The Complete Guide To Pr Planning


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The Complete Guide To Pr Planning

  1. 1. New Models for New Challenges New Perspectives on More Effective Approaches to Public Relations Strategic Planning – An Alignment Model Lelde McCoy, Lelde McCoy and Associates Noel Turnbull, Adjunct Professor, RMIT University Presentation to 2003 PRIA National Conference, Hobart
  2. 2. “ As far as the public and media are concerned, the current status of public relations is dismal. Any dumbbell, nitwit or crook can call himself a public relations practitioner.” Edward L. Bernays, the “father” of public relations at age 100 years in 1992
  3. 3. Our goal <ul><li>To help ensure that public relations at a strategic level survives </li></ul><ul><li>To present ideas for more up-to-date and robust approaches to strategic planning in public relations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Our presentation <ul><li>Public perceptions of public relations and their impact on practice and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Driving forces impacting on industry practice </li></ul><ul><li>New directions for the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional public relations planning and its limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging planning concepts </li></ul><ul><li>A new conceptual model for public relations planning and its practical implications </li></ul>
  5. 5. The perception problem
  6. 6. CEO’s in trouble Philip Anschutz Qwest Joseph Nacchio Qwest A. Alfred Taubman Sotheby’s Stephen Garofalo Metromedia Fiber Networks Clark McLeod McLeod USA Sam Waksal ImClone Martha Stewart Martha Stewart OmniMedia Dennis Kozlowski Tyco John Rigas Adelphia Bernard Ebbers WorldCom
  7. 7. Forces impacting on practice <ul><li>Continuing significance of communications and reputation management </li></ul><ul><li>Total environment orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Scrutiny </li></ul><ul><li>Change and globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on actual performance </li></ul>
  8. 8. New types of practitioners <ul><li>Specialist stream growth </li></ul><ul><li>Public affairs vs. public relations </li></ul><ul><li>The practitioner mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Practitioner knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>Training and education needs </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on planning </li></ul>
  9. 9. Role of corporate communications 2002 <ul><li>Percent of respondents who RANKED the following functions #1: </li></ul><ul><li>20.0% - Manager of company’s reputation </li></ul><ul><li>15.1% - Source of public information about the company </li></ul><ul><li>14.1% - Manager of relationships (Co. & Key non-customer constituencies) </li></ul><ul><li>13.8% - Advocate or “engineer of public opinion” </li></ul><ul><li>12.4% - Manager of the company’s image </li></ul><ul><li>11.9% - Driver of company publicity </li></ul><ul><li>11.4% - Manager of relationships – co. & ALL key constituencies) </li></ul><ul><li>2.7% - Support for marketing and sales </li></ul><ul><li>8.1% - Other </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Corporate Communications Institute, Fairleigh Dickinson University, 2002 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Role of public relations in organizations <ul><li>Interprets current and future social and political environment </li></ul><ul><li>Counsels management on implications of decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to internal and external stakeholder relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Drives and coordinates integration of reputation building responsibilities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Broad directions for public relations <ul><li>Building relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on organizational behavior </li></ul><ul><li>High impact activities for cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Greater integration and establishment of knowledge systems within organizations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why planning is important ? <ul><li>A disciplined management tool </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses vision and priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes common understanding and accountability measures </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures a proactive approach </li></ul><ul><li>Roadmap for internal and external work </li></ul>
  13. 13. Old and new approaches to strategic planning Assume sector convergence Assumes sector remains the same ‘ Way of thinking’ based Procedural and document based Done continuously – all year round Done periodically, annually Typically 10 – 15 year context or dynamic envelope of timings Typically 3 year timeframe Can be open to employees and stakeholders Done by specialist ‘ Foreseeing based’ combining analysis with insight and creativity Forecasting based and analytical Open, participative Elitist, top down Focus on intangible resources Focus on intangible resources Strategy of movement Strategy of position Looks back from the future Looks out toward the future KNOWLEDGE AGE STRATEGY INDUSTRIAL AGE STRATEGY
  14. 14. The very old model <ul><li>“Pseudo planning is the allocation of resources to communication activities in which the goal is communications itself.” </li></ul><ul><li>David Dozier, 1986 </li></ul>
  15. 15. The old model <ul><li>The opportunity/problem </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Target Audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Or alternatively….. <ul><li>What do I want to achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do I want to talk to? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I want to say? </li></ul><ul><li>How shall I say it? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I know that I have been heard? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Planning and management model 1. Defining public relations problems 4. Evaluating the program 2. Planning and Programming 3. Taking action and communicating ‘ How did we do?’ Assessment ‘ What’s happening now?’ Situation Analysis ‘ How and when do we do and say it?’ Implementation ‘ What should we do and say and why?’ Strategy
  18. 18. Old model limitations <ul><li>Too focused on campaigns and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Too focused on communications, not actions </li></ul><ul><li>Rooted within existing stable of communication techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Not interactive enough </li></ul><ul><li>Too deterministic </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficiently flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks process for organizational alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits the reinvention of our role </li></ul>
  19. 19. An emerging model THE CORPORATION Business partnerships and alliances Corporate Brand Impersonal Presentation Literature Point of Sale New Media Permanent Media Direct Marketing & Correspondence Personal Presentation Corporate & Marketing PR Products/ Services Advertising Sponsorship Country of Origin The Industry Business Partners Local Prospective Employees Internal General Public Financial The Media Government(s) The Trade Influential Groups Customers
  20. 20. An emerging model <ul><li>Strategic foresight principles </li></ul><ul><li>Issues management thinking on prioritization of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Kelly’s model with stewardship </li></ul><ul><li>Fleischer’s new public affairs model </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fleisher’s emerging PA model <ul><li>PA managed as a year round process </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivating and maintaining enduring stakeholder relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing stakeholders using refined information </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the grassroots </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating in an integrated manner </li></ul><ul><li>Continually aligning values and strategy with the public's interests </li></ul><ul><li>Improving external relations using the accepted facets of contemporary management practice </li></ul>
  22. 22. Principles for the new model <ul><li>Must build knowledge and capability in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Constituency based approach </li></ul><ul><li>A process of establishing action priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily a creative activity, not just analytical </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to create a responsive organization </li></ul><ul><li>Test strategy and activity against corporate standard for values, reputation drivers and organizational ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative to include processes to make things happen </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous monitoring and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Logical linkages between planning phases </li></ul>
  23. 23. An alignment model <ul><li>Alignment with business and organizational strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment with organizational values, reputation drivers and positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment in setting priorities and allocating resources effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment with people and supporting systems </li></ul>
  25. 25. The step-by-step process <ul><li>What’s involved ? </li></ul><ul><li>Six stage process starting with core understanding of business strategy and priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Underpinned by series of checkpoints for alignment and planning linkages as well as organizational engagement strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage has information outcomes for management </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous evaluation and improvement input </li></ul>
  26. 26. Core understanding <ul><li>What is the business strategy ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the business’ benchmarks for success? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the desired organizational positioning ? </li></ul><ul><li>What relationships, behaviors and reputation drivers are essential to achieving success? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Stage one – understand vision, values, ethics <ul><li>Analyze vision, mission and values </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor corporate commitment to vision, mission and values </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze corporate, industry or professional ethics codes </li></ul><ul><li>Assess corporate responsibility/governance performance against appropriate benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor the “grapevine” </li></ul><ul><li>Do the vision, values and ethics reflect the reality of the organizational culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: Cultural diagnostic/mapping report </li></ul>
  28. 28. Stage two – risk and opportunity analysis <ul><li>Conduct issues monitoring and environmental scans locally and globally </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze competitive behaviors and threats </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard analytical tools :SWOT, PEST, Porter model </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake scenario planning :what ifs? </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly retest internal perception against external realities </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome : Risk and opportunity profile </li></ul>
  29. 29. Stage three – research stakeholders and publics <ul><li>Categorize risks, threats and opportunities according to priorities around: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity to impact on survival/success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity to influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impact on individual organizations versus group influences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use benchmark stakeholder research to identify key relationship needs </li></ul>
  30. 30. Stage three – research stakeholders and publics <ul><li>Prioritize stakeholder relationships by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involving and engaging those directly interested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allying with those with mutual interest in problems/opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distancing yourself from exploiters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establishing dialogue with monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishing two-way comms with priority groups </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying corporate behaviors as they impact on relationships eg.CRM, quality </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: Profile of priority stakeholders and publics </li></ul>
  31. 31. Stage four – set priorities with business priorities <ul><li>Identify key business success factors </li></ul><ul><li>Understand implications of corporate structures for communications management delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze priorities in product, service, value delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Understand corporate infrastructure roles and contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify corporate and line management communication needs in the business strategy context </li></ul><ul><li>Assess communications capabilities within the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: priority chart </li></ul>
  32. 32. Stage five – strategy development <ul><li>Insights and imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and positions </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate actions </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate messages </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: strategy matrix </li></ul>
  33. 33. Stage five – strategy development <ul><li>Set objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Set/align policies and positions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify themes, styles, actions and messages, approaches and campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate activities across range of corporate activities </li></ul><ul><li>Assess resource needs </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources again business priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Assess where resources can be most appropriately applied </li></ul><ul><li>Build in capacity for opportunity-based activities </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor consistency between behavior and communications </li></ul>
  34. 34. Stage six – organizational integration <ul><li>Engagement with managers and staff </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with systems, processes, practices and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing reporting cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: alignment map </li></ul>
  35. 35. Where is the evaluation stage ? <ul><li>EVERYWHERE - the model is based on continuous evaluation against the initial benchmarks which will change as business strategy evolves </li></ul>
  36. 36. Measurement and evaluation <ul><li>Use stakeholder relationship measurement system </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor data on corporate behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor/evaluate specific campaigns/programs </li></ul><ul><li>Establish feedback loops </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor issue maps and environmental scans </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback data into planning loop </li></ul>
  37. 37. Closing comments <ul><li>Public relations plans contribute to a more informed environment with a greater chance of success </li></ul><ul><li>Not the final word on planning – just a thought starter for redefining the paradigm for public relations in the future </li></ul>
  38. 38. Thank you Your feedback and questions please