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Basic Ceramics1


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Learn the basics of coil clay construction

Basic Ceramics1

  1. 1. <ul><li>Introduction to basic handbuilt </li></ul><ul><li>coil clay techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Level: 4th to 8th grade </li></ul><ul><li>Various curricular integration </li></ul><ul><li>Social Studies: Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>& Ancient Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Science: Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Biblical References </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Plan by Noreen Strehlow </li></ul>Basic Ceramics Pt.1 Coiling
  2. 2. <ul><li>Equipment needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Enough clay for each student to create at least one small project. </li></ul><ul><li>If you absolutely have no money, use a homemade Salt/Flour/Water dough. </li></ul><ul><li>Clay tools for blending, assorted forks, knives, pointed sticks or pin tools </li></ul><ul><li>to manipulate and trim clay </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic bags with ties for storing pieces until they are ready to dry </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic sheeting to protect table tops </li></ul><ul><li>Covered air-tight containers for clay storage </li></ul>Omyacolor Plastiroc Air Dry Clay
  3. 3. <ul><li>Clay is one of the three main kinds of soil, the other two being sand and loam. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Most soils of agricultural importance are some type of loam. </li></ul><ul><li>A certain amount of clay is good because it helps hold particles together and helps hold water. </li></ul><ul><li>If soil has a lot of clay it is difficult to cultivate. The stiffness resists agricultural tools, interferes with the growth of the plants, and prevents free circulation of air around the roots. Clay soils are cold and sticky in wet weather, while in dry weather they bake hard and crack. </li></ul><ul><li>Clays can be improved by the addition of lime, chalk, or organic matter. </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of their disadvantages, the richness of clay soils makes them favorable to the growth of crops that have been started in other soil. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Ancient man discovered that clay could be shaped and modeled into forms both </li></ul><ul><li>decorative and functional. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the earliest pottery has been found in the Middle East and dates to </li></ul><ul><li>between 8,000-7,000 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese ceramics have flourished since over 4,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Native American pottery shards have been found dating back over 3,000 years. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Students will learn that clay is mentioned in the Bible 39 times and read these </li></ul><ul><li>scriptural quotations (these will be on a separate handout) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Students will be introduced to some historical background in Greek pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will show the Greek Pottery Hyperstudio Stacks from the ArtEd CD </li></ul>Protogeometric Belly-handled Amphora Athens 900 BCE Geometric Dipylon Krater Athens 750 BCE ProtoCorinthian Macmillan Aryballos 650 BCE Protoattic Polyphemus Painter 650 BCE Black Figure Exekias Suicide of Ajax 530 BCE
  7. 7. <ul><li>Students will be introduced to some historical background in Chinese ceramics </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Zhou Dynasty 1000 BCE Qin Dynasty 210 BCE Song Dynasty 1200 Ming Dynasty 1450-1650
  8. 8. <ul><li>Students will be introduced to some historical background in Native American </li></ul><ul><li>ceramics </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>900-1400 Arizona & New Mexico
  9. 9. <ul><li>Students will discuss commercially made ceramics in everyday life </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Students will view some contemporary ceramic sites </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Students will be given a small amount of clay </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will demonstrate how to wedge the clay using the “ram’s head” technique </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Teacher will explain that it is not like kneading bread dough which puts air into </li></ul><ul><li>the dough </li></ul><ul><li>Students will wedge the clay until the air bubbles have been removed </li></ul><ul><li>Students will learn to use the wire cutting tool to check for air bubbles </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will lecture and demonstrate as the students follow along if the room </li></ul><ul><li>arrangement will allow, otherwise the students will gather around the teacher for </li></ul><ul><li>the demonstration and go back to their seats to do the same. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Students will learn that there are various states of clay </li></ul>Leather-hard The condition of a clay body when much of the moisture has evaporated and shrinkage has just ended, but the clay is not totally dry. Carving, burnishing, or joining slabs are often done at this stage. Bone Dry Clay that has the moisture completely evaporated. It can no longer be scored and slipped without compromising the strength of the piece. Bisque Clay that has been fired to a state hard enough for glazing Slip Clay suspended in water. When it is a yogurt consistency it can be used to join pieces with scoring. When a cream consistency with a coloring agent added it can be painted on leather-hard pieces and burnished. Greenware Unfired pottery or sculpture.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Students will squeeze or roll the clay between your hands into coils about ½ </li></ul><ul><li>inch in diameter (a little thicker than a pencil). </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Students will take the coil and create a tight flat spiral that will be the base of the piece </li></ul><ul><li>Students will blend the spiral coils together so that it is flat </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Students will add another coil to the outer edge of the base </li></ul><ul><li>Students will add additional coils on top of that in order to build up height </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Students will blend both the inner and outer surfaces of these coils </li></ul><ul><li>This can be more easily done if done every few added coils </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Students will learn that the more time and effort they take in blending the coils, </li></ul><ul><li>the stronger the piece will be, and that they cannot simply be pressed together </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Students will keep adding new coils until the piece is as tall as they want </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Students will carefully blend the coils together for strength. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Students will continue to build, adding coils and smoothing them as they go </li></ul><ul><li>Students will make sure to keep their work wrapped securely in plastic to </li></ul><ul><li>prevent pieces from drying </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Turning the pot over carefully is a good way to make sure </li></ul><ul><li>the top edge is straight across </li></ul><ul><li>A paddle or stick can be used to even up lopsided pots </li></ul><ul><li>Carving tools can be used to clean up the edges for a finished look </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>One side of this bowl has been stained and scratched into </li></ul><ul><li>The other side has been scratched into and had stain rubbed into the grooves. </li></ul><ul><li>It was bisque fired a shiny black glaze was applied to the outside </li></ul><ul><li>An aqua underglaze was applied to the inside and coated with a clear glaze </li></ul><ul><li>It was cone fired to complete the process </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Students may add textures and other decorative touches to the work </li></ul><ul><li>Once the piece is done it may be dried </li></ul><ul><li>Dried pieces may be carved, painted, or decorated with other media if desired </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Now THIS is a great coiled pot! </li></ul><ul><li>This was made by another UWM student in my class </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>This is how it looked after firing, but unfortunately he dropped it on the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>It broke into quite a few pieces. In ceramics as in life, bad stuff can happen. </li></ul><ul><li>But look at this other one! It is three times larger! </li></ul><ul><li>It was made by the same student in my UWM class. </li></ul>