Attribution Theoryto explain the world and to determine the cause of an event or behavior
AttributionsSource: Social Psychology: Social Thinking 2008 - by: James Neill
“The causes of events always interest us moreCicero than the events themselves”
“Happy is he who has been able to perceive the causes of things” Virgil
Why do we make attributions? Sense of cognitive control. To predict the future. To respond appropriately.
Attribution Theory• “…deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events”
Attribution• attribution theory: a group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior – Why do people behave the way that they do? – What are they likely to do in the future?
Theories of attribution Heider(1958): ‘Naïve Scientist’ Jones & Davis (1965): Correspondent Inference Theory Kelley (1967, 1973): Covariation Theory Weiner (1979, 1985): Internal / External + Stable / Unstable
Attribution theory• Heider hypothesised that:• People are naïve scientists who attempt to use rational processes to explain events.
Attribution theoryPeople perceive behaviour as being caused.People give causal attributions (even to inanimate objects!).Both disposition & situation can cause behaviour.
The Attribution Process Antecedents-- •Information factors internal •Beliefs to the perceiver •Motivation •Perceived externalAttributions made by the perceiver or internal causes of behavior •Behavior Consequences for the perceiver •Feelings •Expectations
Attribution theory • Causes of behaviour are seen as inside (internal) or outside (external) a person.Internal External situationalpersonalattributions Causes attributions
Attribution theory• We generally assume that people choose to behave the way they do,• i.e., there is a tendency to make internal attributions.
Internal attribution• ‘Bob is a jerk!’• ‘Bob is short-tempered!’• ‘Bob likes to beat people up!’
External attribution• ‘Steve just told Bob that he is having an affair w/ Bob’s wife.’• ‘Steve paid Bob $100 to give him a black eye.’• ‘Bob tripped on a cord and accidentally hit Steve when he lost his balance.’
Atribusi internal atau eksternal?1.Komar datang terlambat ke kampus untuk mengikuti kuliah.2.Cindy terlambat mengumpulkan tugas.3.Seorang pengemudi motor memotong Anda di jalan raya.4.Bagas adalah mahasiswa yang rajin dan pandai, namun kemarin dia ketahuan mencontek waktu ujian.
Weiners model of attribution Weiner’s theory attempts to categorise all attributions under common categories. He placed these categories across two dimensions and added a third after further research. The two we need to learn today are:1. Locus of causality: internal or external factors. What is the cause?2. Locus of stability: stable or unstable factors. How stable is it?
Causal attributions• List the causal attributions you think people may give for their level of success or failure.• ability• effort• task difficulty• luck.
Weiner’s attribution model LOCUS OF CAUSALITY DIMENSION Internal External attribution attributionS D StableT I attribution ABILITY TASK DIFFICULTYA MB EI NL SI I Unstable EFFORT LUCKT O attributionY N
Weiner’s attribution model: reasons why I won my tennis match! LOCUS OF CAUSALITY DIMENSION Internal External attribution attributionS D StableT I attribution I played better than She is younger thanA M her today me andB E inexperiencedI NL SI I UnstableT O attribution I trained really hard I was lucky at matchY N up to the game point; the umpire gave me a line call.
ATTRIBUTIONAL MODEL OF FAILUREINTERNAL ATTRIBUTION (Person Responsible?)• LACK OF EFFORT• LACK OF ABILITYEXTERNAL ATTRIBUTION (Environment/situation Responsible?)• DIFFICULT TASK• BAD LUCKWHAT IS THE SUPERVISOR’S RESPONSE? NO ABILITY Training or Transfer NO EFFORT Reprimand or Motivational Strategy HARD TASK Job Redesign BAD LUCK Sympathy and Support
ATTRIBUTION THEORY KELLEY (73)IS THE CAUSE OF THE BEHAVIOR SEEN AS INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL? WE LOOK FOR THREE TYPES OF INFORMATION TO DECIDE:DISTINCTIVENESS IS THIS PERSON’S PERFORMANCE DIFFERENT ON OTHER TASKS AND IN OTHER SITUATIONS?CONSISTENCY OVER TIME, IS THERE A CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR OR RESULTS ON THIS TASK BY THIS PERSON?CONSENSUS DO OTHERS PERFORM OR BEHAVE SIMILARLY WHEN IN A SIMILAR POSITION?
Theory of Causal Attributions Consistency Does person usually behave this way in this situation? DistinctivenessExternal Attribution Does person behave Internal Attribution High Low(to person’s situation) differently in different (to person’s disposition) situations? Consensus Do others behave similarly in this situation?
ATTRIBUTION ERRORS• THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR – THE CAUSE OF POOR PERFORMANCE (BY OTHERS) IS DUE TO PERSONAL FACTORS (LAZY…DIDN’T TRY VERY HARD)• SELF-SERVING BIAS – THE CAUSE OF POOR PERFORMANCE (BY MYSELF) IS DUE TO SITUATIONAL FACTORS (POOR SUPPORT), NOT BECAUSE OF A LACK OF EFFORT
Common Perceptual Errors• Perceptual defense: the tendency for people to protect themselves against ideas, objects, or situations that are threatening• Stereotyping: the tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on the basis of the category of people, of which that person is a member• Halo effect: the process by which the perceiver evaluates another person solely on the basis of one attribute, either favorable or unfavorable• Projection: the tendency for people to see their own traits in others• Expectancy effects: extent to which expectations bias how events, objects, and people are actually perceived – Self-fulfilling prophecy: expecting certain things to happen will shape the behavior of the perceiver in such a way that the expected is more likely to happen
Atribusi internal atau eksternal?Mari kita diskusikan lagi beberapa contoh kasus berikut ini:
1. Mengapa Bus Sumber Kencono sering kecelakaan?