Linking words help you to connect ideas and sentences, so that people can follow your ideas.
Below are some examples you can think about incorporating into your writing in order to make
it clearer and easier to understand.
Giving examples: For example / For instance
For instance, watching TV series in original version is a great way to improve your
Adding or subtracting information: And / In addition /As well
/Also / Too /Furthermore /Apart from /In addition to / Besides
And: Ideas are often linked byand
o We discussed training, education and the budget.
Also is used to add an extra idea or emphasis. It is usually placed in mid position
(after the subject and before the verb)
o We also spoke about marketing.
As well is usually goes at the end of a clause
o She plays the piano as well
Toogoes at the end of the sentence.
o They were concerned too.
o Besides the violin, he plays the piano and the flute (+)
Except is used to subtract information
o I like all musical instruments except the violin
Apart fromcan be used to add or subtract information
o I like all musical instruments apart from the violin (-)
o Apart from the violin, he plays the piano and the flute (+)
Furthermore adds extra information to the point you are making.
o Exams give you an idea of how you are progressing. Furthermore,when you
pass them you are happy
Contrasting ideas: But /However /Although / even though
/Despite / despite the fact that / Nevertheless / While / Whereas
But is more informal than however and is not normally used to start a sentence.
o He works hard, but he doesn't earn much.
However, is normally used at the beginning of a sentence. A comma usually
o He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much.
Although, despite and despite the fact introduce an idea of contrast. With these
words, you must have 'two halves' of a sentence.
o Althoughit was cold, she went out in shorts. – It is followed by a clause
o Despite the cold, she went out in shorts. – It is followed by a noun
o Despite the fact it was cold, she went out in shorts – It is followed by a
Nevertheless means in spite of that or anyway. While, and whereas are used to
show how two things are different from each other.
o While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown.
o Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down.
Sequencing ideas: Firstly, secondly, finally, next, after, before,
Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.
Giving a reason: Due to / due to the fact that / Because /Because
of / Since /As
Due to must be followed by a noun.
o Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%.
Due to the fact that:If you have a clause, you must use Due to the fact that.
o Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by
Because is followed by a clause. It is used when we put emphasis on the reason for
o Because it was raining, the match was postponed.
Because of is followed by a noun and can be used at the beginning or in the middle
of a sentence.
o Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed.
Since / as - Both mean because. They are used when the listener already knows the
reason for something or when it is not the most important part of the sentence. They
initiate clauses that often come at the beginning of sentences.
o Sincethe company is expanding, they need to hire more staff.
o As the company is expanding, they need to hire more staff.
Logical consequence: Therefore /So /Consequently /This means
that /As a result / Therefore / So
Consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way.
The company is expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking
on extra staff. – They are usually placed in initial position.
Note: So is more informal.
Summarising: In summary / Tosummarise/ To conclude / In
conclusion / to sum up / briefly / in short
We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of
what we have said or written. They are more common in formal style. We use a
comma after them.
To summarise, I think an Android is better than an iPhone.”