Lecture 2: Matter, Elements and Compounds, States of Matter, Physical and Chemical Changes

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Lecture 2: Matter, Elements and Compounds, States of Matter, Physical and Chemical Changes

  1. 1. ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS STATES OF MATTER PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND CHANGES Lecture for 9/11/2007
  2. 2. What is matter? <ul><ul><li>Anything that has mass and volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Greece and India – intrigued by the origin of matter and the makeup of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there anywhere that doesn’t contain matter? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. States of matter <ul><ul><li>Solid – holds a particular shape and has definite volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid – doesn’t hold its own shape but it does occupy a definite volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas – has no definite shape or volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma – exists inside stars and forms briefly on Earth when electrical sparks separate atoms into their component parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in state - Heating or cooling a substances </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Properties of matter <ul><ul><li>Physical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a substance that can be observed without altering the identity of the substance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of a substance that cannot be observed without altering the substance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Physical and Chemical Changes <ul><ul><li>Physical changes – changes that don’t alter the identity of a substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical changes – alter the identity of the substance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify the following as physical or a chemical change: </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar ferments to form alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Gallium metal melts in your hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Platinum reacts with hydrogen peroxide oxygen at room temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves turn color in the Fall. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Identify the following as physical or a chemical change CON’T: <ul><li>Milk turns sour. </li></ul><ul><li>Wax is melted over a flame and then catches fire and burns. </li></ul><ul><li>You make scrambled eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>You step on a piece of chalk and it becomes powdered. </li></ul><ul><li>You light a candle when the electricity goes out. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam from your hot shower condenses on a cold mirror. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Law of conservation of matter <ul><ul><li>Antoine Lavoisier (1743 – 1794) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter, like energy, is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neither created nor destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in any process </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Elements and Compounds
  9. 9. Distinguishing Between Elements and Compounds <ul><li>Both elements and compounds are pure substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to determine when a more “fundamental” element was reached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tear apart substances to see if a more simpler element can be reached </li></ul></ul>

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