously 2 weeks before tonight › that night last Saturday › the previous Saturday the Saturday before the following Saturday the next Saturday next Saturday › the Saturday after that Saturday
  • 8. Examples: I went to the movies last night. He said that he had gone to the movies the night before. I'm staying here until next week. He said he was staying there until the following week.  If you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it:  you must change the place (here) to the place (there). Example: At work At home "How long have you She asked me how long I had worked here?" worked there.
  • 9.  In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. For example: Me You She said that she teaches "I teach English online." English online. You also need to be careful with personal pronouns. They need to be changed according to the situation. You need to know the context and who is speaking, and to whom.
  • 10. Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. We use “asked” to report questions: I asked Lynne/her what time the lesson had started. We use “told” with an object. Lynne told me that she felt tired. We usually use “said” without an object. Lynne said that she was going to teach online. If “said” is used with an indirect object we must include “to” Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China.
  • 11. verb + verb + verb verb + gerund verb + object verb + object + infinitive (that) + preposition+ infinitive preposition + gerund gerund advise agree admit deny accuse apologize encourage decide agree recommend blame insist invite offer decide suggest congratulate remind promise deny warn refuse explain beg threaten insist forbid recommend promise instruct
  • 12. Examples: Jack encouraged me to look for a new job. They invited all their friends to attend the presentation. She offered to give him a lift to work. My brother refused to take no for an answer. Tom admitted (that) he had tried to leave early. She agreed (that) we needed to reconsider our plans. He denied having anything to do with her. Ken suggested studying early in the morning. They accused the boys of cheating on the exam. She blamed her husband for missing the train. He apologized for being late. She insisted on doing the washing up.
  • 13.  In reported speech, the word “that” is often used AFTER SAID and TOLD. He told me that he lived in Greenwich.  “That” is optional, MORE FORMAL though. He told me he lived in Greenwich.  “That” is never used in questions. We use “if” or “whether” instead. He asked me if I would come to the party.
  • 14.  verbs of speech for questions: asked, wondered, enquired, wanted to know, tried to find out  question words: where, when, who, why, how  Changing verb tenses, pronouns, and time expressions  question word order description question word + subject + verb + (O) + (…) He asked when they would arrive. My friend asked if I was coming.
  • 15. QUESTIONS IN REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH Are you happy My friend asked me if I was happy today? Yes, I am that day What are you doing My friend asked me what I was this afternoon? doing that afternoon. Where did you go My friend asked me where had I yesterday? gone yesterday