Be the first to like this
Most ecosystems are dependent on interactions between the natural environment and man-made factor; hence the many sub definitions of ecosystems which include urban ecosystems, grassland ecosystems, woodland ecosystem etc. Such is the case for managed forests, like the Cork Oak (Quercus suber) Montado, a ‘Directive habitat’ which forms its own unique ecosystem delivering many important ecological services.
Recent efforts to quantify and valuate Ecosystem Services (ES) have been seen as vital in order to conceive of appropriate conservation and protection strategies in the long-term. This is urgently needed given that many ES are public goods and common resources with no private ownership or management can be poorly visible and thus falsely assumed or have no market values and tend to be underprovided.
According to some reference authors, the Montado effectively exports a large number of ES to the public systems, both tangible and intangible. Especially in small areas like farms, parklands and estates, it is very important to link mechanisms like payment for ES and green EU agro-forestry subsidies or promote an extended environmental fiscal reform in order to provide non-market solutions.
The present work pretends to explore the state of the art in terms of externalities like biodiversity, ecosystem services and landscape valuation approaches and methods and explore possible pathways for solving market and non-market economic failures in terms of recognition of sustainable supply of public services.