Restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses.


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Restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses.

  1. 1. RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES A restrictive clause contains information which is necessary for the sentence to deliver the meaning intended. There should be no commas before and after the clause.
  2. 2. Examples of restrictive clauses 1. The government supports people who are sixty years old and above through the senior citizens’ discount. 2. Some senior citizens who are aware of this program appreciate what the government is doing for them. 3. The legislator who authored this law needs to be commended.
  3. 3. More examples 4. Some people who are in excellent physical condition enjoy brisk walking. 5. The joggers’ path which has been purposely constructed for them is lined with attractive flowers and surrounded with shady trees.
  4. 4. NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES  These are clauses that are not really necessary in the sentence. They just give additional information. Commas are used to set off these nonessential elements.
  5. 5. EXAMPLES OF NONRESTRICTIVE CLAUSES 1. My pet dog, which is a poodle, got lost. 2. The poodle , which is named Chiquitita, is almost two years old. 3. Her caretaker, who is responsible for her, is heart broken. 4. The family, who loves this pet dog, is also very unhappy over her disappearance.
  6. 6. Appositives and adjective clauses 1. Dr. Sevilla, who is a multi-awarded scientist, has been a Dean in the college of Science. 2. The articles which he wrote have been published in several international journals. 3. His pet project, which is about stem cells, will be presented in a research congress. 4. His research studies which are truly significant have earned him the title Scientist of the Year.
  7. 7. Exercises State whether the clauses are Restrictive or Nonrestrictive. Put commas where they are needed. 1. Jogging which is a strenuous exercise is only for the fit. 2. Jogging shoes which are part of the attire have special features.
  8. 8. 3. Walking which is a less strenuous exercise is recommended for the elderly. 4. Staying fit which is essential in counteracting the effects of aging should not be taken for granted. 5. Some illnesses which can be alleviated through exercise are arthritis, rheumatism, and diabetes.
  9. 9. APA- American Psychological Association Requires: 1. In-text citations to acknowledge sources 2. References –include only the sources used; appears on a separate sheet at the end of the paper
  10. 10. In-text citations 1. Paraphrased or summarized sources a. Author name and date in parentheses; ex. (Cruz, 2003) b. Esther Cruz (2003) notes… (says…,states…,argues…) 2. Source of a short quotation a. (Cruz, 2003, p. 150) b. Cruz (2003) “…..”(p.150)
  11. 11. 3. Source of a long quotation – put name, year, and page number at the end; (Cruz, 2003, p.150)
  12. 12. References  Centered without quotation marks, italics or underlining  Start each entry on a new line and double- space all lines; student papers use the hanging indent style.  Leave one space after every end- punctuation mark.  Alphabetize by the author’s last name.
  13. 13.  Use last names, first initials, and middle initials of authors. For two or more, use the ampersand(&) instead of and before the last author’s name.  Only the first word and proper nouns in the title begin with a capital letter.  Drop the words Co., Inc., Publishers and the like but retain Books or Press.
  14. 14.  For US Publishers, give the city and add the state for all US cities except Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco.  For publishers in other countries, give city and country spelled out; no country is needed for the ff.: Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, and Vienna.
  15. 15. Citations for books  Four main parts: author, date, title, publication information  Book with one author Ex. Cruz, E. (2003). Interactive technical writing. Manila, Philippines:UST Publishing House.
  16. 16.  Book with 2 authors: Villamarzo, P., & Relis, J. (2003). Functional oral communication. Manila, Philippines: UST Publishing House.
  17. 17.  Three or more authors – include all the authors; more than six, use et al. ex. Firme, L., Vizconde, C., Dayao, H., Villamarzo, P., & Panerio, C. (2009). Quezon City, Philippines: Abiva.
  18. 18.  For corporate authors Ex. Boston Women’s Health Collective. (2008). Our bodies, ourselves for the new century. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  19. 19.  Book with an author and an editor Foley, J. (2008). Teaching strategies (R. Nunan, Ed.). New York: Norton.  Unpublished dissertation Byers, M. (2002). Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Insurgence of television as a performance text. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  20. 20.  Signed article in a daily newspaper Evangelista, P. (2008,November 20). The day the young were explored. The Philippine Daily Inquirer, p.5A.  Article in a journal with continuous pagination Tyson, P. (2007). The psychology of women. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 361-364.
  21. 21.  Article in a journal that pages each issue separately Adler-Kassner, L. & Estrem, H. (2003). Rethinking research writing: Public literacy in the composition class- room. WPA: Writing Program Administration, 26(3), 119-131.
  22. 22.  Electronic sources Society for Technical Communication. (2008). Retrieved October 29,2008, from  From a database Goldbort, R. C. (2005, August). Scientific writing as an art and as a science. Journal of Environmental Health, 63(7), pp. 22-25. Retrieved October 18,2008, from Expanded Academic ASAP database.