Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibil...
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Nurdin, N and Rusli Social Media Adoption and Use by Indonesian Muslim

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This study focuses on online social media adoption and usage for da’wah (missionary activities) purposes. The presence of second generation of internet, which is often called as web 2.0, has enabled the emergence of social media adoption and use to allow interactive and real time communication among societies. However, Muslim societies in particular Muslim scholars have yet to get benefits from the online social media technology. Instead of utilizing the technology to maximize delivering Islam messages to ummah, many Muslim use the social media merely for fun. Current fact shows that more than 39 million Indonesian have utilized online social mediawhich means there is a potential opportunities to generate benefits for delivering Islamic message, such as through da’wah h, to our society. Despite a number scholars have addressed the possibility of practicing da’wah through internet but there is a lack scientific study on how da’wah should be delivered through the technology. Our findings show that some key Muslim figures and groups have adopted and use social media dan muslim groups to deliver da’wah effectively. We conclude that social media should be adopted and used by Muslim to improve da’wah scalability among societies. Therefore, da’wah strategies and paradigms should also redesign in respond new technology emergence. Future research and limitation are also addressed.

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Nurdin, N and Rusli Social Media Adoption and Use by Indonesian Muslim

  1. 1. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdf0/29/2012 M054 Paper presented at 12th Annual Conference onIslamic Studies (ACIS), 05-08 November 2012 in Surabaya,Indonesia SOCIAL MEDIA ADOPTION AND USE WITHIN INDONESIAN MUSLIM SCHOLARS: A POSSIBILITY OF ADOPTION AND USE FOR DA’WAH PURPOSES Nurdin Nurdin* Lecture at STAIN DatokaramaPalu, nnurdin69@gmail.com Rusli Rusli ** Lecture at STAIN DatokaramaPalu, rusli_mochtar@yahoo.comAbstract: This study focuses on online social media adoption and usage forda’wah (missionary activities) purposes. The presence of second generation ofinternet, which is often called as web 2.0, has enabled the emergence of socialmedia adoption and use to allow interactive and real time communication amongsocieties. However, Muslim societies in particular Muslim scholars have yet to getbenefits from the online social media technology. Instead of utilizing thetechnology to maximize delivering Islam messages to ummah, many Muslims usethe social media merely for fun. Current fact shows that more than 39 millionIndonesian have utilized online social media. This means there is a potentialopportunities to generate benefits from social media in delivering Islamicmessage, such as through da’wah , to our society. Despite a number Muslimscholars have addressed the possibility of practicing da’wah through internet butthere is a lack scientific study on how da’wah should be delivered through thetechnology. Our findings show that some key Muslim figures and groups haveadopted and used social media groups to deliver da’wah effectively. Weconcluded that social media should be adopted and used by Muslim to improveda’wah scalability among societies. Therefore, da’wah strategies and paradigmsshould also redesign in respond new technology emergence. Future research andlimitation are also addressed.1. Introduction The presence of three types of new information technology (IT);computers, software, and Internet, have significantly changed our way tocommunicate. Previously, we tend to communicate face to face, which requiredspecific time and space allocation. This method of communication may be nolonger affective and efficient in this technological era where communities are* Nurdin is a PhD candidate in Information Technology at Swinburne University of Technology,Australia. Email: nnurdin@swin.edu.au** Doctor of Islamic Law, graduated from the State Institute of Islamic Studies Sunan Ampel,Surabaya. Page 1
  2. 2. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfhighly curious with time efficiency. The presence of those new ITs, in particularInternet, has brought positive impact in which people are able to communicatewith friends, business partners, and other colleagues without time and geographicconstraints with similar interests.1 Furthermore, the presence of second generation of Internet (web 2.0) hascreated the possibility to make more interactive and real time communication. Forthis study purposes, we define web 2.0 as a new generation of Internet or mediathat utilize collective intelligence and facilitate participative computing. 2 Theimpact of this web 2.0 technology presence is that the emergence of new ways tocommunicate which focus on a collaborative and participative communication.The web 2.0 is then utilized as an instrument for social media evolution,3 which isconsidered as a new collaborative and participative communication mode. Today, the adoption and use of social media has been widespread in everysense of human life. Muslims are not different from other societies in which thetrend of social media adoption and use has increased all the times over past fewyears. It has brought changes that have considerable implications for the ways ofMuslim society interact at the personal and group levels. For an individualMuslim, social media offers the ability to communicate through the perceivedease of use, 4 speed and ubiquity, 5 while at group levels, social media providesopportunity to strengthens alliance and relationship which are often considered assilaturrahim. As a result, this capability of social media might increaseaccessibility and use in a way that empowers the individual and groups of Muslimusers. Instead, social media has been widely adopted and used at individual andgroup levels, the adoption and use of social media for Islamic activities purposesin particular for da’wah are limited. Most of current adopters and users utilize thesocial media merely for fun but very few of them used it for da’wah . Da’wah is1 R. S. B. J. V. A. Kraut, “Internet Paradox Revisited,” Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 58, No. 1(2002): p. 49.2 J. Ganesh & S. Padmanabhuni, (2007). “Web 2.0: Conceptual Framework and ResearchDirections,” Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) 2007 Proceedings. O’Reilly,T. “Web 2.0 Compact Definition: Trying Again,” (2006). In<http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2006/12/web-20-compact.html> (Retrieved 04 January 2011);T. O’Reilly, “What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation ofSoftware.” Inhttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1008839&amp;download=yes%22. (2007)(Retrieved 04 January 2011); R. T. Wigand, J. D. Wood, & D. M. Mande, “Taming the SocialNetwork Jungle: From Web 2.0 to Social Media,” Americas Conference on Information Systems(AMCIS) 2010 Proceedings. (2010).3 A. M. Kaplan & M. Haenlein, “Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities ofSocial Media. Business Horizons, Vol. 53, No. 1 (2010): pp. 59-68. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003.4 F. D. Davis, “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Users Acceptance of InformationTechnology,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 13 (1989): pp. 319-340.5 R. B. Kini, “Adoption and Evaluation of Mobile Commerce in Chile,” The Electronic Journal ofInformation Systems Evaluation, Vol. 12, No. 1(2009): pp. 75-88; R. A. Yaros, “Social Media inEducation: Effects of Personalization and Interactivity on Engagement and Collaboration,” in H. S.N. Al-Deen & J. A. Hendricks (Eds.), Social Media: Usage and Impact (London: LexingtonBooks, 2011), p. 328. Page 2
  3. 3. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfdefined as “inciting people to do good things and hold right guidance; tocommand the right thing and forbid the wrong one”. 6 The adoption of socialmedia in Indonesia is the second largest in the world tools,7 and about 85 percentof Indonesia population are Muslims. This means there is a huge potential forsocial media to be adopted and utilized by Muslims and its scholars to deliverda’wah in a more interactive, efficient, and increase the scalability of reachamong Muslim societies without the impediment of time and space. This paper, therefore, is an attempt to discuss the possibility of adoptionand use of social media, as well as how the social media should be utilized byMuslim scholars to deliver da’wah more effectively and efficiently to Muslimsocieties. The aim of this paper is to provide strategy of how the social mediashould be utilized in da’wah contexts. As a result, this paper deals with thefollowing questions: What type of social media and how the social media shouldbe utilized by Muslims in particular Muslim scholars to deliver da’wah effectivelyand efficiently? As a remainder, this paper is structured as follows. Following theintroduction section, we present literature review section in which we define whatsocial media is and what the benefits are. We, then, present types of social mediaand how they have been used according to a variety of literature and practices.Then, we built a framework for this study. In the third section, we present currentfact of the social media adoption and use in Indonesia. The fourth sectiondiscusses methodology. And, the fifth section presents findings and discussions ofthis study. Discussions and conclusions are presented in the sixth section, whilelimitations and future research are discussed in the final section.2. Literature Review In this section, we present literature review related to current social mediaadoption and use, and strategy of use within current context. Our literature reviewis, then, to use to develop our construct as depicted in figure 1 to lead us study theadoption and use of social media within Muslim scholars to deliver their da’wah.2.1. Definition of Social Media The term of social media has been used interchangeable with the term ofweb 2.0 and social networking.8 This is reflected in the definition of social mediaproposed by Kaplan and Haenlein who define social media as ‘a group ofInternet-based applications that build on the ideological and technologicalfoundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of UserGenerated Content’.9 This implies that social media can be used as a tool where6 Isma>’i>l H{amid, al-Da’wah Ila> Alla>h bi al-H{ikmah wa al-Maw’iz}ah al-H{asanah (Mesir:al-Hay’ah al-Mis}riyyah al-‘A<mmah, 1996), p. 13.7 Economist, “Eat, pray, tweet,” The Economist (6 January 2011); M. Piskorski, “Mapping thesocial Internet,” Harvard Business Review (July-August 2010): pp. 32-33.8 R. Stockdale, A. Ahmed, and H. Scheepers, “Identifying Business Values from the Use of SocialMedia: An SME Perspective” (2011) inhttp://pacis2012.org/files/papers/pacis2012_T23_Stockdale_203.pdf. (Retrieved 25 September2012).9 Kaplan and Haenlein, “Users of the world,” p. 61. Page 3
  4. 4. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfpeople are able to communicate, participate, contribute, share, make friendship upto activities such as discussion, feedback, and reply to someone enquiries.10 The presence of social media has enabled a change of an individual role ina social network. Previously, a social network might be established around a closefamily or work friend ties in a limited geographic area. Meanwhile, a new socialmedia technology has created the centre of network on an individual rather thanon a community group.11 This change phenomenon is indicated by Wellman whoargues that identification of communities evolving “from being a social networkof households to a social network of individuals.” 12 This change causes anindividual able to create his/her own online communities or relationship based ontheir interests across the globe without limited by races, nations, and religions. As a result, individual might gain great benefits from this social mediatechnology. These benefits of social media have been addressed in previousseminal studies. For example, Ellison, et al argue that social media can be used tofacilitate social relationship, increase self-esteem, and life satisfaction. 13 Socialmedia also has the ability to exchange question and answer in short time amonginvolved people, 14 and can also be used for marketing and promotion tools. 15Realizing such benefits, social media can potentially be utilized as an interactivecommunication tool. This will enhance communities’ relationship, participation,and knowledge sharing.162.2. Types of Social Media Kaplan dan Haelein17 categorize social media into six types; collaborativeactivities (for example, Wikipedia), blog dan microblog (for example,Twitter),content collection in the form of video sharing (for example, Youtube), onlinesocial network (OSN) (for example, Facebook and Twitter), games world orgames (for example,World of Warcraft), and social virtual world (for example,Second Life). However, O’Relly18 categorizes Facebook, Twitter, dan You Tubeinto social network only, while Mangold and Faulds 19 gives example of socialmedia such as Blog, Facebook, and MySpace. In this paper, we are not concerned10 Ruben, “Apa Itu Sosial Media?” (2010), in http://semarket.blogspot.com.au/2010/04/apa-itu-social-media.html. (Retrieved 07 Pebruari 2012).11 G. Day, Community and Everyday Life (Abingdon: Routledge, 2006).12 B. Wellman, “From neighborhood to network,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 48, No. 10(2005): pp. 53-55.13 N. B. Ellison, C. Steinfield, and C. Lampe, “The Benefits of Facebook “Friends:” Social Capitaland College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites,” Journal of Computer-MediatedCommunication, Vol. 12, No. 4 (2007): pp. 1143-1168. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x14 E. Agichtein, et al “Finding High-Quality Content in Social Media,” Proceedings of the ACM2008, (California USA).15 P. R. Smith and Z. Zook, Marketing Communications: Integrating Offline and Online withSocial Media (5 ed.). (London: Kogan Page Limited, 2011).16 E. Holter, “The Benefits of Social Media” (2007), inhttp://www.newfangled.com/benefits_of_social_media. (Retrieved 08 Pebruari 2011).17 Kaplan and Haenlein, “Users of the world,” p. 55.18 O’Reilly, “What is Web 2.0.”19 W. G. Mangold and D. J. Faulds, “Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotionmix,” Business Horizons, Vol. 52, No. 4 (2009): pp. 357-365. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2009.03.002. Page 4
  5. 5. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfto which group a social media should be categorized, instead we concentrate onidentifying the possibility of adoption and how it should be used. In addition, there also some other technologies which can be defined associal media tools based on the definitions mentioned in the previous section. Forexample, mailing list which is established by a certain community group can bealso understood as a social media due to its participative and interactive nature. Inthis paper, we only discuss some of the social media which are commonly adoptedand used by current Muslim societies and provide opportunities to be utilized forda’wah purposes like online social network (OSN) (such as Facebook andTwitter), blog, mailing list group, and You Tube. The discussion is presented inthe following sub sections:2.2.1. Online Social Network (OSN) We define social network sites as web-based services that allowindividuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a boundedsystem, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and(3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within thesystem. 20 The presence of OSN has supported the emergence of the word ofmouth (WOM) communication,21 because the messages are able to be passed fromone individual to another through a massive online network. Another individual,then, deliver the messages to other individuals or groups through their networksthey have established. The effectiveness of this OSN has been found in manycases such as in political and marketing areas. As a marketing tool, socialnetwork, such as Facebook, has been utilized by many companies to promote andsell their products. The numbers of Facebook subscribers in 2011 were 800million22 with its advertisement revenue about US$. 4.27 billion.23 Meanwhile, the adoption and use of OSN within social and politicalaspects has also significantly increased. The OSN has been adopted and used bothby key individuals or groups. Political figures have campaigned their viewsthrough the Facebook and Twitter in order to gain more votes from theirconstituents. At international level, for example, the United States PresidentBarak Obama had gained excessive supports from US citizens during hiscampaign in 2008. Barak Obama Facebook and Twitter accounts had helped himpromote his ideas across the United States with limited budget. At Indonesiannational level, some of the local leaders have also adopted and utilized social20 D. M. Boyd and N. B. Ellison, “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship,”Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 13, No. 1 (2007): p. 211. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.21 J. Brown, A. J. Broderick, and N. Lee, “Word of mouth communication within onlinecommunities: Conceptualizing the online social network,” Journal of Interactive Marketing (JohnWiley & Sons), Vol. 21, No. 3 (2007), pp. 2-20.22 J. C. Owens and M. Murphy, “Biz Break: The key facts in Facebooks IPO paperwork, plusnews on Wall Street and the economy,” inhttp://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_19871674?source=rss. (Retrieved 07 February 2012).23 Blommberg, “Facebook Revenue Will Reach $4.27 Billion, EMarketer Says,” (2011). Inhttp://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-09-20/facebook-revenue-will-reach-4-27-billion-emarketer-says-1-.html . (Retrieved 08 October 2012). Page 5
  6. 6. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfnetworks to promote themselves. For example, the elected Jakarta governorJokowi has got many benefits from Facebook and Twitter during his campaigns. Social Network has also contributed to current political revolution in Arabcountries such as in Egypt, Sudan, Libya, and Suriah. Citizens in those countriesutilized social network to deliver information to their networks in real time mode.The impact of utilizing the social media was that they were able to organizethemselves in certain areas for mass demonstration purposes. Most of the eventsduring the revolution were shared across the globe through the social network.The fall of leaders in those countries were significantly influenced by the presenceof social network among its citizens.2.2.2. Blog Blog, which is often associated with web log, is a form of web application,which contains postings (such as articles) on a web page. The articles are oftenposted in reversed orders which the latest articles come first, then followed byprevious ones, but not always in that way. A Blog can be also understood as aweb-based publication which contains (not always) regular publications.24 Today,many individuals have established personal blogs to promote ideas or products ina small commercial scale. The aim of an individual to use a blog can be also asnarcissism behaviour or to spread personal ideas or views to societies. RoySuryo25 specifically mentioned the benefits of a Blog as follows:1. Blog can be utilized as an jurnal online to promote certain topic of information such as products information, gadget, etc.2. Blog can be utilized as a personal website to establish personal branding. An individual can build his/her brand through a Blog for personal purposes by posting articles according his/her branding position.3. Blog can be utilized as an online diary. An individual can post his/her writing surrounding his/her personal activities, views or opinions, sharing ideas, etc.4. Blog can be utilized a community website where every member can subscribe as a member and post their articles.5. Blog can be utilized an advertisement space and other individuals or business can post their ads.6. Blog can be utilized a website page which promotes pictures, videos, etc. Roy Suryo adds that a Blogger should be an inspirer for others by creatingan impressive Blog which is able to attract readers. 26 In other words, Blogcontents should be able to provide positive effects to all readers. Therefore, whenan individual creates a Blog, he/she should consider to post positive ideas to beutilized by readers.24 P. Kolari, T. Finin, and A. Joshi, “SVMs For the Blogosphere: Blog Identification and SplogDetection (2006),” in http://aisl.umbc.edu/resources/213.pdf. (Retrieved 07 February 2012);Wikipedia, “Blog.” In http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog. (Retrieved 07 February 2011).25 Roy Suryo, “Manfaat dan Kegunaan Blog” (2009). In http://indonesia-mania.blogspot.com.au/2009/06/manfaat-dan-kegunaan-blog.html. (Retrieved 07 February 2012).26 Ibid. Page 6
  7. 7. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdf2.2.3. Mailing List Mailing List (or Milis), is a number of people joining in a certaincommunity who periodically send email to the group 27 or alternatively themembers can send email according certain time or needs, or respond to othermembers email. Mailing list or the group email can belong to a certain group forinformation or knowledge sharing among its members. This type of Mailing listcan be obtained from email provider such as YahooGroup! or Google Group. Thebenefit of this mailing list is almost similar to online social network, but mailinglist group is unable to respond to a message in a real-time mode as Facebook orTwitter does. Mailing list is a passive instrument where a message can beresponded after a few moments depending on how fast a message get into themailing list group. Regardless its limitation, the adoption and use of mailing list group hassignificantly increased currently. Mailing list users are increasing among certaingroups such as students or other professional groups due to its capability to attachmore messages to the mailing list. In education sectors, a mailing list group issuitable for a group or class discussions. For example, a lecturer may create amailing list group for his/her student classes and then a topic of discussion can besent to the mailing list. Students can respond to the posted topic in any time andspace with no need to wait a formal meeting class. A lecture can also use themailing list for assignments submissions.2.2.4. You Tube You Tube is a site for video sharing.28 When the You Tube was firstlylaunched in 2005, people were only able to upload a video about 19 secondslength.29 Currently, a 15 minutes video can be uploaded to You Tube,30 but if alength of video is more than that, a multiple upload is needed. The more videosare uploaded to the You Tube, the big opportunities for messages to be spreadacross communities in the world in unlimited time and spaces. Communities can utilize the You Tube by uploading and downloadingvideos for their purposes. Even, when we visit the You Tube website, we can finda motivated advertisement which says “broadcast yourself”. This means You Tubeprovides opportunities for an individual or communities to increase their exposureto public on a lower or free cost basis. This is an opportunity for an individual or agroup to promote themselves from an unknown person or group to a popular one,27 Denozoline, “Miling List (Milist): Fungsi, Tujuan dan Cara Membuat” (2008). Inhttp://denozonline.wordpress.com/2008/09/25/mailing-list-milis-fungsi-tujuan-dan-cara-membuat/.(Retrieved 07 February 2012).28 Wikipedia, “YouTube,” in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube. (Retrieved 08 February 2012).29 Website-Monitoring, “YouTube Facts & Figures (History & Statistics),” in http://www.website-monitoring.com/blog/2010/05/17/youtube-facts-and-figures-history-statistics/ (Retrieved 08February 2012).30 Wikipedia, “YouTube.” Page 7
  8. 8. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfor to enable campaign to increase communities contribution in certain activities,and to enable volunteer online recruitment.31 Based on our literature review above, we built our framework tounderstand the adoption and use of social media within Muslim scholars to deliverda’wah as depicted in Figure 1. The framework is used to guide us in developingour discussions. Figure 1: Theoretical Constructs3. Current Facts and Social Media Opportunity in Indonesia Currently, there is about 2,1 billion internet users across the globe, and 44% of them are from Asia continental with 39,6 millions of are from Indonesia.32This means about 30% of world population (currently world population is 6.9billions) are using Internet in their life. This number is increasing sharply everyyear due to improvement of hardware, software, and internet infrastructure. Thisimpacts the increase of social media users across countries around the globe. Forexample, world Facebook users by the end 2011 was 799 millions, then increasedto about 835 million by March 2012,33 and reached its peak to 1 billion by August2012.34 Meanwhile, Facebook users in Indonesia have also sharply increased inlast few years with current users are about 43 millions, which is in the third highnumber of Facebook users after USA and India.3531 V. Gueorguieva, “Voters, MySpace, and YouTube: The Impact of Alternative CommunicationChannels on the 2006 Election Cycle and Beyond,” Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 26(2007): pp. 288-300.32 Internet-World-Stats. “Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics,” inhttp://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm (Retrieved 07 Pebruari 2012).33 Ibid.34 J. Guynn, “Facebook Hits 1 Billion Users, Reaching Historic Milestone,” inhttp://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-facebook-hits-historic-milestone-1-billion-users-20121004,0,1361388.story. (Retrieved 09 October 2012).35 Economist, “Eat, pray, tweet.” Page 8
  9. 9. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdf Another social network, such as Twitter, users are not as high as Facebookusers, but the trend is also increasing. This is justified by World Stats 36 thatIndonesia is the first country in Asia with highest social network users such asFacebook, MySpace, twitter, Bebo, Badoo, Sofamous, Buzznet, Flixster danFlickr, Linkdn, etc. Last year, Indonesia social network users were increased by17% according to the statistic figure. This higher increase is compared to otherAsian countries. These facts imply that social media may play an important role inthe future Indonesian development whether in economic, social, political, orreligious aspects. Therefore, based on our literature review we argue that da’wah is also anaspect that potentially adopts and utilizes social media, such as Online SocialNetwrok (OSN), Blog, Mailing List, and You Tube, to effectively deliver Islamicteachings by Muslims in particular Muslim scholars. The following sectionspresent findings and discussions regarding the types of social media adoption andthe strategy of users in da’wah aspects.4. Methodology This is a theoretical study in nature. We use online data such as web-basedpages analysis37 to identify the current phenomenon of social media adoption anduse among Muslim scholars. Our identification is strengthened by the adoptionand use of social media in other studies outside da’wah area, which, then, weapplied such strategies into da’wah area. We analysed web pages and otherdocuments by using directed content analysis approach in which our theoreticalconstruct was defined from the literature before our analysis of the phenomena.38(see Figure 1). The constructs were then used to analyse current adoption and useof social media by Muslim scholars which then are discussed in this paper. Theprocess of analysis was carried out through an iterative and interpretive approach,where our concentration was on particular findings deemed relevant to our studyas suggested by Heaton.395. Findings and Discussions This section presents our findings and discussions guided by theframework in the figure 1. Four constructs proposed in the framework arediscussed accordingly based on findings phenomenon and data.36 World-Stats. “Internet World Stats.”37 D. H. Granello and J. E. Wheaton, “Online Data Collection: Strategies for Research. Journal ofCounseling and Development : JCD, Vol. 82, No. 4 (2004): p. 387.38 H. F. Hsieh and S. E. Shannon, “Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis,”Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 15, No. 9 (2005): pp. 1277-1288. doi:10.1177/1049732305276687.39 J. Heaton, “Secondary analysis of qualitative data,” in http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/SRU22.html.(Retrieved 04 May 2012). Page 9
  10. 10. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdf5.1 Current Adoption and Use of Social Media in Da’wah We could not find previous empirical studies regarding social mediaadoption and use among Muslim scholars in delivering da’wah. However, thisstudy will shed light on our understanding on how social media should be utilizedfor da’wah purposes in Indonesia. Our findings show that a number of Muslimkey figures have adopted and used social media to deliver their da’wah. Thenumbers of Muslim key figures and Muslim related organizations have adoptedand utilize social media for da’wah purposes. Even though some of the adopters and users did not explicitly express theirmission to use the social media for da’wah purposes, but implicitly we couldidentify that they are posting Islam-related information. We consider that asda’wah messages targeted Muslim audiences. The benefit of delivery da’wahthrough virtual world instruments have been addressed by previous writers suchas Achmad 40 and Siauw. 41 In the following sub sections, we present types ofsocial media, social network, Blog, Mailing List, and You Tube, and strategy ofuse in da’wah contexts.5.2. Online Social Network (OSN) Online social network (OSN) has become very popular in Indonesia in lastfew years and most people dedicate their time and efforts to keep connectedthrough the social media. This is caused by the benefits provided by the socialmedia such as satisfaction of being connected online with their friends and othercommunities without impeded by time and space in 24/7. An individual at adistance geographic is able to understand current situation development in his/herhome town through the social network. As a result, many people have become so“entanglement” using term from Scott and Orlikowsky 42 to describe peoplecloseness with social network. Even, most people have mobile social networkwhich they installed in their mobile devices such as mobile phones to enable themto sign in and sign out all the times. This phenomenon has also influenced some Muslim scholars and da’i(Da’wah deliverer) by adopting and using social network to deliver their da’wahto their ummah ( communities). For example, Aa Gym43 as well known da’i hasutilized his Facebook page to Indonesia Muslims by posting variety Islamicteachings and promoting discussion among his followers. Currently, his followersare about 271 thousands. This means 270 thousand Indonesian Muslims have beenexposed to Islamic values and norms delivered by Aa Gym every day with no40 Y. R. Achmad, “Dakwah Di Dunia Maya. from Wordpress,” (2006). inhttp://ridwansyahyusufachmad.wordpress.com/2010/07/24/dakwah-di-dunia-maya/.41 F. Siauw, “Etika Dakwah Di Dunia Maya” (2011). Inhttp://www.eramuslim.com/syariah/tsaqofah-islam/felix-siauw-etika-dakwah-dunia-maya-etika-debat-dan-diskusi.htm. (Retrieved 07 Pebruari 2012).42 S. V. Scott and W. J. Orlikowsky, “Getting the Truth: Exploring the Material Grounds ofInstitutional Dynamics in Social Media.” (2009). in http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/26699/1/WP_177.pdf.(Retrieved 09 October 2012)43 See:https://www.facebook.com/KH.Abdullah.Gymnastiar?sk=timeline). Page 10
  11. 11. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfcost. Such exposure is difficult to be achieved with traditional da’wah method,which requires face to face meeting in a specific time and space. CahyadiTakariawan 44 has also utilized Facebook to deliver his da’wah and thoughts toMuslim societies. Other da’i’s have also used Facebook and Twitter to increasetheir ummah reach when they deliver da’wah. A number of Muslim scholars have established a Facebook group to allowdiscussion and sharing information among them and Muslim communities. Forexample, a facebook group for da’i and motivators45 to attract other da’i to jointhe group and deliver Islamic messages to Muslim communities. The group seemstrying to pool talented da’i in a group to effectively organize them for da’wahdelivery when they need. Unfortunately, the Facebook group was unable to attractmore attention from other potential da’is in Indonesia. Furthermore, a site in Indonesian social network site has also beenestablished for da’wah purposes. The site name is Saling Sapa.46 The site allowspeople who are interested in da’wah to be a member. Then, the members canupload articles, photos, and videos related to da’wah. Some Muslim key figureshave joined the site such as Aa Gym, 47 Arifin Ilham, 48 and Yusuf Mansur. 49Similar with other da’wah social network sites, Saling Sapa site seems also beparalysed due to a limited number of its members. The contents have not beenupdated for a long period which might lead to less attractive for Muslimcommunities to visit the site.5.3. Blog A Blog has become very popular among individuals and groups. A numberof public figures, such as celebrities and professionals, have established personalBlogs. However, not many da’is have established Blogs for their personal da’wahinstruments. Even, very few Indonesian da’is have a Blog. Our identification,instead, more our neighbour country (Malaysia) da’i’s have used Blogs to deliverda’wah. A da’i Blog can deliver da’wah more effectively to their communities.Even, when a da’i passed away, his da’wah can still be delivered because histhoughts remain available on Internet and Muslim communities can access it atanytime and anywhere. For example, Ustadz Rosdi Blog50 is still available afterhis death few years ago. All his teachings can still be read by Muslimcommunities around the world. We could identify some of Indonesia da’is who have a Blog. For example,Ustadz Abu Ihsan Al-Atsari Blog from Medan. 51 The Blog provided a lot ofIslamic teachings including links to other well-known Muslim scholars’ sites.Unfortunately, The Blog has not been updated since 2009. The Blog visitors are44 See: http://www.facebook.com/cahyadi.takariawan.45 see: http://id-id.facebook.com/pages/perhimpunan-dai-motivator/97153488966.46 See: http://www.salingsapa.com47 See: http://www.salingsapa.com/aagym/?p=aagym.48 See: http://www.salingsapa.com/arifinilham,49 See: http://www.salingsapa.com/yusufmansur.50 See: http://www.rosdi.net/blog/51 See: http://www.ustadzabuihsan.blogspot.com.au/. Page 11
  12. 12. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfquite high with more than7000 visitors. We also found a Blog belong to AbuMusa from Palembang.52 Abu Musa’s Blog provides Islamic knowledge which iswell categorized based on certain areas to help visitors select their preferred areato read. For example, Islamic knowledge is classified into such as akhlaq (Islamicnorms), tasawwuf (Islamic mysticism), fiqh (Islamic law), etc. However, we couldnot identify other Indonesia well-known Muslim scholar Blogs. Our searchingusing Google search was unable to obtain other such Blogs. Overseas da’i thoughts can be accessed from Blogs such as UstadzAbdullah Al-Bukhari from Malaysia. 53 Muslim communities can post theircomments or ask questions to the Blog owner. These interactive facilities enableMuslims to exchange their ideas and knowledge effectively anytime. Then,another Blog belong to a Malaysian ustdaz Emran 54 also provides a variety ofIslamic messages. The Blog also promotes new Islamic books which can bepurchased online by visitors.5.4. Mailing List (Milis) Today, we can find many Mailing lists have been established, but very fewhave been utilized for da’wah purposes. Some of Mailing Lists for temporaryda’wah purposes were found. For example, a Mailing list belongs to a student’sgroup in Victoria Australia;55 The mailing list, other than used for informationexchange between students in that area, it is also used to send Islamic messages toits members. Virtual discussion surrounding Islam is often held through theMailing list which then is followed by a regular conventional meeting. Furthermore, there is also another mailing list, which is specificallyutilized for regular virtual Islamic discussion. The mailing list isAisyah@yahoogroups.com. All members can post their thoughts to the mailinglist and the members can respond anytime they access emails. Even though itsmembers still has regular conventional meetings, their relationship (silaturrahim)and religious knowledge sharing is continuously maintained through the Mailinglist instrument. The members do not have to wait a scheduled conventionalmeeting to be connected and informed with Islamic teachings because they utilizethe mailing list anytime.5.5. You Tube The presence of You Tube has enabled Muslim communities to sharevideos among them. Muslims are able to download or upload videos related toda’wah to be viewed across the globe. A lot of da’wah related videos can befound on You Tube. Even, when we searched term “dakwah” on the You Tube wefound about 1.7 million videos related to da’wah in just less than one second. Thisshows that You Tube has become an interesting alternative instrument to deliverda’wah because it can be delivered in an audio visual format.52 See: http://salafiunsri.blogspot.com.au/2012/01/situs-para-ustadz-indonesia-dan.html.53 See:http://abdullahbukhari.blogspot.com.au.54 See: http://ustaz.blogspot.com.au/.55 See: pfootscray@yahoogroups.com. Page 12
  13. 13. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdf The presence of You Tube has also rocketed a number of da’i popularityin just a few weeks. For example, Ustadz Nur Mauana from Makassar 56 hasbecome very popular when his religious speech was posted on the You Tube. Weacknowledge that he is a very talented da’i, but his talent would not have put himon the top of popularity without You Tube. In addition, his da’wah messages andstyle could not be enjoyed by million Indonesian Muslims across regions andoverseas. Muslims may listen his da’wah through a radio or TV, but Muslims maynot able to listen it at any time or at anywhere they want without You Tube. The ability of You Tube to present audio visual mode of da’wah hasincreased the number and scalability of da’wah penetration within Muslimcommunities compared to a conventional method. Muslims are able to do da’wahin an unlimited time they want. A number of da’wah videos uploaded to YouTube show the average number of visitors are more than 10 thousand visitors,some of them were more than 50 thousand visitors. For example, a da’wah videofrom ustadz Nur Maulana57 has been viewed by more than 59 thousand visitorsand another video from Ustaz Das’ad 58 has been viewed by more than 65thousand visitors, while a video from Ustdaz Kazim Elias59 has been viewed bymore than 163 thousand visitors. These da’is have more than one videos on the You Tube. It means thatmore Muslims have seen their da’wah. The numbers of viewers are increasing asthe videos remain available on the You Tube site. This phenomenon implies thatYou Tube is able to make massive da’wah penetration into Muslim communitieswithout impeded by time and space. Da’i can upload their videos on You Tubewith free of charge and their ummah can view it anytime they want to see.Realizing these impacts, it is time for da’i to adopt and utilize You Tube forda’wah purposes.6. Conclusion Our findings show that social media, such as Facebook, Blog, MailingList, and You Tube, could become a new potential communication instrument tobe adopted and utilized by Muslims and its scholars for da’wah purposes. Ourargument is based on the high rate of social media adoption and use in Indonesiawith largest Muslim population in the world. There are already a number of keyMuslim figures have adopted and utilized the social media successfully forda’wah activities, such as AA Gym and Nur Maulana, is another evident thatsupport our argument on the potential of social media use in da’wah. Therefore,we argue that social media should be adopted and used by Muslims to deliverda’wah successfully due its scalability of ummah reach without limited by timeand geographic. Adoption and use of social media for da’wah not only would increaseMuslim audience, but also could potentially attract other non-Muslimcommunities to understand Islam properly. This may help re-shape Islam56 See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsVpqKZ7dsM.57 See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbDDZPIDIqo&feature=related.58 See:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kb0RsbMOilk&feature=related.59 See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DHv9Pxn6dy8&feature=related. Page 13
  14. 14. Suggested citation: Nurdin, N & Rusli, R. 2012. “Social Media Adoption and Use WithinIndonesia Muslim Scholars: A Possibility of Adoption and Use for Dak’wah Purposes”.12th Annual Conference on Islamic Studies (ACIS) Proceedings. Paper 054. Available at:http://aicis.sunan-ampel.ac.id/images/makalah/M054-Nurdin-Social%20Media.pdfmisunderstanding among non-Muslim societies after New York September 11incidents. As a result, the tangible benefits of spreading of Islam messagesthrough the da’wah could be achieved effectively. Therefore, Muslim scholars and da’is should be called to redesign andtransform da’wah strategy in the future. Da’wah seems no longer merely can beunderstood in context “bi al-kalam and bi al-lisan” (written and oral), but itshould be understood in the context of marketing and promotion strategy whichallow da’is to sell and promote Islamic teachings effectively and efficiently. Inaddition, there is an urgent need for all Muslim scholars and da’is to possesstechnological and marketing skills to cope with new communication technologyemergence in our societies.7. Limitation and Future Research We acknowledge the limitation of this study which was carried out basedon literature review and web content analysis. However, our study has beencarried in a scientific methodology to contribute to new knowledge andperspective in social media adoption and use within Muslim society in deliveringda’wah. Dubin60 argues that sciences on human and social phenomenon can becarried out through predicting and understanding, our study can be categorizedinto predicting the possible future wide adoption and use of social media byMuslism scholar to deliver da’wah. Future research should be included more other social media types such asMySpace, Twitter, etc., to increase research validity and rigour. Future researchshould also involve empirical data gathering such as surveys and interview withkey Muslim scholars. This might be carried out by employing, for example, TAMtheory,61 or other technology adoption models. As a result, new perspectives onsocial media adoption and use among Muslim scholar and da’is might be gained.ReferencesAgichtein, E., et al “Finding High-Quality Content in Social Media,” Proceedings of the ACM 2008, (California USA).Blommberg, “Facebook Revenue Will Reach $4.27 Billion, EMarketer Says,” (2011). In http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-09-20/facebook- revenue-will-reach-4-27-billion-emarketer-says-1-.html . (Retrieved 08 October 2012).Boyd, D. M., and N. B. Ellison, “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 13, No. 1 (2007): p. 211. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.Brown, J., A. J. Broderick, and N. Lee, “Word of mouth communication within online communities: Conceptualizing the online social network,” Journal of Interactive Marketing (John Wiley & Sons), Vol. 21, No. 3 (2007), pp. 2-20.60 R. Dubin, Theory Building (New York: The Free Press, 1978).61 Davis, “Perceived Usefulness.” Page 14
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