Public speaking


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Public speaking

  1. 1. Public Speaking(Keys to Success)Developed byNarelle StollMay 2013
  2. 2. Overview of Session For most of us the thought of public speakingrates up there with some of our greatest fearsin life. However once the fear is overcome thebenefits are enormous in terms of personalconfidence and even career development. What this course aims to do is to provide youwith tools in order for you to gain confidencein public speaking
  3. 3. Our Fear of Public SpeakingWhy do some people appear soconfident with publicspeaking?When it appears that themajority of us feel thatbeing confident whendelivering a speech is aslikely as predicting ourfuture by gazing into acrystal ball.
  4. 4. Ask the right questionsThe reality is that many confident speakers have taken thetime in preparing and practising their speeches. Before evenwriting a speech they have addressed and found answers tothe following key questions Why they are giving the speech( The Purpose) Who they are giving the speech to ( The Audience) What they are going to prepare ( Mind to memory) Where they are giving the speech.( The physical environment) When they are giving the speech How they are going to deliver the speech ( Pronunciation andProtocol)
  5. 5. Get to know your AudienceIt is important that you know who is is you are speaking to .Therefore as part of preparation you must spend time researching and getting to know your audience. Background of your audience Social/ Economic Background Education Family/culture Work Hobbies and Interests Age Health People like to hear Simple English Simple phrases One idea at a time Details and facts that are interesting
  6. 6. Our Audience People like People who Have knowledge of the subject Are enthusiastic Sincere Keep to the specified time People dislike people who Are late getting started Talks to much Present too many points and is uninteresting Embarrass or offends them Has a displeasing voice Avoids involving the audience Speaks on a topic that the audience cannot relate to
  7. 7. Activity: Know your audienceWatch the following video“Public Speaking- From Speaking zero tospeaking hero”Jot down some key points regarding knowingyour audience
  8. 8. Generating your ideasThink of your audience What should they know ? What they could know? What would they find new and interesting? What is the time allowed to complete the presentation? What can I credibly handle? What resources can I use to prepare my speech?
  9. 9. Generating your ideas (cont)Resources Libraries Bibliographies Microfilms Newspapers Books, Dictionaries, Speeches Tourist guides Television/ radio Internet
  10. 10. Generating your ideas (cont) Personal Own experiences and observations Others experiences Quotations Statistics e.g. "33% of workers pay goes into tax". Definitions Phrases or advertising jingles that set imagesHint: Carry a note book to jot down any useful words and phrasesUse a mind map as a method to jot down and brainstorm your ideas. PLease refer to the following video linkfor a guide as to how to develop a mind map
  11. 11. Structure your speech- Introduction Format for a 20 minute speech Introduction (tell the audience what you are to tell them) (minutes Attention getter Establish relevance Preview of main points
  12. 12. Structure your speech- Discussion Format for a 20 minute speech Discussion/body (tell them) (15 minutes) Arranged logically( using roman numerals) and supported with data I first point- supporting data II second point- supporting data III Third point-supporting data
  13. 13. Structure your speech- Conclusion Format for a 20 minute speech Conclusion (tell them what you told them) (minutes Review of key points End with finality Memorial statement to denote power in the last sentence Go back to attention getter If you transfer only the main headings onto your palm cards with no more than2-3 brief points under each one they will be easier to read and follow Refer to the following video on writing and structuring your speech
  14. 14. Introduction -Ways to commence your speech State a startling fact Ask a question Tell a joke Present a quotation Give an example,illustration, story Refer to the occasion Point to an historic event Complement the audience;sincerely Use a gimmick Emphasise an important partof the subject Be silent
  15. 15. Conclusion Preparing a conclusion Ensure the speech ends on time End with conviction End on target. Ways to end a speech Use one of the attention getting techniques Return to the theme of your attention getter Point to the future Call for action Tie in with whatever may follow your speech
  16. 16. Ways to improve clarity in your speech Keep sentence length short. Maximum 8 -10 words Put one major idea into a sentence Avoid unrelated statements Avoid complex words Check for reliability and relevance Keep in the same tense Acknowledge sources
  17. 17. Ways to improve clarity in your speech Substitute ACTIVE voice for PASSIVE voice Avoid unnecessary words and phrases Keep writing in the formal tone Avoid judgement statements . Remain factual andobjective Avoid being subjective or emotive Avoid language that may offend
  18. 18. Tips when using note cards Points on cards should be specific Write on just one side Write your notes so that you wont have trouble seeing them Number the cards Write on the card the first sentence of the introduction Careful when you use old business cards. Can be distracting
  19. 19. Practise, Practise, Practise Read the material aloud.Checking on wordpronunciation Remember ideas not words Practise mentally so that avisual picture is formed Rehearse from note cards manytimes. With all key ideas oncards Go through entire speech everytime you practice includingrough spots Practice with audiovisual aids Practice with gestures 1 -2timesWhen practising be mindful of yourbody language and gestures. Rehearse your beginning Rehearse your ending in front ofmirror so you can determine whatkind of impact you are making. Stand and say your speech in thecorner of a room. You can then hearthe sound of your voice as it isheard by your audience. Tape record yourself and makechanges to timing, tone andmodulation Time your speech Evaluate yourself or rehearse infront of family and friends and askthem to evaluate you. Say entire speech at bedtime thenight before
  20. 20. Ways to remember your speech Concentrate Observe closely Get your impressions and ideas through as manysense as possible Use Repetition and rehearsal for optimum impact. Link persons name with facial features Dates - associate them with prominent events Use of mnemonics Link last words of last sentence to first words of newone
  21. 21. Appearance on the DayIt is always important that you "Dressto impress your audience" Here aresome tips on dress code andappearanceAttireBusiness attireGlasses Make sure they fit snugly If using bifocals consideringsubstituting to full frame ascreates a impression lookingdownJewellery Avoid Dangling earrings Dangling bracelets Remove all jewellery for TVappearancesAvoid Distracting Clothing Bright colours near the neck Scarves that obscure part ofthe face
  22. 22. Avoid Distracting Gestures Looking at the ceiling Scowling Obsessive preening Shifting feet side toside Toe Tapping Drumming fingers Shuffling notes Frequent touching offace Pacing back andforward Playing with jewellery Removing andreplacing glasses Jangling change inpockets
  23. 23. Overcoming nervesEveryone gets nervous when speaking. Accept nervous energy as normal responseand that you will make a better performance than not being in that state. The dayyou are not nervous when giving the speech is the day that your speech willdecline. Remember your audience is there to support you and is not there to seeyou fail. Here are some tips for overcoming nervous tension Clench and release your hands Take deep breaths Drink water Avoid coffee and milk run lounge over teeth to prevent dry mouth When standing stand with your legs slightly bent and one foot infront of the other for a balanced posture
  24. 24. Eye contact“Inspiration is neither in the skies above or the depths below" 1. Look at your notes 2. Absorb one idea 3. Look at the audience and engage the eyes of a person. 4. Speak to that person then to his neighbour for 5 seconds 5. Then swing your eyes across the group 6. Look down at notes 7. Speak to another person 8. Vary your eye contact
  25. 25. Managing QuestionsAnswering a question Look directly at the questioner while they are asking the question Then direct answer to the whole audience Dont forget the persons name that asked the question Dont Interrupt a person before they are finished Dont fail to pay attention to the purpose of the question Dont use the old cliche " That is a good question" Dont get distracted in your answerDealing with difficult questions Be courteous Never get into an argument Always take control of the situation
  26. 26. Managing QuestionsDifficult situations If someone gives a small speech "Say thank you very much for yourcomments. I would like to answer your question now thank you" If someone asks a question outside your area of expertise. Thankthem for their contribution. If you do not know the answer to a question say so and offer tofind out If someone challenges you. Refer back to your topic area, and saythank you but these were the areas I will be discussing today. The Aggressive questioner. Allow them to have their opinion thenthank them for their contribution. Several Questions at once. Ask for a roving microphone Undercurrent chatter- Ask for silence
  27. 27. Other difficult situations Every speaker encounters difficult situations. Please notethese are rare but still is something every speaker shouldprepare for Crying babies- Pause until the baby is quietened by the parents Restless audience-Give them a break allow them to go to the rest room Equipment/ power failure. Ensure you have back up notes and a plan foralternate activities Hecklers (quite rare) Pause and acknowledge the distraction Then present your point of view Advise them that due to time constraints you will see them later Refer to the chairman to take action if the Heckler does not stop Remember- never argue with them
  28. 28. Tips for using power pointWhile power point is a great visual aid it can alsoserve as a distraction if not properly used. Here are afew tips for giving a great presentation Keep your points and sentences brief (6 words to asentence) 6 points to a page Use contrasting font for header and points Use large clear font e.g. sans script (Arial, Times NewRoman) at least 24 points Use bold to highlight rather than italics
  29. 29. Tips for using power point (cont) Ensure you use a contrasting font to thebackground. Avoid using dark colours on darkcolours Avoid using too many power points 4-5 for a 20minute presentation is plenty Use clear and simple graphics where possible toillustrate key points Avoid using too many special effects
  30. 30. In the FutureRemember Public Speaking is a ongoingjourney of development and discovery and anarea you can never stop learning in.Here is a collection of resources to furtherdevelop your skills and knowledge.All the best with your career.
  31. 31. Resources Public Speaking and resources to the following American Rhetoric Various articles on public speaking History place -speeches
  32. 32. Resources videos and downloads(cont)Videoscopy and paste if link is broken(Body languageGesturesPresentation skillsABC SpeechesGuide to using power pointGuide to giving presentationsInspiring speeches of 20thCenturyMartin Luther I have a dreamHow to write a speech
  33. 33. Example of a speech for PractiseJ.F Kennedys Inaugural We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom, symbolising an end as well as abeginning, signifying renewal as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God thesame solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago. So, let us begin anew, remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity isalways subject to proof- Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate. Let both sides explore what problems unite use instead of belabouring those problems which divide us Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control ofarms, and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore thestars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths and encourage the arts and commerce. Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command if Isaiah to “Undo the heavy burdenslet the oppressed go free. And if a benchmark of co-operation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creatinga new endeavour , not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and theweak secure and the peace preserved.