Electricity has been part of our lives. It has brought many things that surely have made many wonders and life would seem so hard without it. So which is the best source of energy to address Indian needs? Find out here.
Power Scenario and the need of nuclear power in India
A NOTE ON POWER SCENARIOAND THE NEED OF NUCLEAR POWER IN INDIAPrepared by:- 1. Mukesh Gupta, Scientific Officer/D , Quality Assurance Department, Kudankulam Nuclear Power project. 2. P.A. Suresh Babu, Head of Quality Assurance Department, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project. NuclearFriends on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn
1. Introduction to electricity Electricity has been part of our lives. It has brought many things that surely have made many wonders and life would seem so hard without it. The use of electrical power categorized such as residential sector includes private households and apartment buildings where energy is consumed primarily for space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and clothes drying and other appliances. The commercial sector includes nonmanufacturing business establishments such as hotels, motels, restaurants, street and highway lighting, wholesale businesses, retail stores, health, social, religious and educational institutions, and government. The industrial sector includes manufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, fishing, and forestry establishments. And the last transportation sector which includes railroads and railways where electricity is used for traction, including urban public transportation.2. Present consumption of electricity in the world Energy is a vital factor in industrial production and the lifeblood of any nations economic development. In 2010, world total of electricity production and consumption was 21248TWh. 17635TWh (83%) of electric energy was consumed by final users. The difference of 3612TWh (17%) was consumed in the process of generating power and consumed as transmission loss. Following figure shows the electricity consumption in the world. The following figure presents the world power consumption as per August 2010 i. Shortage of electric power will not only compromise a social comfort level but also seriously hamper the economic growth of a nation. The relationship between power consumption and national economic development has a great significance. Power consumption statistics are vital indicators for gauging the economic growth. Developing countries, in comparison with developed countries, generally have higher growth rates of population, energy, and electricity. There are currently also striking disparities of total and per capita energy and electricity consumption. To achieve economic development and industrial progress, an increased supply of energy and of electricity is of vital importance. At the world level, electricity consumption was cut down by 1.5% during 2009, for the first time since World War II. Except in Asia and Middle East, consumptions were reduced in all the world regions. In OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, accounting for 53% of the total, electricity demand scaled down by more than 4.5 % in both Europe and North America while it shrank by above 7% in Japan. Electricity demand also dropped by more than 4.5% in CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) countries, driven by a large cut in Russian consumption. Conversely, in China and India (22% of the worlds consumption), electricity consumption continued to rise at a strong pace (+6-7%) to meet energy Page 2 of 27
needs related to high economic growth. In Middle East, growth rate was softened but remained high; just below4%ii (refer following figureiii). Page 3 of 27
The present power scenario in the world is presented in following listii&iv (top ten countries included). Rank Country Year 2010 Electricity Population million Annual KWh per capita consumption (TWh) — World 21,248 6,784 3132 1 USA 4,365 307 14218 2 China 4,160 1,339 3107 3 Japan 1,065 127 8386 4 Russia 1,049 140 7493 5 India 918 1,166 787 6 Germany 625 82 7622 7 Canada 619 33 18757 8 France 572 64 8937 9 Brazil 495 199 2487 10 S. Korea 487 49 9939 From the above table it is clear that India is having lowest Average power per capita available among the top ten power consuming countries and significantly below the world’s average. As GDP growth accelerates to an ambitious 8 to 10%, the shortage of power will become more severe.3. Present power scenario in India India is a nation in transition. Considered an "emerging economy," increasing GDP is driving the demand for additional electrical energy, as well as transportation fuels. The electricity sector in India supplies the worlds 5th largest energy consumer, accounting for 4.0% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. Rapid economic growth has created a growing need for dependable and reliable supplies of electricity, gas and petroleum products. Due to the fast-paced growth of Indias economy, the countrys energy demand has grown an average of 3.6% per annum over the past 30 years. In August 2011, the installed power generation capacity of India stood at 181.558 GW and per capita energy consumption stood at 787kWh. The countrys annual energy production increased from about 190 billion kWh in 1986 to more than 837 billion kWh in 2010v. During the year 2010-11, the energy requirement registered a growth of 3.7% during the year against the projected growth of 5.6% (refer following figurevi) and Peak demand registered a growth of 2.6% against the projected growth of 6.5%, though the total ex-bus energy availability increased by 5.6% over the previous year and the peak met increased by 6.0%, the shortage conditions prevailed in the Country both in terms of energy and peaking availability. Base load requirement was 861,591 (MU) against availability of 788,355 MU which is a shortage is 73,236 MU i.e. 8.5% deficit. During peak load the demand was for 122,287 MW against availability of 110,256 MW which is a shortage of 12,031 MW i.e. 9.8%. Electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution are high. Due to shortage of electricity, power cuts are common throughout India and this has Adversely affected the countrys economic growthv. Page 4 of 27
Operation performance of generating stations in the country during the year 2010-11Electric Energy Generation Target for the year 830.8 BUActual Electric Energy Generation during the year 811.1 BUGrowth in generation during 2010-11 5.55 %The details of generation and growth rates are given below in the tablevi. Category Target 2010- Actual 2010- % of Target Actual Last Year Growth 11(BU) 11*(BU) 2009-10(BU) (%) Thermal 690.9 664.9 96.24 640.5 3.81 Nuclear 22.0 26.3 119.48 18.6 41.04 Hydro 111.4 114.3 102.64 103.9 10.01 Bhutan Import 6.5 5.6 85.68 5.4 4.69 Total 830.8 811.1 97.63 768.4 5.55* Generation excludes generation from plants up to 25 MW Capacity.Energy resources availability in India Page 5 of 27
Most of the worlds energy resources are from the suns rays hitting earth. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy; some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via wind, hydroelectric or wave power. The energy sources have been split into three categories: fossil fuels, renewable sources, and nuclear sources. The fossil fuels covered here are coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The renewable energy sources are solar, wind, hydroelectric, biomass, and geothermal power. The nuclear- powered sources are fission and fusion. Figure to right shows energy resources in India. Oil is the world’s favorite energy source Which comprises 38% to the total energy production closely followed by coal (26%) and gas (23%). Both nuclear and Hydroelectric energy sources contribute Equally at 6% each with the remaining 1% coming from solar, wind, wood, wave, tidal, and geothermal sources. About 65.34% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal power plants, 21.53% by hydroelectric power plants, 2.70% by nuclear power plants and 10.42% by Renewable Energy Sources. More than 50% of Indias commercial energy demand is m et th r o u g h the countrys vast coal reserves. The country has also invested heavily in recent years in renewable energy utilization, especially wind energyv. Read Complete White Paper with following chapters-Read Herre Read He e4. Pros and cons of energy resources 4.1 Fossil fuel 4.2 Hydroelectricity 4.3 Other Renewable Energy 4.4 Nuclear power5. Comparison of death/TWh for all energy sources6. Nuclear power plant features7. Misconception among public about Nuclear power8. Why some countries are phasing out nuclear power plant?9. Conclusion :10. References: Page 6 of 27