Presented By MONARK BAG Lecturer  Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Inf...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad
<ul><li>Focus on relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Figurehead  – In this role manager...
<ul><li>Focus on communication </li></ul><ul><li>Informational Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor – searches for internal an...
<ul><li>Focus on unit strategy   </li></ul><ul><li>Decisional Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur – voluntary initiator ...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Learning Goals <ul><li>Describe the three branches of th...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Learning Goals  (cont’d) 3. Describe how managers can us...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Traditional Viewpoint Goals: Efficiency Consistency <ul>...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad History of Management Thought Traditional Viewpoint Beha...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Bureaucratic Management <ul><li>Max Weber </li></ul>
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Bureaucratic Management <ul><li>Use of rules, hierarchy,...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Bureaucratic Management (cont'd) <ul><li>Hierarchical St...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad “ Each job has a policy manual detailing the rules that ...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad LOW MIDRANGE HIGH DreamWorks Sony IRS R&D Thinktank 7-11...
<ul><li>Large amounts of standard information have to be processed </li></ul><ul><li>The needs of the customer are known a...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Rigid rules and red tape Protection of authority  Slow d...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Scientific Management <ul><li>Frederick W. Taylor   </li...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Scientific Management <ul><li>Believed increased product...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad •  He was interested in machines -- apprenticeship in  i...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad •  introduced incentive pay plans  (workers were assumed...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Scientific Management <ul><li>The Gilbreths </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Frank and Lillian Gilbreth   </li></ul><ul><li>refined Taylor’s methods and suggested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  Br...
<ul><li>How to increase worker’s efficiency? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The essential difference between the best system of today...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Insights from Scientific Management <ul><li>Many compani...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad “ Walgreens is constantly pushing to drive costs down. I...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Administrative Management: Overview <ul><li>Focuses on t...
<ul><li>Division of Work:  allows for job specialization.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work should be divided among individuals ...
<ul><li>Unity of Direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single plan of action to guide the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The arrangement of employees where they will be of the most value to the organization ...
<ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fostering of creativity and innovation by encouraging employees to act on the...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Behavioral Viewpoint: Overview <ul><li>Focuses on dealin...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Mary Parker Follett’s Contributions <ul><li>Managers nee...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad “ Managers need to have a common  touch and to be a team...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>Studies of how characteristics of the work setti...
<ul><li>The Hawthorne Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wo...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Employees are motivated by social needs and association ...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Snapshot “ Teamwork is one of the most beautiful experie...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>System:  an association of interrelated and inte...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Inputs Human, physical, financial, and  information  res...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Mathematical models are used to simulate changes Compute...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad What managers do in practice depends on a given set of c...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Contingency Viewpoint: Overview <ul><li>Management pract...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>External environment— stable or changing </li></...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Behavioral Viewpoint How managers influence others; <ul>...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Quality Viewpoint: Overview <ul><li>Quality:   how well ...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>Inputs or raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Operat...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad Lower Costs and Higher Market Share Decreased Product Li...
11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information  Technology, Allahabad
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Pme(lec 02)

802 views

Published on

very basics

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
802
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pme(lec 02)

  1. 1. Presented By MONARK BAG Lecturer Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  2. 2. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  3. 3. <ul><li>Focus on relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Figurehead – In this role manager performs duties of ceremonial nature such as taking an important client for dinner or greeting visitor , signing legal documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader – responsible for creating an environment that will motivate the subordinate. Builds goods relationship with subordinate, coaches them. </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison – responsible for dealing with people both inside & outside the organization. The manager should cultivate outside his vertical chain of command to collect information relevant to his organization. </li></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  4. 4. <ul><li>Focus on communication </li></ul><ul><li>Informational Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor – searches for internal and external information to become more effective . Reading periodicals and reports; maintaining personal contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminator – transmits information to subordinates. Holding informational meeting; making phone call to relay information. </li></ul><ul><li>Spokesperson – transmits information to people inside & outside the organization or unit. Holding board meetings, giving information to the media. </li></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  5. 5. <ul><li>Focus on unit strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Decisional Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur – voluntary initiator of change. The manager is always on a look out for new ideas and tries to improve his unit continually by adopting strategies to cope the ever changing environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance handler – responds to situations that are beyond his or her control. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource allocator – decides how and to whom the organization’s resources will be distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiator – participates in a process of give and take until a satisfactory compromise is reached </li></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  6. 6. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Learning Goals <ul><li>Describe the three branches of the traditional viewpoint of management: </li></ul>2. Explain the behavioral viewpoint’s contribution to management Bureaucratic, Scientific, and Administrative
  7. 7. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Learning Goals (cont’d) 3. Describe how managers can use systems and quantitative techniques to improve employee performance 4. State the two major components of the contingency viewpoint 5. Explain the impact of the need for quality on management practices
  8. 8. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Traditional Viewpoint Goals: Efficiency Consistency <ul><li>Administrative Management </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucratic Management </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Management </li></ul>
  9. 9. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad History of Management Thought Traditional Viewpoint Behavioral Viewpoint Systems Viewpoint Contingency Viewpoint Quality Viewpoint 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
  10. 10. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Bureaucratic Management <ul><li>Max Weber </li></ul>
  11. 11. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Bureaucratic Management <ul><li>Use of rules, hierarchy, a clear division of labor, and detailed procedures to guide employees’ behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Seven characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Rules— formal guidelines for the behavior of employees on the job </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonality —employees are evaluated according to rules and objective data </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Labor —splitting work into specialized positions </li></ul>
  12. 12. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Bureaucratic Management (cont'd) <ul><li>Hierarchical Structure— ranks jobs according to the amount of authority in each job </li></ul><ul><li>Authority— who has the right to make decisions of varying importance at different organizational levels </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional authority </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic authority </li></ul><ul><li>Rational, legal authority </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong Career Commitment— both the employee and the organization view themselves committed to each other over the working life of the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Rationality— the use of the most efficient means available to accomplish a goal </li></ul>
  13. 13. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad “ Each job has a policy manual detailing the rules that a person needs to follow to ensure efficiency. Drivers are told to walk to a customer’s door at a brisk pace of 3 feet per second, carrying the package in the right hand and clipboard in the left. They should knock on the door so as not to lose valuable seconds searching for a doorbell.” Snapshot
  14. 14. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad LOW MIDRANGE HIGH DreamWorks Sony IRS R&D Thinktank 7-11 McDonalds MP3 PepsiCo State Motor Vehicle Registration Bureaucratic Continuum
  15. 15. <ul><li>Large amounts of standard information have to be processed </li></ul><ul><li>The needs of the customer are known and are unlikely to change </li></ul><ul><li>The technology is routine and stable (e.g., mass production) </li></ul><ul><li>The organization has to coordinate the activities of employees in order to deliver a standardized service/product to the customer </li></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Potential Benefits of Bureaucracy <ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Functions best when routine tasks are performed </li></ul><ul><li>Performance based on objective criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Most effective when </li></ul>
  16. 16. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Rigid rules and red tape Protection of authority Slow decision making Incompatible with changing technology Incompatible with 21 st century workers’ values for freedom and participative management
  17. 17. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Scientific Management <ul><li>Frederick W. Taylor </li></ul><ul><li>The father of Scientific Management – the 1st Efficiency Expert. </li></ul><ul><li>A philosophy and set of management practices that are based on fact and observation, not on guesswork </li></ul>
  18. 18. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Scientific Management <ul><li>Believed increased productivity depended on finding ways to make workers more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Used time-and-motion studies to analyze work flows, supervisory techniques, and worker fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Used functional foremanship , a division of labor that assigned eight foremen to each work area </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed workers motivated by money $$ </li></ul>
  19. 19. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad • He was interested in machines -- apprenticeship in industry: Midvale Steel • Shocked by how inefficient his fellow workers were • timed workers with stopwatches • break down job into parts, make parts efficient • figure out how to hire the right worker for the job • give the worker appropriate training
  20. 20. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad • introduced incentive pay plans (workers were assumed to be motivated only by money). • Believed would lead to cooperation--management and worker • Studied design of shovels and introduced a better design at Bethlehem Steel Works, reducing the number of people shoveling from 500 to 140
  21. 21. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Scientific Management <ul><li>The Gilbreths </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Gilbreth used motion pictures to analyze workers’ motions </li></ul><ul><li>Lillian Gilbreth championed protecting workers from unsafe working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Gantt </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on control systems for production scheduling (Gantt Chart) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Frank and Lillian Gilbreth </li></ul><ul><li>refined Taylor’s methods and suggested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Breaking down each action into individual components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Find better ways to perform the action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Reorganize each action to be more efficient. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems associated with Scientific Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers often gave attention only to increasing output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They did not allow workers to share in the benefits of increased output. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized jobs became very boring & dull. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers ended up distrusting Scientific Management </li></ul></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  23. 23. <ul><li>How to increase worker’s efficiency? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The essential difference between the best system of today and those of the past are the manner in which the tasks are scheduled , and the manner in which their performance is rewarded ” </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt Chart – scheduling summary of work </li></ul><ul><li>Rewarding Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus in addition to the piece rate if they exceeded their daily production quota </li></ul><ul><li>On time = Bonus, Good Performance = Reward </li></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  24. 24. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Insights from Scientific Management <ul><li>Many companies have used scientific management principles to improve efficiency, employee selection and training </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific management failed to recognize the social needs of workers and the importance of working conditions and job satisfaction </li></ul>
  25. 25. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad “ Walgreens is constantly pushing to drive costs down. It pioneered the application of satellite communications and computer technology and linked these to increase store efficiency. By using tried-and-proven management concepts, each of its 6,100 stores [is] able to process around 280 prescriptions a day and beat Wal-Mart by 27 cents and CVS by 94 cents on each prescription.” Snapshot
  26. 26. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Administrative Management: Overview <ul><li>Focuses on the manager and basic managerial functions of planning, organizing, controlling and leading </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of Command Principle: an employee should report to only one manager </li></ul><ul><li>Authority Principle: managers have the right to give orders to get things done </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Division of Work: allows for job specialization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work should be divided among individuals and groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority and Responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority right to give orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility involves being answerable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever assumes authority assumes responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common efforts of workers. Penalties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unity of Command </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees should have only one boss. </li></ul></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  28. 28. <ul><li>Unity of Direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A single plan of action to guide the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordination of individual interests to the general interests of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Remuneration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An equitable uniform payment system that motivates contributes to organizational success. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which authority rests at the top of the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scalar Chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chainlike authority scale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most vs. least authority </li></ul></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  29. 29. <ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The arrangement of employees where they will be of the most value to the organization and to provide career opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The provision of justice and the fair and impartial treatment of all employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stability of Tenure of Personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term employment is important for the development of skills that improve the organization’s performance. Subordination of Individual Interest to the Common Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interest of the organization takes precedence over that of the individual employee. </li></ul></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  30. 30. <ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fostering of creativity and innovation by encouraging employees to act on their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Esprit de corps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony, general good feeling among employees, shared enthusiasm, foster devotion to the common cause (organization). </li></ul></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  31. 31. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Behavioral Viewpoint: Overview <ul><li>Focuses on dealing effectively with the human aspects of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Started in the 1930’s </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Workers wanted respect </li></ul><ul><li>Workers formed unions to bargain with management </li></ul>
  32. 32. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Mary Parker Follett’s Contributions <ul><li>Managers need to communicate with workers </li></ul><ul><li>Workers should participate in solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>Managers need to establish good working relationships with employees </li></ul>Goal: Improve Coordination
  33. 33. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad “ Managers need to have a common touch and to be a team leader and not a drill sergeant. When their people shine, they shine.” Snapshot
  34. 34. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>Studies of how characteristics of the work setting affected worker fatigue and performance at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company from 1924-1932. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker productivity was measured at various levels of light illumination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers found that regardless of whether the light levels were raised or lowered, worker productivity increased. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The Hawthorne Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions and productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the social relationships in a work group </li></ul></ul>11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
  36. 36. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Employees are motivated by social needs and association with others Employees’ performance is more a result of peer pressure than management’s incentives and rules Managers need to involve subordinates in coordinating their work to improve efficiency Employees want to participate in decisions that affect them
  37. 37. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Snapshot “ Teamwork is one of the most beautiful experiences in life. Teamwork is our core value and a primary way that the Container Store enriches the quality of employees’ work life.” Kip Tindell, President, The Container Store
  38. 38. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>System: an association of interrelated and interdependent parts </li></ul><ul><li>Systems viewpoint : an approach to solving problems by diagnosing them within a framework of transformation processes, outputs, and feedback </li></ul>
  39. 39. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Inputs Human, physical, financial, and information resources Transformation Process Outputs Products and services Feedback Loops
  40. 40. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Mathematical models are used to simulate changes Computers are essential Primary focus is on decision making Alternatives are based on economic criteria
  41. 41. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad What managers do in practice depends on a given set of circumstances – a situation.
  42. 42. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Contingency Viewpoint: Overview <ul><li>Management practices should be consistent with the requirements of the external environment, the technology used to make a product or provide a service, and capabilities of the people who work for the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Uses concepts of the traditional, behavioral and system viewpoints </li></ul>
  43. 43. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>External environment— stable or changing </li></ul><ul><li>Technology— simple or complex </li></ul><ul><li>People— ways they are similar and different from each other </li></ul>
  44. 44. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Behavioral Viewpoint How managers influence others; <ul><li>Informal group </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation among employees </li></ul><ul><li>Employee’s social needs </li></ul>Systems Viewpoint How the parts fit together. <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Transformations </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul>Traditional Viewpoint What managers do: <ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Organize </li></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>Contingency Viewpoint Managers’ use of other viewpoints to solve problems involving: <ul><li>External environment </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul>
  45. 45. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Quality Viewpoint: Overview <ul><li>Quality: how well a product or service does what it is supposed to do—how closely and reliably it satisfies the specifications to which it is built or provided </li></ul><ul><li>Total Quality Management (TQM): a philosophy that makes quality values the driving force behind leadership, design, planning, and improvement initiatives </li></ul>
  46. 46. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad <ul><li>Inputs or raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring by variable or a product’s characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring by attribute or a product’s acceptable/ unacceptable characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical process control </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of a process (e.g., sigma) </li></ul>
  47. 47. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad Lower Costs and Higher Market Share Decreased Product Liability Quality Positive Company Image
  48. 48. 11/12/2012 Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad

×