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E learning: concepts, usage and tools

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E learning: concepts, usage and tools

  1. 1. e-Learning: Concepts, Usage and Tools Martin Molhanec
  2. 2. Abstract  What is e-Learning?  Concept of e-Learning.  Usage of e-Learning.  Tools for e-learning.
  3. 3. Resources  Malo, R., Motyčka, A.: eLearning solution at Mendel University in Brno. E3 Event, Roma 2003  Marcel de Leeuwe  http://www.e-learningsite.com/elearning/indelea.htm  William Horton Consulting, Inc.  http://www.horton.com/html/whcstandardshandouts.asp  Advanced Distributed Learning  http://www.adlnet.gov/Scorm/
  4. 4. E-learning, Web-based learning  E-learning is mostly associated with activities involving computers and interactive networks simultaneously. The computer does not need to be the central element of the activity or provide learning content. However, the computer and the network must hold a significant involvement in the learning activity.  Web-based learning is associated with learning materials delivered in a Web browser, including when the materials are packaged on CD-ROM or other media. disk.
  5. 5. Online learning, Distance learning  Online learning is associated with content readily accessible on a computer. The content may be on the Web or the Internet, or simply installed on a CD- ROM or the computer hard disk.  Distance learning involves interaction at a distance between instructor and learners, and enables timely instructor reaction to learners. Simply posting or broadcasting learning materials to learners is not distance learning. Instructors must be involved in receiving feedback from learners.
  6. 6. Synchronous learning  Within synchronous learning; learning and teaching takes place in real time (same time) while the trainer and learners are physically separated from each other (place shift).  Examples include:  listening to a live radio broadcast  watching live a television broadcast  audio/video conferencing  Internet telephony  online lectures  two-way live satellite broadcast
  7. 7. Asynchronous learning  Characteristic for asynchronous learning is the fact that that the trainer prepares the courseware material before the course takes place. The learner is free to decide when he wants to study the courseware  Examples include:  self paced courses taken via Internet or CD-Rom  videotaped classes  stored audio/video Web presentations or seminars  recorded audio tapes  Q & A mentoring  reading e-mail messages
  8. 8. Examples of asynchronous and synchronous learning ASYNCHRONOUS LEARNING SYNCHRONOUS LEARNING Fax Telephone E-mail Screen Sharing Knowledge Base Chat Newsgroups Desktop Conferencing Computer Based Training Online seminar Quick Reference Guide
  9. 9. Communication  Different ways  Within communication we distinguish different directions/ways to communicate: one to one one to many many to one many to many
  10. 10. One to one  Situation  Learner to learner  Learner to trainer  Trainer to learner  Examples  chat: private chat in a chat room or the instant messenger  e-mail: send mail to a colleague or ask a question to a trainer  screen sharing: sharing Microsoft Word, collaborate on a Word document
  11. 11. One to many  Situation  Trainer to learners  Learner to learners  Examples  chat: trainer is explaining content to learners  video conference: trainer is explaining content to learners via web broadcast  screen sharing: using the net for giving learners a tour through PowerPoint slides or web pages  newsgroups: posting a question in a newsgroup or discussion forum  e-seminar: lecture or presentation over the internet
  12. 12. Many to one  Situation  Learners to trainer  Learners to learner  Examples  chat: ask or discuss real-time questions or issues to a learning desk  newsgroup: react on a posted message in a discussion forum
  13. 13. Many to many  Situation  Learners to learners  Learners to learners and trainers  Examples  chat: discussion where learners can exchange learning experiences or just talk or a discussion led by trainers where students solve a case by collaboration through discussion  two-way video conferencing: virtual classroom situation where trainer explains and learners react or meeting where subjects can be discussed  telephone conferencing
  14. 14. e-Learning elements  Text  Picture/Image  Animation  Audio  Video
  15. 15. Text  The alphabet, words, sentences, paragraphs. Text processing refers to the ability to manipulate words, lines, and pages.  Size The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.  Font The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog  Color The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog
  16. 16.  The alphabet, words, sentences, paragraphs. Text processing refers to the ability to manipulate words, lines, and pages.  Size The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.  Font The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog  Color The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog Text
  17. 17. Pictures/images  A picture or image is data represented in a two-dimensional scene. A digital image is composed of pixels arranged in a rectangular array with a certain height and width. Each pixel may consist of one or more bits of information, representing the brightness of the image at that point and possibly including color information encoded as RGB triples.
  18. 18.  A picture or image is data represented in a two-dimensional scene. A digital image is composed of pixels arranged in a rectangular array with a certain height and width. Each pixel may consist of one or more bits of information, representing the brightness of the image at that point and possibly including color information encoded as RGB triples. Pictures/images
  19. 19. Animations  An animation is a simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures, or frames. A cartoon on television is one example of animation.  Animation on computers is one of the chief ingredients of multimedia presentations.  Animations can be made with special techniques like Flash or with image applications like Photoshop and Fireworks and exported as animated GIF.
  20. 20.  An animation is a simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures, or frames. A cartoon on television is one example of animation.  Animation on computers is one of the chief ingredients of multimedia presentations.  Animations can be made with special techniques like Flash or with image applications like Photoshop and Fireworks and exported as animated GIF. Animations
  21. 21. Audio  Audio is sound within the acoustic range available to humans. On a computer an audio file is a record of captured sound that can be played back.  Audio files are usually compressed for storage purposes or faster transmission. In order for users to receive sound in real-time for a multimedia effect, sound must be delivered as streaming sound. The advantage of streaming (instead of downloaded sounds) is that there is no waiting (or very little) from the time you click the mouse until you hear the sound. Well known formats are: wave (.wav) , midi (.mid), MPEG, audio layer 3 (.mp3).
  22. 22. Audio  Audio is sound within the acoustic range available to humans. On a computer an audio file is a record of captured sound that can be played back.  Audio files are usually compressed for storage purposes or faster transmission. In order for users to receive sound in real-time for a multimedia effect, sound must be delivered as streaming sound. The advantage of streaming (instead of downloaded sounds) is that there is no waiting (or very little) from the time you click the mouse until you hear the sound. Well known formats are: wave (.wav) , midi (.mid), MPEG, audio layer 3 (.mp3).
  23. 23. Video  Video refers to displaying still images, in such a high speed that our mind interpreters the sequence of images as a movement. You can compare it with animation. The difference is the use of real images (pictures) and most of the time the number of frames per second is higher with video then with animations. The higher the number of frames per second, the more our eyes are interpreting the sequential as real 'movement'.
  24. 24. Video  Video refers to displaying still images, in such a high speed that our mind interpreters the sequence of images as a movement. You can compare it with animation. The difference is the use of real images (pictures) and most of the time the number of frames per second is higher with video then with animations. The higher the number of frames per second, the more our eyes are interpreting the sequential as real 'movement'.
  25. 25. Creating eLearning documents – I.  Basic elements of own study text  paragraphs  tables  pictures  lists  others objects (sound, video, …)  Main parts of eLearning document  title  basic information about document  motivation, prerequisites, instructions, goals,  chapters and sections  test  glossary  literature
  26. 26.  Basic elements of chapters  goals of the chapter  sections and subsections  summary  index of terms  information sources  question for thinking  examples and results  recommended elements  eLearning documents are too long for manual creating  set of elements which are necessary Creating eLearning documents – II.
  27. 27. Learning Management System (LMS)  Learning management system is software that deploys, manages, tracks and reports on interaction between learner & content and between learner & instructor. In particular, LMS performs student registration, tracks learner progress, records test scores, and indicates course completions and finally it allows trainers to assess the performance of their learners.  Main features of an LMS:  Registration - enroll and administer learners online for web-based, instructor-led, and all other learning activities.  Scheduling - schedule courses and define curricula to address individual and organizational learning needs. Also off-line resources can be included (classrooms, books, coaches etc.).  Delivery - deliver online courses and assessments or schedule instructor-led courses.  Tracking - track the progress of the learners and create reports.  Communication - communicate by chat, discussion forum, mail, screensharing and e-seminars.  Testing - test and assess competency, learning styles and student commitment.
  28. 28. General requirements for LMS system  Support of different possibilities of learning.  Integration of solution in the context of IS firm.  Wide administration range.  Compatibility with standards.  The support of the applications of the other suppliers.  Possibility of using new technologies so called mobile communication.  An access thanks web client.  Other functions.
  29. 29. Users and parts of LMS  Two basic types of user  students  teachers  LMS consists of three basic types application  applications for learning (documents, examples)  testing applications (test, checking of tests)  support applications (notepad, discussion forum, chat)
  30. 30. Student interface - functions  Teaching part  teaching materials  solved examples  lists of questions  glossaries  auto tests  List of tasks and projects  assignments and evaluations  Communication tools  message board  chat  discussion forum  Other tools  notepad  links  download section
  31. 31. Teacher interface - functions  Creating study materials and sources for studies  own study materials  glossaries, lists of terms, solved problems  exercises, summaries  links, recommended sources, ...  Creating tests  online test with automatic evaluation  offline printed test  Communication tools  Assignments of projects and tasks to students
  32. 32. Web tools
  33. 33. E-learning creation tools
  34. 34. Collaboration tools
  35. 35. Media tools and converters
  36. 36. Management systems
  37. 37. Standards organizations
  38. 38. Packaging standard
  39. 39. AICC
  40. 40. AICC (Aviation Industry CBT Committee)  The AICC (Aviation Industry CBT Committee) develops guidelines for the aviation industry in the development, delivery, and evaluation of CBT and related training technologies.  The objectives of the AICC are to:  assist airplane operators in development of guidelines that promote the economic and effective implementation of computer-based training (CBT)  develop guidelines to enable interoperability  provide an open forum for the discussion of CBT and other training technologies  Although AICC primarily attends to the aviation industry, over 13 years focus on the specifications required to meet this industry's needs has led to a very well developed specifications for learning and particularly for computer managed instruction. As a result, a wide range of learning consortiums and accredited standards groups are in the process of adopting and adapting the AICC guidelines to their own industries.
  41. 41. IMS
  42. 42. IMS (Instructional Management System) Global Learning Consortium  The IMS (Instructional Management System) Global Learning Consortium is developing and promoting open specifications (no standards) for facilitating online distributed learning activities such as locating and using educational content, tracking learner progress, reporting learner performance, and exchanging student records between administrative systems.  IMS has two key goals:  defining the technical standards for interoperability of applications and services in distributed learning  supporting the incorporation of IMS specifications into products and services worldwide. IMS promotes widespread adoption of specifications that will allow distributed learning environments and content from multiple authors to work together.
  43. 43. Communications standards
  44. 44. Metadata standards
  45. 45. IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC)  One of the most important accredited standards bodies is IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (LTSC). This committee consist of over 20 working groups who are covering a large far-reaching topics including learning object metadata, student profiles, course sequencing, computer managed instruction, competency definitions, localization, and content packaging. The mission of IEEE LTSC working groups is to develop technical Standards, Recommended Practices, and Guides for software components, tools, technologies and design methods that facilitate the development, deployment, maintenance and interoperation of computer implementations of education and training components and systems.
  46. 46. Quality standards
  47. 47. International Standards Organization (ISO)  The IEEE LTSC has also recently initiated the move of this work to the full International Standards Organization (ISO) standards by establishing ISO Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) Sub Committee 36 (SC36) on Learning Technology. SC36 Develops International Standards in the areas of Learning, Education, and Training.  ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 130 countries, one from each country. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international agreements, which are published as International Standards.
  48. 48. Design standards
  49. 49. Accessibility standards
  50. 50. Learning object
  51. 51. SCORM 2004  SCORM is a collection of standards and specifications adapted from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive suite of e-learning capabilities that enable interoperability, accessibility and reusability of Web-based learning content.  One of the primary forces behind changes to SCORM has been the evolution of the underlying specifications and standards in SCORM 2004:  IEEE Data Model For Content Object Communication  IEEE ECMAScript Application Programming Interface for Content to Runtime Services Communication  IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM)  IEEE Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema Binding for Learning Object Metadata Data Model  IMS Content Packaging  IMS Simple Sequencing.
  52. 52. Resume  E-Learning  It is not a cup of web pages! It is a complex learning environment!  We need a possibility professionally to create our learning materials.  We need a professional LMS system, which is compliment with all e-learning relevant standards.  We need a money and peoples!  And lot of optimism 

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