Logos Reason: What is it? Evidence: What is it? Evidence: What type is it?
TYPES OF EVIDENCE•Data from Personal Experience•Data from Observation of Field Experience•Data from Interviews, Questionnaires,Surveys•Data from Library or Internet Research•Testimony•Statistical Data•Hypothetical Examples, Cases, and Scenarios•Reasoned Sequence of Ideas
Logos Warrant: What is it? Backing: What is it? Grounds: What is it?
Pathos Emotional Appeals: Which emotion is being invoked and why?
Pathos Rhetorical Figures: Identify the figure and then explain what it’s trying to emphasize
PathosExample:"Its the hope of slaves sitting around a fire singing freedomsongs; the hope of immigrants setting out for distantshores; the hope of a young naval lieutenant bravelypatrolling the Mekong Delta; the hope of a millworkers sonwho dares to defy the odds; the hope of a skinny kid with afunny name who believes that America has a place for him,too."(Barack Obama, "The Audacity of Hope," July 27, 2004)
Pathos Framing: What is the metaphorical perspective the arguer is trying to impose on us?
PathosExample:“To all of the thousands of good and decent Americans I’vemet who want nothing more than a better chance, a fightingchance. To all of you, I have a simple message: Hold on alittle longer. A better America begins tonight.”-- Presumptive Republican nominee Mitt Romney at acampaign rally in Manchester N.H.
PathosExample:[W]hile the best childrens books can bring many corehuman experiences marvelously to life, there are manyequally or more intense experiences that they cant touch.While theres nothing wrong with an adult devoting leisuretime to The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe, or HarryPotter and the Deathly Hallows, they are not sufficient.They should not crowd out The Gulag Archipelago, or TheMoons of Jupiter, or Midnights Children. Confining yourreading to childrens books would be like confining your sexlife to hugs and kisses. --Andrew Sprung
Ethos eunoia, arete, phronesisPersona: Claim: What is it?How does the arguer try to Claim: What type is it? establish his credibility, intentions, knowledge, interests, and morality?
Ethos Values: CF-PAIL? Claim: What is it? Which moral values is the arguer trying to invoke: Claim: What type is it? care, fairness, purity, authority, loyalty, and liberty.
Ethos Undermining: Claim: What is it? How is the writer trying to attack or diminish the Claim: What type of it? credibility is the opponent?
EthosExample: Claim:look out over the United States of What is it? Let me tell you who we conservatives are: We love people. When we America, when we are anywhere -- when we see a group of people, such as this or anywhere -- we see Americans. We see human beings. We dont seegroups. We dont seeWhat We dont see people we Claim: victims. type is it? want to exploit. What we see -- what we see is potential. --Rush Limbaugh at CPAC
EthosExample: Claim: What is it?Thanks, Liz, for agreeing to this exchange. Its a privilege to be engaged in a conversation with Elizabeth Spelke. We go back a long way. We have been colleagues at MIT, where I helped attract her, and at Harvard, where she helped to attract me. With the rest of my field, I have enormous admiration for Elizabeths brilliant contributions to our Claim: What type is it? understanding of the origins of cognition. But we do find ourselves with different perspectives on a recent issue. --Stephen Pinker