Dr. Nancy Evans Weaver   Principal Lecturer, Psychology                 Estelle Barnard   Subject Librarian, PsychologyOpe...
Overview of Presentation Introduction: Background and rationale Method: Participants, Materials, Procedure Results: Des...
IntroductionEstelle’s question: What library sources do psychology students use?Expanded version: What sources from the sc...
Our Goals Use our data to advise faculty.   Do faculty expectations about type and frequency of use    match student use...
Our DataWe collected data on: Sources used   Textbook?   Instructor-provided sources?   Library-provided sources? Stu...
MethodParticipants Students enrolled in 73195 general & applied psychology, trimester 1 2010 124 students Previous and ...
This course One of a pair of Intro Psych courses at the Open  Polytechnic ODL (online and distance learning) Assignment...
Materials Collected the References page from Assignment 1 for  all 124 students Coded to remove identity Coded to recor...
Procedure Stratified random sample (n=12) of entire  assignments pulled and checked to see how  accurately References pag...
ResultsTwo types of data analysis1.   Descriptive statistics: Categories, with central     tendencies, ranges, frequencies...
Results: Descriptive Statistics Total number of sources used    Mean = 3.62 sources (none required)    Range = 0 – 11  ...
Results: Descriptive Statistics Instructor-recommended sources    Textbook       Frequency: 73/124 student (59%)   Pro...
Results: Descriptive Statistics Library sources   Subject Guide (online list of 73 library-held materials   specifically...
Results: Descriptive Statistics Other sources   Not textbook, not instructor-recommended, not library-    provided   Fo...
Results: Descriptive Statistics Type of submission   Students choose   In this assignment, 80% submitted online and 20%...
Results: Statistical Testing Just beginning – many more to run. Based on pilot study (2009) and experience in this cours...
Results: Statistical TestingHypothesis 1: There would be an effect of type of submission.Specific test:  Use of journal ar...
Results: Statistical TestingHypothesis 2: Some source variables would affect mark achieved.Specific Test # 1: The number o...
Results: Statistical TestingHypothesis 2: Some source variables would affect mark achieved.Specific Test # 2: The use of i...
Results: Summary We categorized source types, collected descriptive statistics on  all of them, and ran some statistical ...
Discussion Can we measure the types and frequencies of sources  used by tertiary-level students beginning their study  of...
Surprises  More use of sources than we expected, given that none  (other than their own data) are required:  average of 3...
Limitations to our work  Very limited sample:      Students in one course, in one trimester, in one discipline,       at...
Future directions  Finish stats testing.  Analyse data from Assignment 2.  Collect and analyse data from assignments in...
Thanks Our colleagues for help with data collection and analysis. Our students for their hard work in learning how to ru...
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NTLTC 2011 - student use of academic resources in assignments

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  • The presentation sits alongside a peer reviewed paper prepared for the NTLT Conference - view the paper at http://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/community/national-teaching-and-learning-conference-2010/resources/files/weaver-barnard-student-use-academic-resources-assignmen
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NTLTC 2011 - student use of academic resources in assignments

  1. 1. Dr. Nancy Evans Weaver Principal Lecturer, Psychology Estelle Barnard Subject Librarian, PsychologyOpen Polytechnic of New Zealand
  2. 2. Overview of Presentation Introduction: Background and rationale Method: Participants, Materials, Procedure Results: Descriptive statistics, Statistical testing Discussion: Summary of findings, critique, future plans
  3. 3. IntroductionEstelle’s question: What library sources do psychology students use?Expanded version: What sources from the scholarly literature do tertiary- level students use in completing their assignments?Collaborative nature of our research Nancy: Psychology lecturer, teaching in one of our large introductory psychology courses Estelle: Psychology librarian, helping lecturers to develop resources for students in this course.
  4. 4. Our Goals Use our data to advise faculty.  Do faculty expectations about type and frequency of use match student use patterns?  How can faculty improve instructions about source use in scholarly writing? Use our data to advise librarians.  Are current library resources used by students?  How can library programmes better fit needs?
  5. 5. Our DataWe collected data on: Sources used  Textbook?  Instructor-provided sources?  Library-provided sources? Student characteristics  Previous and current study Assignment characteristics  Submitted online or in print?  Mark received?
  6. 6. MethodParticipants Students enrolled in 73195 general & applied psychology, trimester 1 2010 124 students Previous and current study  55% had NCEA levels 2 or 3  53% had previously enrolled at OP for a course(s)  67% studying only this course this trimester
  7. 7. This course One of a pair of Intro Psych courses at the Open Polytechnic ODL (online and distance learning) Assignment 1: Set up, run, and report on a psychological experiment on memory Specifically instructed in APA citing and referencing (counts for 5% of mark)
  8. 8. Materials Collected the References page from Assignment 1 for all 124 students Coded to remove identity Coded to record type of submission (in print or online)
  9. 9. Procedure Stratified random sample (n=12) of entire assignments pulled and checked to see how accurately References page captured sources cited.  32/36 sources on References page were cited (as they should be) within the assignment: Accuracy = 88.89%  32/33 cited sources were on References page (as they should be): Accuracy = 96.97% Categorized and counted sources used
  10. 10. ResultsTwo types of data analysis1. Descriptive statistics: Categories, with central tendencies, ranges, frequencies2. Statistical testing: Chi square tests of 3 hypotheses
  11. 11. Results: Descriptive Statistics Total number of sources used  Mean = 3.62 sources (none required)  Range = 0 – 11  Median and Mode = 4
  12. 12. Results: Descriptive Statistics Instructor-recommended sources  Textbook  Frequency: 73/124 student (59%)  Provided journal articles  Frequency: 83%, 57%, and 53%  Provided background summary  Frequency: 45%
  13. 13. Results: Descriptive Statistics Library sources  Subject Guide (online list of 73 library-held materials specifically for this course and this assignment)  Frequency: 6%  Range: 0-2  Recommended and Additional Resources (online list of 17 library-held materials useful for psychology in general)  Frequency: 2%  Range: 0-4
  14. 14. Results: Descriptive Statistics Other sources  Not textbook, not instructor-recommended, not library- provided  Found by student (?)  Frequency: 21%  Range: 0-7
  15. 15. Results: Descriptive Statistics Type of submission  Students choose  In this assignment, 80% submitted online and 20% submitted in print. Mark achieved  Mean = 64.47  Mode = 75  Median = 67  Range: 18 to 91
  16. 16. Results: Statistical Testing Just beginning – many more to run. Based on pilot study (2009) and experience in this course, we tested two general effects:  Hypothesis 1: There would be an effect of type of submission.  Hypothesis 2 : Some source variables would affect mark achieved.
  17. 17. Results: Statistical TestingHypothesis 1: There would be an effect of type of submission.Specific test: Use of journal articles would differ between online and print submissions.Result: When we grouped the articles used (no articles used, 1 article used, 2 articles used, all 3 articles used), there is the suggestion of an effect. Online submissions may have used more of these articles than did print submissions (Chi square = 7.44, df = 3, p = .059).
  18. 18. Results: Statistical TestingHypothesis 2: Some source variables would affect mark achieved.Specific Test # 1: The number of sources used would be related to the mark achieved.Result: Grouping number of sources (0-1, 2-3, 4 or more), there is a weak effect on mark. Assignments using more sources got higher marks (Chi square = 12.59, df = 6, p = .05).
  19. 19. Results: Statistical TestingHypothesis 2: Some source variables would affect mark achieved.Specific Test # 2: The use of instructor-recommended articles would be related to the mark achieved.Result: Grouping article use (no article used, 1 used, 2 used, all 3 used) and grouping marks into letter grade categories (0-49, 50-59, 60-74, 75-100), there is a significant effect on mark. Assignments using more of these articles got higher marks (Chi square = 24.78, df = 9, p < .01).
  20. 20. Results: Summary We categorized source types, collected descriptive statistics on all of them, and ran some statistical tests. On average, students used 3 or 4 sources in this assignment. The most frequently used sources were the instructor-provided set of three journal articles, the textbook, and the instructor- provided background. Library sources were infrequently used. Statistical testing suggests some effects of type of submission and two variables that affect mark.
  21. 21. Discussion Can we measure the types and frequencies of sources used by tertiary-level students beginning their study of psychology? Yes. Our results relate well to a body of literature on the use of citation analysis. Journal articles are often used heavily in student writing, and advice from faculty affects what sources students use (e.g., Krause, 2002). We found both these effects among ODL students at the Open Polytechnic.
  22. 22. Surprises  More use of sources than we expected, given that none (other than their own data) are required: average of 3 – 4 sources used, with one student using 11.  As we found in the pilot study, assignments submitted online may differ in some ways from those submitted in print.  Very low use of library sources, even those specifically geared to this assignment in this course.
  23. 23. Limitations to our work  Very limited sample:  Students in one course, in one trimester, in one discipline, at one institution (which is ODL).  Limitations involving participants:  We assume competency in citing and referencing.  We assume honesty in citing and referencing.  Limitations involving statistics:  We have only begun testing.  Some categories have low numbers, which can affect results.
  24. 24. Future directions  Finish stats testing.  Analyse data from Assignment 2.  Collect and analyse data from assignments in a Level 6 course for which 73195 is a prerequisite.
  25. 25. Thanks Our colleagues for help with data collection and analysis. Our students for their hard work in learning how to run an experiment and write a scholarly report. You, our audience today. Comments and suggestions: Nancy.Weaver@openpolytechnic.ac.nz

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