Ethos

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Last rhetoric section--ethos/credibility

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Ethos

  1. 1. Ethos (or why should I listen to you?)
  2. 2. Invented Ethos Situated Ethos Credibility you create Credibility you already own
  3. 3. Four Categories of ethos • trustworthiness - Do I think you’re honest? • reputation - What expertise do you have? • similarity - What experience and viewpoints do we share? • authority — Do you have credentialed knowledge and experience?
  4. 4. Four Categories of ethos • similarity - What experience and viewpoints do we share? • trustworthiness - Do I think you’re honest? • authority — Do you have credentialed knowledge • reputation - What expertise do you have? S T A R
  5. 5. Four Categories of ethos How do people SIGNAL to the larger society who they are?
  6. 6. Trustworthiness Track record of honesty —or— demonstratively disinterested
  7. 7. Trustworthiness
  8. 8. Trustworthiness But for those making more than $1 million — there were 236,883 such households in 2009 — I would raise rates immediately on taxable income in excess of $1 million, including, of course, dividends and capital gains. And for those who make $10 million or more — there were 8,274 in 2009 — I would suggest an additional increase in rate. My friends and I have been coddled long enough by a billionaire-friendly Congress. It’s time for our government to get serious about shared sacrifice. Warren Buffett
  9. 9. Reputation How do enemies see you? How do allies see you?
  10. 10. Reputation
  11. 11. Reputation
  12. 12. Similarity Convincing an audience that you are average, plain-spoken, and part of the same group.
  13. 13. Similarity "It was a highly inconvenient thing for them in our debates that I was just a country boy from Arkansas and I came from a place where people still thought two and two was four." (Bill Clinton, speech at the Democratic National Convention, 2012)
  14. 14. Similarity
  15. 15. Similarity
  16. 16. Authority How do we use references and jargon? How do we show our qualifications and credentials?
  17. 17. Authority My promise to voters: I will do everything in my power to support equitable investments in transportation and the development of a functioning multi-modal transportation system. My priorities are the following: Create new revenues like support the implementation of transportation impact fees in Seattle …
  18. 18. Authority As your representative on the Seattle City Council I pledge to: Hold the City accountable for the completion of transit and transportation projects in the Move Seattle levy. District 1 MUST have improved infrastructure to manage bridge congestion and more transit options within our District.
  19. 19. Attacking credibility You can claim your opponents are: • misinformed • ignorant • deceptive • corrupt • immoral • hostile • part of an evil conspiracy
  20. 20. Jonathan Haidt pronounced “Height”
  21. 21. Values Care/Harm Fairness/ Cheating Liberty/ Oppression Loyalty/ Betrayal Authority/ Subversion Sanctity/ Degradation
  22. 22. Values Care/Harm Fairness/ Cheating Liberty/ Oppression Loyalty/ Betrayal Authority/ Subversion Sanctity/ Degradation F A L C O
 S
  23. 23. Liberals Conservatives
  24. 24. Invoking an audience’s identity
  25. 25. Reminding the audience of a particular role or membership.
  26. 26. Possible Roles Parent/Child American/Nationalistic Occupation The “Good” Side Male/Female Age Education Knowledgeable

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