Case-Based Learning on Web in Higher Education: A Review of Empirical Research
Case-Based Learning on Web in Higher Education: ! A Review of Empirical Research! ! Danucha Saleewong! Praweenya Suwannatthachote! Supattra Kuhakran! Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University! Thailand! ! 27-29 December 2012! ! Hainan Island, China!
Introduction!Case based learning instruction is one of theconstructivist oriented teaching approach(Sudzina, 1997) since it promotes students’ activeparticipation so they could form their ownlearning. Cases are stories with a message whichstudents analyze and consider the solutions ofthese stories. !
Introduction!There are many research studies that related tothe cases, used in teaching on the web, allowthe students to study better (Dabbagh, 2002). !Case-based learning helps transfer knowledgeand expectations of the students from theirlearning. The high level knowledge transfer willbe more effective with case-based learning andproblem solving on the web (Sutyak et al., 1998and Siegel et al., 2000). !
Research Question!“What does the empirical research indicate about CBL on web” !
Case-Based Learning!Case-Based Learning is often deﬁned as a teachingmethod which requires students to actively participatein real or hypothetical problem situations, reﬂectingthe kinds of experiences naturally encountered in thediscipline under study (Ertmer & Russell, 1995).!!
Case-Based Learning!! Case-based learning bridges the gap between theoryand practice (Christensen, 1987; Ertmer & Russell,1995; Flynn & Klein, 2001; Shyu, 2000; Williams,1992). This instructional method is suited for teachingthe essential skills of analysis, decision making,critical thinking and problem solving in theirprofessions (Merseth, 1991).!
Case-Based Learning on Web!When case-based learning is implementedonline, instructors should be aware thatpedagogical activities can be either limited orfostered by conditions associated withtechnology tools employed. !
Case-Based Learning on Web!Technology can offer cognitive support forstudents’ thinking by reducing working memorylimitations, and help them to representevolving ideas, concepts, and solutions. At thesame time, technology can burden studentssince they have to manage tasks and toolfunctions simultaneously in the learningprocesses. (Lee, 2009) !
Method!Source of data: !The search for peer-reviewed empirically based articles was conducted in four stages.! • Searches were made in electronic databases using! Stage 1! descriptors including case-based learning, CBL! • Further searches on some of articles not related with Stage 2! web, e-learning, digital learning, online learning or technology were carried out! • Did further searches on some of the Stage 3! articles not related with higher education! • Selected the articles Stage 4! published from 2009/01/01-2011/12/31!
Method!Source of data!The electronic databases used for the literature search included!
Method!Source of data! The searches yielded a total of articles.! survey, 8 interview, articles! observations! 221 11 articles! articles! 3 Experimental articles! design!
Analysis! The basic unit of analysis was individual empirical article using The constant-comparative method (Lincoln and Guba, 1985)! • Examing each individual article! • Forming various categories! • Comparing categories! • Achieving category saturation!
Finding!The categories identiﬁed seemed to cluster two groups:! Context of Case-Based Learning on web! • Disciplined of study in which case-based learning were used! • How students or instructors use case-based learning! Outcome of Case-Based Learning on web! • Performance outcome! • Affective outcome!
Finding!Disciplines of study in which CBL on web were used.! 9% 18% 28% 45%
Finding!The review context of CBL on web! Study! Context of CBL on Web!Weil et al. (2011)! The CBL was introduced into Acct 210 in an! asynchronous discussion mode using the Moodle open source learning software platform.! Students used of CBL for online discussion forum!Hartﬁeld (2010)! A set of CBL function as the central teaching and! learning activity that facilitates alignment. CBL used primary biochemistry research articles as the source of the problems and integrate the students’ learning with the conceptual theory material covered within the framework of the lectures.!
Finding!The review context of CBL on web! Study! Context of CBL on web !Bennett (2010)! Masters students used online CBL, technology-! supported and online discussion in the class.!Kim et al. (2011)! Student used online case-based learning (CBL)! module in the e-learning environment. !Williams (2009)! The case-based learning in online environment! used in the clinical curriculum of the Bachelor of Emergency Health (BEH) degree. Cases were presented in “web page” format to each e-tutorial group in Blackboard. !
Finding! The review context of CBL on web! Study! Context of CBL on Web!Choi and Lee (2009)! Students used the online CBL-CMPS environment. The! students were asked to complete the CBL-CMPS online and to submit their responses to the questions posed at the end of each stage as a homework assignment and they checked out for another homework assignment in the same way that they did for the previous stages.!Choi et al. (2009) ! Students used case-based e-learning environment in anesthesiology course. The issues of integration of diversiﬁed technological tools for pedagogical facilitation of case-based activities and developing multimedia cases.!
Finding!Outcome of Case-Based Learning on web!
Finding!Review of CBL on web performance outcome! Study! Performance Outcome!Choi and Lee (2009),! Promoted ill-structured problem solving abilities andHartﬁled (2010)! problem solving skills.!Cirai et al. (2010)! Enhanced analytic, collaborative and communication skills.!Weil et al. (2011)! Enhanced ability to critically review case information.!
Finding!Review of CBL on web performance outcome! Study! Performance outcome! Lee et al. (2009)! Enhanced students’ involvement and engagement in understanding contexts embedded in case toward solutions from multifaceted aspects.! ! Bennett (2010)! Raised learners’ awareness of design approaches and project management strategies, and that discussion and reﬂection play critical roles in developing students’ understanding.!
Finding!Review of CBL on web affective outcome! Study ! Affective outcome !Kim et al. (2011)! CBL module showed higher average! scores than the comparison group across all scores: Easy to use Easy to learn Usefulness and Satisfaction.!Hartﬁeld (2010)! Case-based learning paradigm supports! and bolsters student satisfaction and leads to improved student academic performance.!
Conclusion!Our review found that !!Ø CBL on web usage were limited mainly to discussion or technology-related disciplines such as medical, education and business.!Ø Performance outcome of CBL on web enhanced thinking skills such as problem solving, critical thinking and analytic.!
Conclusion! Ø Affective outcome of CBL on web was easy to use, fun, interesting and had exciting experience to explore technologies .!
Conclusion!Case-Based Learning on Web is the challenge to help studentsdevelop skills and interests. Due to the nature of the course, A ﬂexible and convenient No restric3ons in terms of 3me and place Several mul3media formats can be used The students can choose the presenta3on format and be controlled
Conclusion! The use of CBL on web or CBL with technology is an emerging trend. We hope that this review will be useful to researchers and educators as they continue to study and build a knowledge base concerning the use of CBL on web in higher education.!
Future Research! Future research need to discuss and implyassessment methods to measure students’outcome related to deep learning and advance skill in CBL on web suitable forlearning in the 21st century.!
Case-Based Learning on Web in Higher Education: A Review of Empirical Research! "! " "Thank You!!
Case-Based Learning on Web in Higher Education: ! A Review of Empirical Research! ! Danucha Saleewong! email@example.com! Praweenya Suwannatthachote! firstname.lastname@example.org! ! !