Turismo Sustentável e Economia Verde


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Keynote speach, II Conferência Nacional de Sustentabilidade no Sector do Turismo, 23 e 24 de Novembro, 2012

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Turismo Sustentável e Economia Verde

  1. 1. O TurismoSustentável ea EconomiaVerdeNuno Gaspar de OliveiraCIGEST | Environment & Sustainability, ISG | Business & EconomicsSchoolII Conferência Nacional deSustentabilidade no Sector do Turismo23 3 24 de Novembro, 2012
  2. 2. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde• Biólogo da área da Ecologia e Conservação da Natureza(FCUL, 1998);• Coordenador da Área de Ambiente & Sustentabilidade einvestigador na área da Economia Natural no CIGEST - Centrode Investigação em Gestão ISG – Business & EconomicsSchool;• Professor Assistente de Economia da Energia e dos RecursosNaturais da Licenciatura de Economia do ISG;• Delegado do ISG no BCSD Portugal;• Doutorando na Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas(UNL) na área de Geografia e Ambiente, com o tema“Biodiversidade e Planeamento Territorial: Da Política àEstratégia, da Estratégia à Prática”;• Consultor em Gestão Florestal Sustentável, Gestão de RiscoAmbiental e Sustentabilidade, gestão de Biodiversidade eConservação de Recursos Naturais
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  4. 4. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia VerdeA Economia Verde• valoriza e investe nos serviços ambientais e no capital natural;• É primordial para a diminuição da pobreza contínua, a forma mais visível dedesigualdade social, relacionada com o acesso desigual àeducação, saúde, disponibilidade de crédito, oportunidades de geração de renda egarantia de direitos de propriedade;• Gera empregos e melhora a igualdade social, entrando em contra ciclo com adeterioração da economia mundial iniciada com a recessão de 2008, provocada pelacrise bancária e de créditos e choques de preços;• Substitui os combustíveis fósseis por energias renováveis e tecnologias de baixaemissão de carbono de forma a aumentar o fornecimento de energias renováveis ereduzir os riscos de aumentos de e volatilidade dos preços para os combustíveisfósseis;• Oferece um estilo de vida urbana mais sustentável e uma mobilidade com baixaemissão de carbono, sendo que actualmente 50% da população mundial vive emáreas urbanas, onde consome 60-80% de energia e é responsável por 75% dasemissões de carbono.• Cresce mais rapidamente do que a economia ‘castanha’, enquanto mantém erestabelece o capital natural, uma das questões essenciais que se foca na aparentepermuta entre desenvolvimento e qualidade ambiental.
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  10. 10. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde• The only option to soften the impact of high oil prices that is likely to meet the magnitude ofthe challenge is a transition to a low-carbon economy. But this will require political leadershipand policy certainty to create a long-term, sufficient and consistent incentive structure forrenewable energy.• We recommend the government employs available and new mechanisms for public sectorfinance, such as a Green Investment Bank to change investor behaviour in favour of new, lowcarbon sectors.• Adaptive responses such as investment into mass public transit systems, more efficientvehicles, people travelling less due to home working, and cheaper, low carbon energyalternatives will also all help.• In addition to issues of security and sustainability, the impact of economic peak oil is anotherimportant reason to reduce an economy’s energy intensity and dependence on oil.“Historical evidenceshows that shocks liein wait forunprepared nations.Well preparedeconomies, however,should still prosper”
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  13. 13. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde“We estimate thatby the end of2020, nearly 1million people willbe employed inthese sectors andnearly 3 millionpeople will beemployed in thegreen economy as awhole”
  14. 14. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verdehttp://www.greenbiz.com/news/2011/07/13/green-jobs-outnumber-fossil-fuel-jobs-and-are-
  15. 15. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verdehttp://grist.org/list/study-green-econom-lost-fewer-jobs-in-the-recession/
  16. 16. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verdehttp://www.prweb.com/releases/thegreeneconomy/ESG/prweb10061311.htmESG[Environment, Social, Governance] funds, once the domainof socially conscious investorsand mission focused non-profits, is now becomingpopular for corporations andinvestors as a market-drivenmechanism that reviews acompany’s response tocomplex risks.For investors, especially largepublic institutionalinvestors, such metricsprovide abaseline, indicating thatfunds and companies inwhich they invest are doinga level of due-diligenceneeded in the new economy.
  17. 17. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia VerdeAchim Steiner, UN Under-Secretary General andUNEP Executive Director, said: ‘The soberingfact remains that a transition to a lowcarbon, inclusive Green Economy is happeningfar too slowly and the opportunity formeeting the 44Gt target is narrowingannually.There are many inspiring actions takingplace at the national level on energyefficiency in buildings, investing inforests to avoid emissions linked withdeforestation and new vehicle emissionsstandards alongside a remarkablegrowth in investment in new renewableenergies worldwide, which in 2011totaled close to US$260 billion.’
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  19. 19. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde“Being green is often associated with increased costs for businesses.However, the essence of innovation is to identify least cost opportunitiesand solutions, decoupling tourism growth from resource use andenvironmental impacts and using resources more efficiently. Greeninnovation in tourism can improve existing business models, leading topositive results to companies, customers, public authorities and localcommunities through job creation and better living conditions as well asthe housing ecosystems”Arab Hoballah, UNEP Chief of Sustainable Consumption and Production Branch.
  20. 20. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde1. Tourism has significant potential as a driver for growth for theworld economy. The tourism economy represents 5 per cent ofworld GDP, while it contributes to 6-7 per cent of totalemployment2. The development of tourism is accompanied by significantchallenges. The rapid growth in both international anddomestic travel, the trends to travel farther and over shorterperiods of time, and the preference given to energy-intensivetransportation are increasing the non-renewable energydependency of tourism, resulting in the sector’s contribution of5 per cent to global GHG emissions.3. Green tourism has the potential to create new jobs and reducepoverty. Travel and tourism are human-resourceintensive, employing directly and indirectly 8 per cent of theglobal workforce. It is estimated that one job in the coretourism industry creates about one and a half additional orindirect jobs in the tourism-related economy.4. Tourism development can be designed to support the localeconomy and poverty reduction.5. Investing in the greening of tourism can reduce the cost ofenergy, water, and waste and enhance the value ofbiodiversity, ecosystems and cultural heritage.
  21. 21. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde6. Tourists are demanding the greening of tourism. More than athird of travellers are found to favour environmentally-friendlytourism and be willing to pay for related experiences. 7. Theprivate sector, especially small firms, can, and must bemobilised to support green tourism.7. The tourism sector involves a diverse range of actors. Theawareness of green tourism exists mainly in a selection of largerscale firms. Smaller firms are mostly outside this sphere anddiverse supplier groups may not be connected at all.8. Much of the economic potential for green tourism is found insmall and medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), which need betteraccess to financing for investing in green tourism.9. Destination planning and development strategies are the firststep towards the greening of tourism. In developing tourismstrategies, local governments, communities and businessesneed to establish mechanisms for coordinating with ministries;10. Government investments and policies can leverage privatesector actions on green tourism. Government spending onpublic goods such as protected areas, cultural assets, waterconservation, waste management, sanitation, publictransport, and renewable energy infrastructure can reduce thecost of green investments by the private sector in green tourism.
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  26. 26. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde• Sustainable tourism practices do not suffer from the same negative impacts astraditional tourism practices because they provide for effective resourcemanagement, which means that income is generated while simultaneouslyminimising negative impacts to an area’s environmental and cultural integrity.• At the same time, sustainable tourism can become an important source of exportgrowth in developing [and in-deep-debt] countries.• Under a green investment scenario for sustainable tourism of US$ 248 billion in 2010dollars (0.2 per cent the world’s annual GDP) per year between 2011-2050 focusedon energy and water efficiency, emissions mitigation and solid wastemanagement, the sustainable tourism sector can be projected to grow steadily inthe coming decades, exceeding projections for the business as usual (BAU) approachby seven per cent in terms of the sector GDP, while saving significant amounts ofresources.
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  28. 28. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verdehttp://www.thegreeneconomy.com/green-hotels/
  29. 29. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verdehttp://www.business-biodiversity.eu/default.asp?Lang=ENG&Menue=49&News=1084
  30. 30. O Turismo Sustentável e a Economia Verde“Annual surveys of Americansheaded abroad show eco-travelers accounted for 5.8percent of the traffic in2009, up from 5.6 percent inthe previous year“Sustainability is at theforefront of our businessmodel because of customerdemand,"Revenue grew 42 percentbetween 2008-2010, despitethe global downturn,surpassing $150 million.http://www.cnbc.com/id/42785072/Eco_Tourism_No_Longer_For_Just_The_Rich_And_Fashionable
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  33. 33. Nuno Gaspar de Oliveira | Researcher ‘CIGEST | Ambiente e SustentabilidadeISG – Business & Economics School | nunogoliveira@cigest.ensinus.pt | Telefone: 21 751 37 00 ext. 127Linkedin: ngoliveira | SKYPE: nuno.gaspar.oliveira | Facebook: CIGEST, NGOLIVEIRA