Logical fallacies

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Logical Fallacies for AP LC

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Logical fallacies

  1. 1. Logical Fallacies Errors in Reasoning that Convince the Unwary
  2. 2. MISREPRESENTING YOUR OPPONENT’S ARGUMENT
  3. 3. PRETENDING YOUR OPPONENT’S WEAKEST ARGUMENT IS THEIR ONLY ONE
  4. 4. Son: “Can we get a pet dog?” Mother: “No” Son: “Why not? It will protect us as well.” Mother: “Still, No” Son: “Why are you leaving us and the home unprotected?”
  5. 5. POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC JUST BECAUSE SOMETHING HAPPENED FIRST DOESN’T MEANT IT CAUSED WHAT HAPPENED NEXT
  6. 6. POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC CORRELATION DOESN’T PROVE CAUSATION
  7. 7. Rally Caps don’t control the future.
  8. 8. Explain
  9. 9. Rejecting a proposal because it might— through a series of steps— cause something very bad to happen.
  10. 10. "We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!"
  11. 11. "We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!"
  12. 12. False Dilemma Arguing that there are only 2 possible positions: mine and something really, really bad.
  13. 13. False Dilemma Arguing that there are only 2 possible positions: mine and something really, really bad.
  14. 14. Ad Hominem
  15. 15. Tu Quoque
  16. 16. Defending yourself by accusing your opponent of the same flaw
  17. 17. Mr. Messner: Stop giving your students mean names. That’s disrespectful. Me: What? I heard you call your students “nematodes” this morning.
  18. 18. Red Herring Distracting with irrelevant information
  19. 19. Circular Reasoning Proving your argument by assuming your argument must be true.
  20. 20. Circular Reasoning “I have a right to say what I want, therefore you shouldn’t try to silence me.”
  21. 21. Faulty Analogy Arguing through metaphor
  22. 22. Faulty Analogy “Guns are like hammers— they’re both tools with metal parts that could be used to kill someone. And yet it would be ridiculous to restrict the purchase of hammers—so restrictions on purchasing guns are equally ridiculous.”
  23. 23. Faulty Analogy
  24. 24. Faulty Analogy Just because two situations have similar characteristics, doesn’t mean they have ALL of the same characteristics.
  25. 25. Appeal to False Authority Supporting your argument with a source that is not credible.
  26. 26. Appeal to False Authority
  27. 27. Hasty Generalization Supporting your argument without enough evidence
  28. 28. Hasty Generalization “People should never wear hoodies. Mark Zuckerberg wears hoodies.“
  29. 29. Bandwagon Appeal Supporting your argument by suggesting that it is popular.
  30. 30. Bandwagon Appeal
  31. 31. Logical Fallacies Red Herring Ad Hominem Tu Quoque Faulty Analogy Straw man False Dilemma Hasty Generalization Circular Reasoning Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc Appeal to False Authority Bandwagon Appeal Slippery Slope

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