A study of breast cancer awareness among females in Pasar Siti Khatijah,Kota Bharu,Kelantan
A Study of Breast Cancer Awareness
among Females in Pasar Siti
Khatijah, Kota Bharu, Kelantan
Yong Kah Tyan
Nurul Nurizzati Bt Mohd Sukarno
Nurul Natasha Huda Bt Mudzafar Shah
Nadhirah Bt Ahmad Nurdina
PROGRAMME DIPLOMA RADIOGRAPHY
Aims of Research
• To find out the awareness level of females
on breast cancer
• To investigate the relationship between
educational level and awareness level on
breast cancer among females in Pasar Siti
Early Detection of Breast Cancer
• Early detection of breast cancer through
clinical breast exams and screening
mammograms provides the best means
of reducing the risk of dying from breast
Early Detection Is Your
If breast cancer is found
and treated early,
the survival rate is 98%.
2 The key
1 The key to
Intro to MAMMOGRAPHY
the first X-ray
as a screening
Mammography is a special X-ray examination of
A mammogram is an x-ray picture of the breast.
The best radiographic method available today to detect breast
Using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the
human breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool.
Clinical Breast Exam
A clinical breast exam is
when a health-care
provider looks for and
feels for any changes in
A mammogram is
A mammogram is an
x-ray of the breast.
It can detect breast
cancer two to three
years before a lump
can be felt.
Who is the patient??
Women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease.
It can also be used if you have a lump or other sign of
Recommended that women age 40 or older have
screening mammograms every 1 to 2 years.
Recommended for younger women who have symptoms
of breast cancer or who have a high risk of the disease.
- Low dose radiation (ability to
repeat the mammogram once a
- Detect around 75% of cancers
before it can be felt by the woman
or her physician
- For women who have a breast
- Normal breast tissue can hide a
breast cancer so that it doesn't
show up on the mammogram
Self-Breast Examination (SBE)
• Systematic examination of one’s breasts
• Once a month on a particular day of the
• Should be started at the age of 20yrs
• Seek medical advice for suspicious
Breast Cancer : Risk Factors
The Breast Cancer Genes
Early menarche (first period or menstrual bleeding).
Having no children
Having a first full term pregnancy after age 25
Lack of breast feeding
Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy
Increased daily fat intake - especially saturated or
Breast Cancer : Symptoms
Painless lump or swelling
Thickening of skin
Nipple retraction (pulled inward)
Swelling in the armpit
Breast Cancer Screening
All women >20 years
Breast Self Examination every month
Clinical Breast Examination every 2 - 3 years
All women > 40 years
Clinical Breast Examination yearly
Problem Statement / Background
• Breast cancer is one of the most frequent
cancers among women in both developed and
developing countries. The total number of new
cases of breast cancer diagnosed annually in
the world exceeds one million (WHO, 2007).
• In Malaysia breast cancer is the most
commonly diagnosed cancer among women of
all ethnic groups.
• Inadequate knowledge, geographical
isolation, and poverty might be possible
reasons for the delay of breast cancer
detection in Malaysia (Hisham and Yip, 2003).
• Early detection of breast cancer plays the
leading role in reducing mortality rates and
improving the patients’ prognosis (Elmore et
• The survival rate is higher with early
detection of breast cancer. However, with
local invasion, the survival rate decreases and
if it is diagnosed at the latest stage, only a
very low numbers of patients will survive.
• For primary prevention of breast cancer,
women need to be adequately informed
about risk factors and risk reduction
strategies for breast cancer.
• Several studies have shown inadequate
levels of knowledge towards risk factors
awareness and screening methods
including mammography, even among
educated women and health care
providers (Madanat and Merill, 2002;
Ahmed et al., 2006; Parsa et al., 2008;
Amin et al., 2009).
• The awareness about breast cancer among
Malaysian women is not well documented.
• Several studies have been conducted
worldwide to elicit women’s knowledge
about breast cancer and breast screening
• But in Malaysia very few studies have been
• There is a need to know the awareness
level and screening practices in a country
with wide socio-demographic status.
• Therefore this study was done to
determine the level of awareness and
practices of breast cancer screening.
• Baseline data on women’s knowledge is
essential in developing an effective and
targeted awareness level and instill
practice habits to prevent delayed
presentations of breast cancer.
include questions on knowledge of
breast cancer and awareness of
a total of 20 questions and 5 questions on
choices of media.
distributed in both English and Bahasa
• Socio-demographic status
• questions on age, race, level of
education, marital status, and family
history of breast cancer.
• knowledge about breast cancer
• questions about breast cancer
knowledge, signs and symptoms
and risk factors.
• Awareness of mammography
• 6 questions
• was conducted among 150 females in Pasar Siti
Khatijah, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
• Females less than 20 years old and those with
language barriers and those who refused to
participate were excluded from this study.
• The purpose of the study was explained to
females participated, confidentiality and
their right to withdraw was ensured.
• A written description of the purpose and
aims of the study give along with the
• A simple pamphlet of signs and symptoms
of breast cancer will be given to each
participator in order to increase the level
of awareness on breast cancer.
• Analysis was performed using Social Package
of Social Sciences (SPSS) software.
• Scores of knowledge items were summed to
obtain the mean total knowledge score on
• Descriptive statistics were obtained for all the
variables in the study.
• Knowledge scores were expressed as mean
and standard deviations.
• Mann Whitney U, spearman correlation and
chi square test were performed in data
analysis. Significance level was set at p< 0.05.
Age Group of Respondents
50 & above
Marital Status & Family History of Breast Ca of Respondents
Family History of Breast Ca
Education Level of Respondents
• In this study, most of the respondents(72%) have
educational level of secondary school.
• Basically, they know about the risk factors, signs
and symptoms of breast Ca (76% and 78%) but
only 40% of them perform BSE.
• From a total of 50 respondents, 62% of them
have heard about mammo but very few of them
know about the screening age(26%).
• The study show that they have a little sources
about mammo (36%) and only 20% of them
perform mammogram before.
• Based on the study, the overall knowledge and
awareness level of females in Pasar Siti
Khatijah is still low.
• This can be evidenced from the habits of
BSE(40%) and very low number of
respondents that have been perform
• KC Kanaga, J. N. (2011). Awareness of Breast
Cancer and Screening Procedures Among
Malaysian Women. Asian Pacific Journal of
Cancer Prevention, 1965-1967.
• Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai, A. M.-A.
(2011). Awareness and Knowledge of Breast
Cancer and Mammography among a Group
of Malaysian Women in Shah Alam. Asian
Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 25312538.