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Prospects and challanges of population management in bangladesh

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Bangladesh and challenges of population management

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Prospects and challanges of population management in bangladesh

  1. 1. Md Nazmul Alam icddr,b Diploma in Population Sciences 2012 University of Dhaka
  2. 2. Human population ttiimmeelliinnee………………..
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  11. 11. World population :: aarree wwee tthheerree yyeett??  The third rock from the sun is inhabited with 7 billion human March 12, 2012 - United States Census Bureau October 31, 2011 - UNFPA  7,023,068,926 (United States Census Bureau, updated 29.06.2012 ) http://www.census.gov/population/popclockworld.htm l
  12. 12.  Population density is 47 / km2  Population distribution by continent:  Asia – 4.2 billion (60% of total population)  Africa – near 1 billion(15%)  Europe – 733 million (11%)  Latin American and Caribbean – 600 million (9%).  Northern America – 352 million (5%)  Oceania – 35 million inhabitants (0.5%)
  13. 13. Bangladesh: at a glance  Area: 147,570 km2 (56,977 sq mi ) – 94th in the world  Population (2011 estimate)  148,000,000 (Census, 2011) - 8th in the world  158,570,535 (CIA, July 2011 est.)  Density: 964.42/km2 (singapore 7301, Bahrain 1646)S  TFR : 2.3  CPR: 61.3  Sex ratio: 100.3  Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.75 years male: 67.93 years female: 71.65 years (2011 est.)
  14. 14.  The population of Bangladesh was estimated around 14.5 millions in 1801  It took about 100 years to double the size of population in the year 1901  18,055 persons living in 1 sqkm in Dhaka (Khan, 2011)
  15. 15. Population Management  The process and procedures to manage the resources (human and physical) of the people(s) living within a particular geographical area.  Goal:  To help a country achieve a sustainable population level, structure, distribution and quality. To empow  empoweerr cciittiizzeennss ttoo aaccqquuiirree aa bbeetttteerr qquuaalliittyy ooff lliiffee bbootthh wwiitthhiinn tthhee ffaammiillyy aanndd the society Well managed Population Development Proper utilization of resources Better life with all fundamental needs fulfilled
  16. 16. Population Management Programme in Philippine  Goal –  achieve a sustainable population level, structure, distribution and quality  empower Filipinos to lead a better quality of life.  Based of four pillars of population policy: 1. Responsible parenthood 2. Respect for life 3. BBiirrtthh ssppaacciinngg 4. Informed choice  The Philippine Population Management Program Basic Policy was Responsible Parenthood for Sustainable Development  The will and ability to respond to the needs and aspirations of the family and the children  Shared responsibility between men and women in terms of family responsibilities
  17. 17.  In Bangladesh four major cities in peril due to burden of urban rural migration. (60% moves in four cities )  City dwellers in need of ; • MMoorree sscchhoooollss,, mmoorree hhoouussiinngg • More recreational place • More spacious roads and public transportation facilities, • More supply of gas, electricity, pure water
  18. 18.  Redistribution of internal migrant population  Decentralization of administrative and commercial organization  Alternate lucrative town with all modern facilities  create a significant employment and income opportunities for the disadvantaged people at peripheral towns  Relocation of major industries from the major cities  Modern industries = overcrowding, congestion and pollution  Many developed country relocated their industries to suitably located distant place / peripheral areas.  South Korea since 1980 enjoys 20% congestion reduction  Situation assessment:  Bangladesh has near about 5000 unit of RMG factories (Dhaka 78%) employing 3.6 million workers (Berg, Hedrich, Kempf, & Touchtermann, 2011)
  19. 19.  Skilled workforce export to loosen up population pressure  Bangladesh has earned USD 11 billion in 2010 (IOM, 2011)  In 2010, approximately 391,000 migrants went abroad for overseas employment  Currently more than 7 million Bangladeshis living abroad.  People have tendencies – to become attached with his surrounding environment (physical & social) very easily.  CCaappaacciittaatteedd llaabboorr aabbssoorrbbss ffaasstteerr bbyy ffoorreeiiggnn ccoouunnttrryy  For sheer necessity and craving for better living - Many and their children do not return to their place of origin permanently  With this hypothesis M. A. Mabud ( 2008) projected  population size of 218 million (2051) can be reduced to 210 million  projected size of 240 million to 220 million in 2101
  20. 20.  Prevention early marriage and belated first born  According to UNICEF, 66% marriage take place before 18 years  Average age for marriage of girls in Bangladesh is 16.4 years (UNICEF, 2010)  And became mother of a child before 18 years  If we can push the early marriage after 18 years and the first born will be planned aafftteerr 22//33 yyeeaarrss ooff mmaarrrriiaaggee tthhaann wwee ccaann eeaassiillyy ssllooww ddoowwnn oouurr population rate  Srilanka’s average age of marriage 25 (Malhotra A & Tsui, 1996)  The Directorate General of Family Planning of health and family welfare ministry initiated to amend the National Population Policy 2010 to popularize the one-child policy.
  21. 21.  Youth and adolescent focused activities  Bangladesh have a young population (35 % population under 15 years)  Must have clear and effective initiatives for the youth ;  Ensure access of education to all the youth population  EEdduuccaattiioonn ccuurrrriiccuulluumm mmuusstt hhaavvee vvooccaattiioonnaall aanndd tteecchhnniiccaall aarreeaass ttoo eennssuurree employment upon completion of study  Proper health facilities for the youth population  Opportunity for extra-curricular activities and entertainment facilities  A young population implies strength, energy, vigor, pool of work force and a full potential for future leadership.
  22. 22.  Early marriage and first pregnancy before 18 years  Age at marriage 16.4 years.  The young couple has the lower usages of contraceptive uses  52.7 percent (married woman of 15-19 years)  42.1 percent (married woman of 20-24 years) (NIPORT & Mitra and Associate, 2011).  TThhee hhiigghh rraattee ooff ppooppuullaattiioonn mmoovveemmeenntt  National population growth rate is 1.4 percent per annum, while the national internal migration rate is 4.5 percent. (professor Nabi, 2011)  For Dhaka, the in-migration rate is about 6.0 percent.  Rural landlessness and subsequent poverty, and  shrinking economic and employment opportunities,  Natural calamities (river erosion, flooding, cyclonic storms and other natural disasters ) (NIPORT & Mitra and Associate, 2011).
  23. 23.  Rapid, unplanned and unevenly growth of cities and urbanization  Since 1961 annual;  Rural growth rate is 1.5 percent  Urban growth rate is 3.5 percent.  Slum growth rate is 7.0 percent (Professor Nabi, 2011).  In 2010, the population of the city of Dhaka has been projected at 17.6 million people (60% lives in slums)  According to Urban Health Survey, the fertility rate in urban slums is 22..4466 aanndd 11..8855 iinn nnoonn--sslluumm aarreeaass ((sslluumm ddwweelllleerrss aaccccoouunntt ffoorr 7755 ppeerr cent births in the capital)  Traditional and religious values  One of the primary barriers in population management - social-cultural religious norms - It de-motivate couples using contraceptive,  Many families in agrarian societies in Bangladesh see children as a source of free labor and a hedge against poverty in old age and illness.
  24. 24.  Bangladesh should ensure a Population Management Programme that follows below given strategies to fulfill its predefined objectives in accordance with population policy;  Work for universal access (accessibility, availability, and affordability) approved family planning methods and services;  PPrroommoottiioonn ooff mmaallee ppaarrttiicciippaattiioonn//iinnvvoollvveemmeenntt iinn RReessppoonnssiibbllee PPaarreennttiinngg aanndd Family Planning within the context of gender equality and equity;  Continue to utilize community organization and participatory strategies (community-based volunteers) to sustain/broaden acceptance of family planning as a social norm;
  25. 25.  Provide age-appropriate and values-laden human sexuality education for the youth  Intensify/sustain communication, education, and advocacy campaign for population management by broadening alliances and strengthening networks with Program stakeholders; NGOs, business community, academe, media and faith-based organizations, among others;  CCoonndduucctt sscciieennttiiffiicc ppooppuullaattiioonn aanndd rreellaatteedd rreesseeaarrcchheess//ssttuuddiieess aanndd strengthen data & information management for policy, plan, and program development; and  Advocate for increased investment on the population management program by the national government and stakeholders through legislative agenda and budgetary support.

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