A restrictive clause contains information
which is necessary for the sentence to deliver
the meaning intended. There should be no
commas before and after the clause.
Examples of restrictive
1. The government supports people who
are sixty years old and above through
the senior citizens’ discount.
2. Some senior citizens who are aware
of this program appreciate what the
government is doing for them.
3. The legislator who authored this law
needs to be commended.
4. Some people who are in excellent
physical condition enjoy brisk walking.
5. The joggers’ path which has been
purposely constructed for them is lined
with attractive flowers and surrounded
with shady trees.
These are clauses that are not really
necessary in the sentence. They just
give additional information. Commas
are used to set off these nonessential
1. My pet dog, which is a poodle, got lost.
2. The poodle , which is named Chiquitita, is
almost two years old.
3. Her caretaker, who is responsible for her, is
4. The family, who loves this pet dog, is also
very unhappy over her disappearance.
Appositives and adjective
1. Dr. Sevilla, who is a multi-awarded scientist,
has been a Dean in the college of Science.
2. The articles which he wrote have been
published in several international journals.
3. His pet project, which is about stem cells,
will be presented in a research congress.
4. His research studies which are truly
significant have earned him the title
Scientist of the Year.
State whether the clauses are Restrictive
or Nonrestrictive. Put commas where
they are needed.
1. Jogging which is a strenuous exercise
is only for the fit.
2. Jogging shoes which are part of the
attire have special features.
3. Walking which is a less strenuous exercise
is recommended for the elderly.
4. Staying fit which is essential in
counteracting the effects of aging should
not be taken for granted.
5. Some illnesses which can be alleviated
through exercise are arthritis, rheumatism,
APA- American Psychological
1. In-text citations to acknowledge
2. References –include only the sources
used; appears on a separate sheet at
the end of the paper
1. Paraphrased or summarized sources
a. Author name and date in
parentheses; ex. (Cruz, 2003)
b. Esther Cruz (2003) notes…
2. Source of a short quotation
a. (Cruz, 2003, p. 150)
b. Cruz (2003) “…..”(p.150)
3. Source of a long quotation – put
name, year, and page number at the
end; (Cruz, 2003, p.150)
Centered without quotation marks,
italics or underlining
Start each entry on a new line and
double- space all lines; student papers
use the hanging indent style.
Leave one space after every end-
Alphabetize by the author’s last name.
Use last names, first initials, and middle
initials of authors. For two or more, use
the ampersand(&) instead of and before
the last author’s name.
Only the first word and proper nouns in
the title begin with a capital letter.
Drop the words Co., Inc., Publishers
and the like but retain Books or Press.
For US Publishers, give the city and add the
state for all US cities except Baltimore,
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York,
Philadelphia, and San Francisco.
For publishers in other countries, give city
and country spelled out; no country is needed
for the ff.: Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London,
Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm,
Tokyo, and Vienna.
Citations for books
Four main parts: author, date, title,
Book with one author
Ex. Cruz, E. (2003). Interactive technical
writing. Manila, Philippines:UST
Book with 2 authors:
Villamarzo, P., & Relis, J. (2003).
Functional oral communication.
Manila, Philippines: UST Publishing
Three or more authors – include all the
authors; more than six, use et al.
ex. Firme, L., Vizconde, C., Dayao, H.,
Villamarzo, P., & Panerio, C.
(2009). English.com. Quezon
City, Philippines: Abiva.
For corporate authors
Ex. Boston Women’s Health Collective.
(2008). Our bodies, ourselves for
the new century. New York:
Simon & Schuster.
Book with an author and an editor
Foley, J. (2008). Teaching strategies
(R. Nunan, Ed.). New York:
Byers, M. (2002). Buffy the Vampire
Slayer: The Insurgence of television as
a performance text. Unpublished
doctoral dissertation, University of
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Signed article in a daily newspaper
Evangelista, P. (2008,November 20).
The day the young were explored.
The Philippine Daily Inquirer, p.5A.
Article in a journal with continuous pagination
Tyson, P. (2007). The psychology of
women. Journal of the American
Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 361-364.
Article in a journal that pages each
Adler-Kassner, L. & Estrem, H. (2003).
Rethinking research writing: Public
literacy in the composition class-
room. WPA: Writing Program
Administration, 26(3), 119-131.
Society for Technical Communication.
(2008). Retrieved October 29,2008,
From a database
Goldbort, R. C. (2005, August). Scientific
writing as an art and as a science.
Journal of Environmental Health, 63(7),
pp. 22-25. Retrieved October 18,2008, from
Expanded Academic ASAP database.