Comparative Reproductive Anatomy


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  • Comparative Reproductive Anatomy

    1. 1. Bovine  Ovary – primary reproductive organ, produces gametes and sex hormones  Oviduct – transport sperm to ovum and embryo to uterine horns
    2. 2.  Uterus –attachment site of placenta Cervix – elastic muscle protects uterus from contaminants Vagina – female organ of copulation connecting the vulva to cervix; elastic tissue for birth canal Vulva – external opening of reproductive canal
    3. 3.  Cow: almond shaped ovaries; one larger than the other Ewe/Doe: almond shaped ovaries; half the size of the cow Mare: kidney shaped ovaries; three times larger than cow Sow: cluster of grapes shaped ovaries; half the size of the cow Bicornuate uterus: 80 – 90% is uterine horn; sow, cow, doe, ewe Bipariite uterues: 80 – 90% is uterine body; mare
    4. 4.  Functions: › Hormonal Control › Transport Sperm › Produce Gametes › Facilitate Fertilization › Nourish Embryo and Fetus › Participate in Parturition › Recycle
    5. 5.  Polyestrous – cycle year round: cow, sow Seasonally polyestrous – cycle in one season, anestrus in another: Horse (spring/summer), ewe and doe (fall/winter) Monestrous – cycle once then anestrous: dog Monotocous - one offspring each gestation period: cow, mare, doe, and ewe Polytocous – multiple offspring each gestation period: sow
    6. 6.  Testes – sperm and testosterone production Epididymis – transport, maturation and storage Ductus deferens – transport and ejaculation Penis - copulation Accessory Sex Glands › Prostate – secrete neutralizing liquid › Bulbourethral gland – secrete liquid lubricant or gelatinous plug › Seminal vesicles – secrete liquid lubricant › Ampulla – glandular enlargement of ductus deferens Thermoregulation controlled by Scrotum and blood supply
    7. 7.  Musculocavernous penis – muscular tissue fills with blood during erection Fibroelastic penis – fibrous tissue elongates during erection by straightening of sigmoid flexure Bull, Stallion, Ram, Buck have all accessory sex glands Boar has corkscrew shaped penis and no ampulla
    8. 8. 1. Ovulation2. Estrus3. Fertilization4. Gestation5. Parturition6. Lactation
    9. 9.  Estrus (Follicular) – period when female is sexually receptive to male, the “heat” stage; growth, maturation, and ovulation of follicles Diestrus (Luteal) – period when female is not sexually receptive; growth and function of corpus luteum Helps the female physically prepare for conception Anestrus – no ovarian activity
    10. 10. 1. Growing follicle2. Maturing follicle3. Ovulation4. Formation of Corpus Luteum5. Regressing Corpus Luteum
    11. 11.  Estrogen – induces changes  Progesterone – induces associated with estrus changes associated with › Produced by follicles of pregnancy ovary › Produced by corpus luteum › Makes female more and placenta receptive toward male › Decreases the receptiveness of › Prepares female for the female to the male conception physically › Causes cervix to close › Increases cervical relaxation › At its lowest level during the and uterine resistance to estrus phase infection › Suppresses hormonal activity to › Peaks 1-2 days before maintain pregnancy (if female ovulation is pregnant) › If female is not pregnant, the estrous cycle will continue
    12. 12.  Luteinizing hormone (LH) › Secreted by the pituitary › Assists the maturation of the follicle, ovulation and formation of corpus luteum Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) › Secreted by pituitary, transported through bloodstream to ovaries › Stimulates the production of follicles › Can be given to cause superovulaiton
    13. 13.  Ovulation – follicle releases female gamete, the oocyte  Corpus Luteum – formed from the follicle after oocyte is released  Spontaneous Ovulator – ovulation controlled by estrus cycle  Induced ovulation - after copulation › Seasonal: cat › Non-seasonal: llama, rabbit Length of Estrus Timing of Ovulation Timing of InseminationCattle 12-19 hours 10-11 hours (after end of 7-18 hours (after onset of estrus) estrus)Horse 2-11 days 1-2 days (before end of estrus) 2nd day of estrus and every 2 days of rest of estrus.Sheep 24-36 hours 24-36 hours (after onset of 12-18 hours (after onset of estrus) estrus)Swine 48-72 hours 35-45 hours (after onset of 16-24 hours (after onset of estrus) then estrus) 8-24 hours later
    14. 14.  Fertilized oocyte travels through oviduct, going through mitotic divisions Morula – solid ball of cells; stage where embryo enters the uterus Blastocyst – hollow ball of cells; stage where embryo attaches to wall of uterus Membranes of embryo interdigitate with endometrium to form placenta
    15. 15.  Four Fetal Membranes – blood, nutrient and antibody transfer › Yolk sac – nutrient supply › Amnion –parturition lubrication › Allantois and Chorion fusion – uterus attachment
    16. 16.  Epitheliochorial – maternal epithelium adjacent to embryonic chorion Diffuse – entire surface forms attachments: horse, pig Cotyledonary – placental attachements in specifc areas: ruminants Placentome – attachment of cotyledon and caruncle › Cotyledons – fetal side of placenta › Caruncles – maternal side of placenta
    17. 17.  After Fertilization, embryo at blastocyst stage implants in uterine wall and develops placenta  Gestation is maintained by the hormone progesterone › Progesterone – produced by Corpus Luteum and Placenta Source of Progesterone GestationGoat All from CL 150 daysSheep CL to day 50 then placenta 150 daysCow CL throughout gestation. However, after ~ day 200 placenta 280 days and adrenal are producing enough progesterone to maintain pregnancy.Sow All from CL 114 daysMare 1st CL produces progesterone up to ~ 180 days, FSH stimulates follicle 335 days growth and eCG causes CLs to form from follicles. They secrete progesterone and are active from day 40-180. Progesterone is low until 270 days- rises in last 5 months due probably to placental progesterone production.
    18. 18.  Parturition – Birth process › Stage 1 – Dilation of cervix › Stage 2 – Expulsion of fetus › Stage 3 – Expulsion of placenta Lactation – Mammary development and Milk secretion and ejection › Colostrum – first milk produced, containing high protein, fat, vitamin A, minerals, and antibodies Hormones › Prolactin – produced by pituitary; stimulates mammary gland formation and lactation › Oxytocin – produced by pituitary; stimulates milk let down, uterine contraction and prostaglandin release › Relaxin – produced by Corpus Luteum to relax cervix at parturition
    19. 19.  Straight Breeding – produces purebred animals › Purebred › Inbreeding (closely related animals) › Line breeding (distant relatives) › Outcrossing (unrelated animals) › Grading up (purebred mated to crossbred) Cross Breeding – produces hybrid animals › Two Breed Cross › Three Breed Rotation (sires rotated)
    20. 20.  Live Cover – methods in which male and female are physically brought together to breed › Natural Mating – random mating of males and females turned out together  Family Selection  Pedigree Selection  Progeny Selection
    21. 21.  Artificial Insemination (AI) – female is inseminated by a veterinarian Embryo Transfer – removing the embryo from a female and transferring it to a surrogate female