What do those little
squiggles at the bottom of
the page mean?
Or...understanding
footnotes
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
“for example”.
The buffet provided excell...
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
“in other words”.
It happened in August; ...
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
“see the last
citation”
[1] E.Vijh, Latin...
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
“already cited”
(9) R. Millan, Art of Lat...
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
“go see”
The Phantom Menace is
generally ...
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
“quotes” = article
italics = book title
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
“and others”
For the best resource for
un...
e.g.
i.e
ibid
op. cit
cf.
italics vs. quotes
et al.
analyzing footnotes
The list
Footnotes are extended elements
of the ar...
Final
points
Most footnote questions
are really questions
about how those
footnotes are trying to
extend,modify, or
suppor...
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Footnote terminology

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Footnote terminology

  1. 1. What do those little squiggles at the bottom of the page mean? Or...understanding footnotes
  2. 2. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list
  3. 3. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list “for example”. The buffet provided excellent variety, e.g., vegetarian and non- vegetarian soups, Italian and French breads, and numerous sweets.
  4. 4. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list “in other words”. It happened in August; i.e., two months ago.
  5. 5. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list “see the last citation” [1] E.Vijh, Latin for Dummies (NewYork: Academic, 1997), p. 23. [2] Ibid. [3] Ibid., p. 29.
  6. 6. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list “already cited” (9) R. Millan, Art of Latin Grammar (Academic: NewYork, 1997), p. 23. (10) G.Wiki, Towards a More Perfect Speech (Blah Ltd.: London, 2003), p. 354. (11) Millan, op. cit., p. 5.
  7. 7. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list “go see” The Phantom Menace is generally regarded as the worst movie of all time; cf. Dixon (1972)
  8. 8. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list “quotes” = article italics = book title
  9. 9. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list “and others” For the best resource for understanding why The Phantom Menace inspired so many violent protests, see Simmons, McCarthy, et al. (2006)
  10. 10. e.g. i.e ibid op. cit cf. italics vs. quotes et al. analyzing footnotes The list Footnotes are extended elements of the argument.They send readers to other resources, add secondary information, and tell you where the author found the information.
  11. 11. Final points Most footnote questions are really questions about how those footnotes are trying to extend,modify, or support the argument of the text.

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