System Softwares


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System Softwares

  1. 1. SYSTEM SOFTWARE A computer is merely a machine that knows nothing of itself. Rather it requires instructions for each and everything it performs. These instructions are provided to it through software. The software that controls internal computer operations ( viz. reading data from input devices, transmitting processed information to the output devices, checking system components, converting data/instructions to computer understandable form etc.) is known as system software. The system software can further be classified into following categories: 1. Operating System 2. Language Processors 3. Device Drivers 4. Utilities or Utility Software
  2. 2. OPERATING SYSTEM Hardware is nothing but finely designed machinery. A machine is ultimately a machine only, which is always made to work. In case of computers, it is either us if we do that or ‘some other’ which does it for us. This ‘some other’ is nothing but our very own ‘Operating System’ . Operating System is just like our secretary. As the boss gives orders to his secretary and the secretary does all the work for his boss. The secretary himself decides: How to do? What to do?, etc. etc. Same way, we pass our orders/requests to operating system and ‘the Operating System’ does it for us. ‘Operating System’ itself decides: How to do? What to do? When to do? The primary goal of an operating system is thus to make the computer system convenient to use and secondary goal is to use computer hardware in an efficient manner.
  3. 3. <ul><li>An operating system is an important component of a computer </li></ul><ul><li>system which controls all other components of the computer </li></ul><ul><li>system. Major components of a computer system are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Application program routines (compiler, linkers, </li></ul><ul><li>database management systems, utility programs) </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Humanware (users) </li></ul><ul><li>Where hardware provides the basic computing resources, the </li></ul><ul><li>application program routines define the ways in which these </li></ul><ul><li>resources are used to solve the computing problems of the </li></ul><ul><li>users and the Operating System controls and coordinates the </li></ul><ul><li>use of the hardware among the various applications programs </li></ul><ul><li>for the various users. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Language Processor <ul><li>As programmers prefer to write their programs in one of the </li></ul><ul><li>High Level Languages (HLL s ) because it is much easier to </li></ul><ul><li>code in such languages. However, the computer does not </li></ul><ul><li>understand any language other than its own machine </li></ul><ul><li>language (binary language), therefore, it becomes necessary </li></ul><ul><li>to process a HLL program so as to make it understandable to </li></ul><ul><li>the computer. The system programs which perform this very </li></ul><ul><li>job are language processors. The language processors are </li></ul><ul><li>given below: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Assembler </li></ul><ul><li>This language processor converts the program written in </li></ul><ul><li>assembly language into machine language. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>2. Interpreter </li></ul><ul><li>This language processor converts a HLL program into </li></ul><ul><li>machine language by converting and executing it line by </li></ul><ul><li>line. If there is any error in any line, it reports it at the same </li></ul><ul><li>time and program execution cannot resume until the error </li></ul><ul><li>is rectified. Interpreter must always be present it the </li></ul><ul><li>memory every time the program is executed as error </li></ul><ul><li>debugging, interpreter is very much useful as it reports the </li></ul><ul><li>error(s) at the same time. But once errors are removed, </li></ul><ul><li>unnecessary usage of memory takes place as it has to be </li></ul><ul><li>present in the memory always. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>3. Compiler </li></ul><ul><li>It also converts the HLL program into machine language but the </li></ul><ul><li>conversion manner is different. It converts the entire HLL </li></ul><ul><li>program in one go , and reports all the errors of the program </li></ul><ul><li>along with the line numbers. After all the errors are removed, </li></ul><ul><li>the program is recompiled, and after that the compiler is not </li></ul><ul><li>needed in the memory as the object program is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, if we combine interpreter and compiler, it gives the </li></ul><ul><li>best combination for HLL program translation into object code. </li></ul><ul><li>For the error removal, interpreter can be used and after all the </li></ul><ul><li>errors are removed, the program can be compiled enabling the </li></ul><ul><li>removal of the language translator from the memory. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Device Drivers <ul><li>Device Drivers are essential piece of system software. </li></ul><ul><li>As you know by now that an operating system acts as </li></ul><ul><li>a link between the hardware and software enabling </li></ul><ul><li>both to communicate and do their tasks. A device </li></ul><ul><li>driver or simply a driver, is a specially written program </li></ul><ul><li>which translates the commands from the operating </li></ul><ul><li>system into commands that the specific hardware will </li></ul><ul><li>understand. Each piece of hardware e.g. , a printer, </li></ul><ul><li>monitor, scanner, mouse, keyboard, modem etc. has its </li></ul><ul><li>own driver. Devices from different manufactures work </li></ul><ul><li>in different ways e.g. , a printer from manufacture HP </li></ul><ul><li>will need a different driver than a printer from </li></ul><ul><li>manufacture Epson . If you try to use a device without the </li></ul><ul><li>correct driver, then it probably won’t work or produce </li></ul><ul><li>garbled results. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Utility Software (Utilities) <ul><li>Utilities are those helpful programs that ensure the smooth </li></ul><ul><li>functioning of the computer. Utilities are meant to assist your </li></ul><ul><li>computer. Some utilities help you backup data, some help </li></ul><ul><li>remove outdated files or recover data that has been accidentally </li></ul><ul><li>erased. Some make it easier to find and arrange the information </li></ul><ul><li>you need. And some help you avoid virus attacks or clean </li></ul><ul><li>viruses, if any. In other words, the utility programs perform </li></ul><ul><li>housekeeping functions. It is an established truth that everything </li></ul><ul><li>comes with certain pros and cons. Softwares also are not an </li></ul><ul><li>exception to it. Utilities bridge the gaps by helping to solve the </li></ul><ul><li>problems and maximize your computer’s potential. Some </li></ul><ul><li>important utilities are being discussed below. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Text Editor <ul><li>This utility program is used for creating, editing text files. </li></ul><ul><li>Using this program any text manner (generally in </li></ul><ul><li>English-like language) can be typed and saved on a disk </li></ul><ul><li>file. This file can be retrieved any time and can also be </li></ul><ul><li>edited, corrected etc. Text editor software supports </li></ul><ul><li>special commands for text editing i.e. , you can insert, </li></ul><ul><li>delete, find, replace, characters, lines and paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Backup Utility This utility program facilitates the backing-up of disk. Back-up means duplicating the disk information so that in case of any damage or data-loss, this backed up data may be used. The files or folders or even drives can be backed up using this utility. You can back up files to floppy disks, a tape drive on even on another computer on your network. The backed up data may be restored when needed i.e. , if your original files are damaged or lost.
  11. 11. Compression Utility This utility program facilitates compression of files. Large files can be compressed so that they take less storage area. When needed, these compressed files can be exploded back to their original form. By compression, the files are stored in a special format that takes less space. However, these compressed files cannot be directly used, they need to be exploded back to their original form before they can be worked upon.
  12. 12. Disk Defragmentor This utility program attempts to minimize the fragmentation on your disk. A file is fragmented when it becomes too large for your computer to store in a single location on a disk. When this happens, your computer splits the file up and stores it in pieces. You can use fragmented files, but it takes your computer longer to access them. Disk Defragmentor speeds up disk access by rearranging the files and free space on your computer, so that files are stored in contiguous units and free space is consolidated in one contiguous block.
  13. 13. Antivirus Software This utility program ensures virus-free work environment. A computer virus is a computer program that can inject other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a copy of itself. A virus not only copies itself but also makes the computer system behave abnormally. For instance, unknown or unasked messages may get flashed or unwanted music gets played or unwanted graphical displays might occur. An antivirus software scans your disk for viruses and removes them, if any virus is found. Moreover, some antivirus software remains present in memory all the time so that they can detect the viruses (as soon as they occur) and counterattack them.
  14. 14. Picture Gallery