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A Study of Breast Cancer Awareness
among Females in Pasar Siti
Khatijah, Kota Bharu, Kelantan
Yong Kah Tyan
Nurul Nurizzat...
Aims of Research
• To find out the awareness level of females
on breast cancer
• To investigate the relationship between
e...
Early Detection of Breast Cancer
• Early detection of breast cancer through
clinical breast exams and screening
mammograms...
Early Detection Is Your
BEST PROTECTION
If breast cancer is found
and treated early,
the survival rate is 98%.
2  The key
to early
detection is
screening.

1  The key to
finding breast
cancer is
early
detection.
Intro to MAMMOGRAPHY

History

1960
Mammography
started.

1969
Modern
mammography
existed when
the first X-ray
units dedic...
Definition
Mammography is a special X-ray examination of
the breast.

A mammogram is an x-ray picture of the breast.

The ...
Clinical Breast Exam
A clinical breast exam is
when a health-care
provider looks for and
feels for any changes in
your bre...
Mammogram
A mammogram is
important.

A mammogram is an
x-ray of the breast.
It can detect breast
cancer two to three
years...
Who is the patient??
Women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease.
It can also be used if you have a lump or other s...
Modalities

Screening

Diagnostic

• Mammography

•
•
•
•
•

Mammography
Ultrasound
Biopsy
MRI
CT
Benefits

- Low dose radiation (ability to
repeat the mammogram once a
year)
- Detect around 75% of cancers
before it can ...
Self-Breast Examination (SBE)
• Systematic examination of one’s breasts
• Once a month on a particular day of the

menstru...
Breast Cancer : Risk Factors
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Sex
Age
Personal History
Family History
The Breast Cancer Genes
Early ...
Breast Cancer : Symptoms
•
•
•
•
•
•

Painless lump or swelling
Ill-defined thickening
Thickening of skin
Nipple retractio...
Breast Cancer Screening
All women >20 years
Breast Self Examination every month
Clinical Breast Examination every 2 - 3 ye...
Problem Statement / Background
• Breast cancer is one of the most frequent
cancers among women in both developed and
devel...
• Early detection of breast cancer plays the
leading role in reducing mortality rates and
improving the patients’ prognosi...
• Several studies have shown inadequate
levels of knowledge towards risk factors
awareness and screening methods
including...
• Several studies have been conducted
worldwide to elicit women’s knowledge
about breast cancer and breast screening
pract...
• Therefore this study was done to
determine the level of awareness and
practices of breast cancer screening.
• Baseline d...
Methodology
include questions on knowledge of
breast cancer and awareness of
mammography
a total of 20 questions and 5 que...
The Questionnaire
Section

1
Section 2

Section 3

• Socio-demographic status
• questions on age, race, level of
education...
Study design
• was conducted among 150 females in Pasar Siti
Khatijah, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.

• Females less than 20 years...
Data collection
• The purpose of the study was explained to
females participated, confidentiality and
their right to withd...
Data analysis
• Analysis was performed using Social Package
of Social Sciences (SPSS) software.
• Scores of knowledge item...
Results
Age Group of Respondents
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

17
12

3

AGE
20-30

31-40

41-50

50 & above

18
Respondents’ Race
Malay

Chinese

India

Other

40

7

2

1
RACE
Marital Status & Family History of Breast Ca of Respondents
Yes

No
44

42

8

Marital Status

6

Family History of Breast...
Education Level of Respondents
40

36

35
30
25
primary school

20

secondary school

15

higher education
10

10
5

4

0
...
Knowledge and Awareness level of Respondents
45
40
35

9

7

30
9

25

20
15

29

30

4
20

10

15

5
0

5

0

2

0

2
13
...
Discussion
• In this study, most of the respondents(72%) have
educational level of secondary school.
• Basically, they kno...
Conclusion
• Based on the study, the overall knowledge and
awareness level of females in Pasar Siti
Khatijah is still low....
References
• KC Kanaga, J. N. (2011). Awareness of Breast
Cancer and Screening Procedures Among
Malaysian Women. Asian Pac...
Thank You !
A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan
A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan
A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan
A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan
A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan
A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan
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A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan

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A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan

  1. 1. A Study of Breast Cancer Awareness among Females in Pasar Siti Khatijah, Kota Bharu, Kelantan Yong Kah Tyan Nurul Nurizzati Bt Mohd Sukarno Nurul Natasha Huda Bt Mudzafar Shah Nadhirah Bt Ahmad Nurdina PROGRAMME DIPLOMA RADIOGRAPHY
  2. 2. Aims of Research • To find out the awareness level of females on breast cancer • To investigate the relationship between educational level and awareness level on breast cancer among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah
  3. 3. Early Detection of Breast Cancer • Early detection of breast cancer through clinical breast exams and screening mammograms provides the best means of reducing the risk of dying from breast cancer!!
  4. 4. Early Detection Is Your BEST PROTECTION If breast cancer is found and treated early, the survival rate is 98%.
  5. 5. 2  The key to early detection is screening. 1  The key to finding breast cancer is early detection.
  6. 6. Intro to MAMMOGRAPHY History 1960 Mammography started. 1969 Modern mammography existed when the first X-ray units dedicated to breast imaging were available. 1976 Mammography as a screening device became standard practice.
  7. 7. Definition Mammography is a special X-ray examination of the breast. A mammogram is an x-ray picture of the breast. The best radiographic method available today to detect breast changes. Using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool.
  8. 8. Clinical Breast Exam A clinical breast exam is when a health-care provider looks for and feels for any changes in your breasts.
  9. 9. Mammogram A mammogram is important. A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast. It can detect breast cancer two to three years before a lump can be felt.
  10. 10. Who is the patient?? Women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease. It can also be used if you have a lump or other sign of breast cancer. Recommended that women age 40 or older have screening mammograms every 1 to 2 years. Recommended for younger women who have symptoms of breast cancer or who have a high risk of the disease.
  11. 11. Modalities Screening Diagnostic • Mammography • • • • • Mammography Ultrasound Biopsy MRI CT
  12. 12. Benefits - Low dose radiation (ability to repeat the mammogram once a year) - Detect around 75% of cancers before it can be felt by the woman or her physician - Inexpensive - For women who have a breast Risks implant - Normal breast tissue can hide a breast cancer so that it doesn't show up on the mammogram (False Negative)
  13. 13. Self-Breast Examination (SBE) • Systematic examination of one’s breasts • Once a month on a particular day of the menstrual cycle • Should be started at the age of 20yrs • Seek medical advice for suspicious symptoms
  14. 14. Breast Cancer : Risk Factors • • • • • • • • • • • Sex Age Personal History Family History The Breast Cancer Genes Early menarche (first period or menstrual bleeding). Having no children Having a first full term pregnancy after age 25 Lack of breast feeding Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy Increased daily fat intake - especially saturated or hydrogenated fats.
  15. 15. Breast Cancer : Symptoms • • • • • • Painless lump or swelling Ill-defined thickening Thickening of skin Nipple retraction (pulled inward) Nipple discharge Swelling in the armpit
  16. 16. Breast Cancer Screening All women >20 years Breast Self Examination every month Clinical Breast Examination every 2 - 3 years All women > 40 years Clinical Breast Examination yearly Mammography yearly
  17. 17. Problem Statement / Background • Breast cancer is one of the most frequent cancers among women in both developed and developing countries. The total number of new cases of breast cancer diagnosed annually in the world exceeds one million (WHO, 2007). • In Malaysia breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of all ethnic groups. • Inadequate knowledge, geographical isolation, and poverty might be possible reasons for the delay of breast cancer detection in Malaysia (Hisham and Yip, 2003).
  18. 18. • Early detection of breast cancer plays the leading role in reducing mortality rates and improving the patients’ prognosis (Elmore et al., 2005). • The survival rate is higher with early detection of breast cancer. However, with local invasion, the survival rate decreases and if it is diagnosed at the latest stage, only a very low numbers of patients will survive. • For primary prevention of breast cancer, women need to be adequately informed about risk factors and risk reduction strategies for breast cancer.
  19. 19. • Several studies have shown inadequate levels of knowledge towards risk factors awareness and screening methods including mammography, even among educated women and health care providers (Madanat and Merill, 2002; Ahmed et al., 2006; Parsa et al., 2008; Amin et al., 2009). • The awareness about breast cancer among Malaysian women is not well documented.
  20. 20. • Several studies have been conducted worldwide to elicit women’s knowledge about breast cancer and breast screening practices. • But in Malaysia very few studies have been reported. • There is a need to know the awareness level and screening practices in a country with wide socio-demographic status.
  21. 21. • Therefore this study was done to determine the level of awareness and practices of breast cancer screening. • Baseline data on women’s knowledge is essential in developing an effective and targeted awareness level and instill practice habits to prevent delayed presentations of breast cancer.
  22. 22. Methodology include questions on knowledge of breast cancer and awareness of mammography a total of 20 questions and 5 questions on choices of media. distributed in both English and Bahasa Malaysia.
  23. 23. The Questionnaire Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 • Socio-demographic status • questions on age, race, level of education, marital status, and family history of breast cancer. • knowledge about breast cancer • questions about breast cancer knowledge, signs and symptoms and risk factors. • Awareness of mammography • 6 questions
  24. 24. Study design • was conducted among 150 females in Pasar Siti Khatijah, Kota Bharu, Kelantan. • Females less than 20 years old and those with language barriers and those who refused to participate were excluded from this study.
  25. 25. Data collection • The purpose of the study was explained to females participated, confidentiality and their right to withdraw was ensured. • A written description of the purpose and aims of the study give along with the questionnaires. • A simple pamphlet of signs and symptoms of breast cancer will be given to each participator in order to increase the level of awareness on breast cancer.
  26. 26. Data analysis • Analysis was performed using Social Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) software. • Scores of knowledge items were summed to obtain the mean total knowledge score on breast cancer. • Descriptive statistics were obtained for all the variables in the study. • Knowledge scores were expressed as mean and standard deviations. • Mann Whitney U, spearman correlation and chi square test were performed in data analysis. Significance level was set at p< 0.05.
  27. 27. Results Age Group of Respondents 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 17 12 3 AGE 20-30 31-40 41-50 50 & above 18
  28. 28. Respondents’ Race Malay Chinese India Other 40 7 2 1 RACE
  29. 29. Marital Status & Family History of Breast Ca of Respondents Yes No 44 42 8 Marital Status 6 Family History of Breast Ca
  30. 30. Education Level of Respondents 40 36 35 30 25 primary school 20 secondary school 15 higher education 10 10 5 4 0 Education Level
  31. 31. Knowledge and Awareness level of Respondents 45 40 35 9 7 30 9 25 20 15 29 30 4 20 10 15 5 0 5 0 2 0 2 13 2 1 10 1 3 7 0 higher education secondary school primary school
  32. 32. Discussion • In this study, most of the respondents(72%) have educational level of secondary school. • Basically, they know about the risk factors, signs and symptoms of breast Ca (76% and 78%) but only 40% of them perform BSE. • From a total of 50 respondents, 62% of them have heard about mammo but very few of them know about the screening age(26%). • The study show that they have a little sources about mammo (36%) and only 20% of them perform mammogram before.
  33. 33. Conclusion • Based on the study, the overall knowledge and awareness level of females in Pasar Siti Khatijah is still low. • This can be evidenced from the habits of BSE(40%) and very low number of respondents that have been perform mammography before(20%).
  34. 34. References • KC Kanaga, J. N. (2011). Awareness of Breast Cancer and Screening Procedures Among Malaysian Women. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 1965-1967. • Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai, A. M.-A. (2011). Awareness and Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Mammography among a Group of Malaysian Women in Shah Alam. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 25312538.
  35. 35. Thank You !

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