Justice
borrowed from
Michael Sandel’s
discussion guide
We study
Justice in
order to
understand
why people
believe what
they believe.
Utilitarian Concepts of Justice
1) Torture, as a matter of
principle, is always
morally wrong.
True or false?
2) The right action is the
one that helps the most
and hurts the least.
True or false?
3) It is always, and
everywhere, wrong to
cause another person's
death - assuming they
wish to stay alive - if this
outcom...
4: If you can save the lives of
innocent people without
reducing the sum total of
human happiness, and
without putting you...
A moral philosophy which
states that a particular action
is moral if it results in the
greatest UTILITY for the
greatest n...
Number
who
Experience
Pleasure
What is Utility?
Number
who
Experience
Suffering
—
Jeremy
Bentham
Total
amount
of
Pleasure
What is Utility?
Total
amount
of
Suffering
—
John Stuart
Mill
What is Utility?
Reduction
in total
Suffering
Negative
Consequentialist Ethics
A moral philosophy which
states that a particular action
is moral if it results in the
greatest ut...
Suppose ten thousand innocent
civilians live next to a munitions
factory in a country at war. If you
bomb the factory, all...
Suppose a man has planted a
bomb in New York City, and it will
explode in twenty-four hours
unless the police are able to ...
When is utilitarianism correct and
when is it not? Why? Can
something be for the “greater
good” and still be wrong?
`Kantian concepts of Justice
Immanuel Kant
`
Imagine a storekeeper
who could cheat a young
child who comes to her
shop but decides not to
because she’s worried
her c...
`
Imagine a teacher who
loves helping children
because it makes him
feel good.
Is he acting morally?
`
Suppose someone
rescues a child from
drowning because he
wants a reward.
Is he acting morally?
`
What should we consider as a law of
morality?
The Categorical Imperative--
"Act only according to that maxim
whereby you...
`
Deontological Ethics
A moral philosophy that
holds that people have a
duty to follow all moral
principles derived by
hum...
`
What about freedom and its
connection to justice?
•Is a person who is addicted to
cigarettes free?
•Is a person who eats...
`Libertarian concepts of Justice
`
A moral philosophy that states
that liberty is the highest good and
all actions should attempt to
maximize it for the gr...
`
Is taxation for redistribution forced
labor?
Imagine you are Bill Gates and you are
taxed for two hours and the money is...
`
Does taxation for redistribution violate
historical definitions of justice?
Imagine you worked very hard
becoming a hear...
`
Under what conditions does a
government have the right to take money
from you and give it to someone else?
What situatio...
`Liberal concepts of Justice
`
Imagine the
veil of ignorance:
Choose any Society
but you will be
randomly placed
within it.
John Rawls
`
1st principle:
Everyone should
have the same rights
and liberties.
`
2nd principle:
There should be
equality of
opportunity.
`
3rd principle:
There should be no differences in
income and wealth, except those
differences that make even the
least ad...
`
Should the children of rich parents
be allowed to get very expensive,
private math lessons, or singing
lessons, or baske...
`
1. Is it true that you can’t really claim
credit for your upbringing? Surely, your
habits and temperaments today are
par...
`
3. Do you think it’s unjust if some
people do not get to vote in
elections merely because they are a
woman or merely bec...
`
5. If you answered “yes” to the
last two questions, do you think
it’s also unjust if some people
are much worse off than...
`
Liberalism
Among other things, a
moral philosophy that
holds equality as the
highest good.
`Conservative concepts of Justice
`
Canons of Conservatism
1. "Belief in a transcendent order, or body of
natural law, which rules society as well as
consci...
`
Canons of Conservatism
4. "Persuasion that freedom and property are
closely linked"
5. “…Distrust of 'sophisters, calcul...
`
…or
Among other things, a moral
philosophy that holds
actions are moral if they
conform to legal, traditional
or religio...
What would all
5 philosophies
say about these
scenarios?
TEST CASES
The Mayor
wants to levy a
tax on the rich
to pay for
smaller class
sizes in
Kindergarten.
TEST CASES
Shorewood
High School
wants to ban all
Honors and AP
classes.
TEST CASES
A mother wants
to have a new
child to provide
bone marrow
for another
child who is
sick.
TEST CASES
Mr. Dunbar
wants to
require all
students to
stand for the
Pledge of
Allegiance
TEST CASES
Batman wants
to kill the Joker
to stop him
from destroying
Gotham.
TEST CASES
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5 theories of Justice

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Sandel intro

  1. 1. Justice borrowed from Michael Sandel’s discussion guide
  2. 2. We study Justice in order to understand why people believe what they believe.
  3. 3. Utilitarian Concepts of Justice
  4. 4. 1) Torture, as a matter of principle, is always morally wrong. True or false?
  5. 5. 2) The right action is the one that helps the most and hurts the least. True or false?
  6. 6. 3) It is always, and everywhere, wrong to cause another person's death - assuming they wish to stay alive - if this outcome is avoidable. True or false?
  7. 7. 4: If you can save the lives of innocent people without reducing the sum total of human happiness, and without putting your own life at risk, you are morally obliged to do so. True or false?
  8. 8. A moral philosophy which states that a particular action is moral if it results in the greatest UTILITY for the greatest number compared to the alternatives. Utilitarianism
  9. 9. Number who Experience Pleasure What is Utility? Number who Experience Suffering — Jeremy Bentham
  10. 10. Total amount of Pleasure What is Utility? Total amount of Suffering — John Stuart Mill
  11. 11. What is Utility? Reduction in total Suffering Negative
  12. 12. Consequentialist Ethics A moral philosophy which states that a particular action is moral if it results in the greatest utility for the greatest number compared to the alternatives.
  13. 13. Suppose ten thousand innocent civilians live next to a munitions factory in a country at war. If you bomb the factory, all of them will die. If you don’t bomb the factory, it will be used to produce bombs that will be dropped on fifty thousand innocent civilians in another country. What’s the right thing to do? Does utilitarianism get the right answer?
  14. 14. Suppose a man has planted a bomb in New York City, and it will explode in twenty-four hours unless the police are able to find it. Should it be legal for the police to use torture to extract information from the suspected bomber? Does utilitarianism get the right answer?
  15. 15. When is utilitarianism correct and when is it not? Why? Can something be for the “greater good” and still be wrong?
  16. 16. `Kantian concepts of Justice Immanuel Kant
  17. 17. ` Imagine a storekeeper who could cheat a young child who comes to her shop but decides not to because she’s worried her customers find out. Is she acting morally?
  18. 18. ` Imagine a teacher who loves helping children because it makes him feel good. Is he acting morally?
  19. 19. ` Suppose someone rescues a child from drowning because he wants a reward. Is he acting morally?
  20. 20. ` What should we consider as a law of morality? The Categorical Imperative-- "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law.”
  21. 21. ` Deontological Ethics A moral philosophy that holds that people have a duty to follow all moral principles derived by human reason.
  22. 22. ` What about freedom and its connection to justice? •Is a person who is addicted to cigarettes free? •Is a person who eats a boatload of pistachio ice cream free ? •If the government tries to stop people from buying large sodas are they restricting freedom?
  23. 23. `Libertarian concepts of Justice
  24. 24. ` A moral philosophy that states that liberty is the highest good and all actions should attempt to maximize it for the greatest number of people. Libertarianism
  25. 25. ` Is taxation for redistribution forced labor? Imagine you are Bill Gates and you are taxed for two hours and the money is given to a poor person. Are you now being forced--against your will--to work for that person? Does this make you a temporary slave?
  26. 26. ` Does taxation for redistribution violate historical definitions of justice? Imagine you worked very hard becoming a heart surgeon. Now, you make a lot of money saving lives. Should the government have the right to take your money and give it to someone else who watches TV all day?
  27. 27. ` Under what conditions does a government have the right to take money from you and give it to someone else? What situations don’t qualify. • If you got the money illegally • If the other person needed it to survive • If the government wanted to make society more equal
 • If enough people voted to take it from you. • If the government were going to war and needed it to buy weapons
  28. 28. `Liberal concepts of Justice
  29. 29. ` Imagine the veil of ignorance: Choose any Society but you will be randomly placed within it. John Rawls
  30. 30. ` 1st principle: Everyone should have the same rights and liberties.
  31. 31. ` 2nd principle: There should be equality of opportunity.
  32. 32. ` 3rd principle: There should be no differences in income and wealth, except those differences that make even the least advantaged members of society better off.
  33. 33. ` Should the children of rich parents be allowed to get very expensive, private math lessons, or singing lessons, or basketball lessons? What if such lessons give them a huge, unearned advantage in the race for jobs, careers, and wealth? Is it just for poor children to have much lower prospects as a result?
  34. 34. ` 1. Is it true that you can’t really claim credit for your upbringing? Surely, your habits and temperaments today are partly the result of your upbringing. Does this mean that you don’t really deserve what you get from making an effort? 2. Think of some of the advantages that you have in your life. Do you deserve them more than other people who lack them? If so, why? If not, should these advantages be provided to everyone?
  35. 35. ` 3. Do you think it’s unjust if some people do not get to vote in elections merely because they are a woman or merely because of the color of their skin? 4. Do you think it’s unjust if some people earn much less money and are much worse off than others merely because they are a woman or a member of a racial or ethnic minority?
  36. 36. ` 5. If you answered “yes” to the last two questions, do you think it’s also unjust if some people are much worse off than others merely because they were born with fewer talents or with a debilitating disease and the need for expensive medicines? Why should people be worse off merely because of the way they were born?
  37. 37. ` Liberalism Among other things, a moral philosophy that holds equality as the highest good.
  38. 38. `Conservative concepts of Justice
  39. 39. ` Canons of Conservatism 1. "Belief in a transcendent order, or body of natural law, which rules society as well as conscience.” 2. "Affection for the proliferating variety and mystery of human existence, as opposed to the narrowing uniformity, egalitarianism, and utilitarian aims of most radical systems;” 3. "Conviction that civilized society requires orders and classes, as against the notion of a 'classless society'."
  40. 40. ` Canons of Conservatism 4. "Persuasion that freedom and property are closely linked" 5. “…Distrust of 'sophisters, calculators, and economists' who would reconstruct society upon abstract designs." 6. "Recognition that change may not be salutary reform: hasty innovation may be a devouring conflagration, rather than a torch of progress."
  41. 41. ` …or Among other things, a moral philosophy that holds actions are moral if they conform to legal, traditional or religious laws. Conservatism
  42. 42. What would all 5 philosophies say about these scenarios? TEST CASES
  43. 43. The Mayor wants to levy a tax on the rich to pay for smaller class sizes in Kindergarten. TEST CASES
  44. 44. Shorewood High School wants to ban all Honors and AP classes. TEST CASES
  45. 45. A mother wants to have a new child to provide bone marrow for another child who is sick. TEST CASES
  46. 46. Mr. Dunbar wants to require all students to stand for the Pledge of Allegiance TEST CASES
  47. 47. Batman wants to kill the Joker to stop him from destroying Gotham. TEST CASES

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