Radioactivity

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Radioactivity

  1. 1. -NUR ARINA BINTI AHMAD SIDI- -13202- -413/513- -T. NoRAZILA-
  2. 2. 5.3 UNDERSTANDING THE USES OF RADIOISOTOPES
  3. 3. O Isotopes are atoms of an element which have the same proton number but different nucleon number. O Some isotopes are referred to as 'stable' and others as 'unstable' or 'radioactive'.
  4. 4. O Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes which decay and give out radioactive emissions. O Radioisotopes are naturally occuring or artificially produced. O Artificial radioisotopes can be produced when certain nuclides are bombarded by high energy particles.
  5. 5. O Example : When a nucleus of magnesium-24 is bombarded by a neutron, sodium-24 can be produced.
  6. 6. MEDICAL AGRICULTURE ARCHEOLOGY INDUSTRIES
  7. 7. MEDICAL O Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine that uses radiation to provide information about the function of the specific organs of a patient or to treat disease :  The rays from radium is used in the treatment of skin diseases.  Radiation from Co60 ( - rays) is used to diagnose and treat thyroid disorders.  Radio iodine (I131) is used to diagnose and treat thyroid disorders.  Radio phosphorus (P32) is used in the treatment of leukaemia and tumours.  Radio sodium (Na24) in the form NaCl is used to study circulation of blood.
  8. 8. NUCLEAR MEDICINE O Click here to watch more.. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H1 nxAxozOYI
  9. 9. AGRICULTURE O Radioactive phosphorus (P32) is used in the study of metabolism of plants. O Radioactive sulphur (S35) helps to study advantages and disadvantages of fungicides. O Pests and insects on crops can be killed by radiations O Yield of crops like carrot, root, apples, grapes can be increased by irradiation with radioisotopes.
  10. 10. Uses of radioisotopes in agriculture Phosphorus
  11. 11. ARCHEOLOGY O In archaeology radioisotope carbon-14 is used to study and estimate the age of ancient artifacts. This method is named as the radiocarbon dating. O Radiocarbon dating can be used to estimate the age of organic materials, such as wood and leather, up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.
  12. 12. Radiocarbon Dating Example: A piece of wood found in a cave of an archaeology site has a carbon-14 activity 25% of the activity from a live plant. Estimate the age of the wood. [Half-life of carbon-14 = 5730 years] Answer: 100% → 50% → 25% Carbon-14 take 2 half-life to decay from 100% to 25%, hence the age of the wood = 2(5730) = 11460 years
  13. 13. INDUSTRIES O Monitoring thickness of steel/paper sheet O Leaks in pipes may be traced by introducing a small quantity of radioisotopes into the fluid in the pipe. O It is also used to detect the cracks in the welding, casting etc. O Measuring the wearing rate of engine
  14. 14. Monitoring thickness of steel or paper sheets Monitor by computer- Computer will make a proper adjusment according to the thickness High reading will be recorded if the thickness is less than normal Radioactive detector Steel sheet Radioactive source
  15. 15. Detecting underground leakage Ratemeter record a high reading above the leakage pipeGM-tube Water added with radioactive sodium-24
  16. 16. Measuring the Wearing Rate of Engine
  17. 17. Q & A (Question and Answer)
  18. 18. 1) Which statement is true about the use of radioactive substance? A. To determine the sex of a foetus B. To determine the contents in the baggage of the air plane passengers C. To detect leakage in underground pipes D. To identify counterfeit bank-notes answer : C
  19. 19. 2) Which radioisotope can be used to treat cancer ??? A. iodine-131 B. cobalt-60 C. carbon-14 D. uranium-238 answer : B
  20. 20. 3) Cobalt-60 destroys cancer cells because it __________. A has a long half-life B has no side effect C radiates gamma rays D decays spontaneously answer : C
  21. 21. 4) The radioactive radiation used in radiotheraphy in the treatment for cancer is ______?? A. Beta ray B. Alpha ray C. Gamma ray D. X-ray answer : C
  22. 22. 5) The radioisotopes which is used to estimate the age of archeology specimen is ________?? A. cobalt-60 B. carbon-14 C. iodine-131 D. sodium-24 answer : B
  23. 23. REFERENCE O http://www.tutorvista.com/content/p hysics/physics-ii/modern- physics/radioisotopes.php O http://spmphysics.onlinetuition.com.m y/2013/08/uses-of-radioisotope-in- industry.html O http://www.youtube.com/ O Physics form 5 textbook
  24. 24. Special THANKS to all physics teachers… PHYSICS A +

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