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Strategies for Incorporating the National Reading Panels Five Components of Reading into the Classroom


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Presentation from the 2006 National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals Conference

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Strategies for Incorporating the National Reading Panels Five Components of Reading into the Classroom

  1. 1. Strategies for Understanding and Incorporating the National Reading Panels Five Components of Reading into the Classroom Paraprofessional Conference 2006
  2. 2. Rolling Meadow Duckling Stripes Hatched Waddled Webbed Diving Delicious Hero Story Impressions
  3. 3. Key Word Prediction <ul><li>egg nest crack </li></ul><ul><li>duckling dive </li></ul><ul><li>swim hatch </li></ul><ul><li>webbed feathers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reading is a Constructive Process <ul><li>Developmental Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Background/Prior Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Print Material: </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul><ul><li>Readability </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Author’s Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul>(Cook, 1986, 1989) THE READER THE TEXT THE CONTEXT COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES
  5. 5. Schemata <ul><li>Prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Folders in our brains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activated/opened </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes there is NO </li></ul><ul><li>schema </li></ul><ul><li>We use our schema for metacognition </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A psychological phenomenon which refers to the discomfort felt at a discrepancy between what you already know or believe, and new information or interpretation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>Too much Dissonance = Resistance to learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When it contradicts what the learner know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When it has been difficult, uncomfortable, or even humiliating </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Zone of Proximal Development <ul><li>Vygotsky (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>He called the difference between what a child can do with help and what he or she can do without guidance the &quot;zone of proximal development&quot; (ZPD). </li></ul>
  9. 9. 4 Stage Model of ZPD
  10. 10. Gradual Release of Responsibility Model of Instruction Responsibility:All Teacher Responsibility:All Student P.D. Pearson and M.C. Gallagher, Contemporary Educational Psychology 8, 1983; Farotrup & Samuels, 2002 Direct Instruction I do it. Teacher Models the strategy use Guided Practice: We do it. Pairs/ Homework Partners Individuals You do it. Assessment M O D E L I N G
  11. 11. Reversing the Lesson Triangle Historical design Current design Assignment Read Discussion to see if students read and if they remember & understand the proper concepts Frontloading pre-reading activities: discussion, prediction, questioning, brainstorming, vocabulary Guided Active Silent Reading Discussion to clarify, reinforce & extend
  12. 12. An Effective Text-Centered Lesson Vacca and Vacca, Content Area Reading, 2002 Post-reading Reader-text interactions Pre-reading Rationale Instructional Sequence Before reading During reading After reading To establish purpose, activate background, sustain motivation, & provide direction To prompt an active response to reading To extend & elaborate ideas from the text Instructional Framework
  13. 13. Review of the NRP 5 Components <ul><li>Phonemic Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Phonics </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul>
  14. 14. Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>The ability to hear and manipulate sound in words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness is not phonics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness is auditory and does not involve words in print </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Examples of Phonemic Awareness Skills <ul><li>Blending : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What word am I trying to say? Mmmmm~ooooo~p. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First sound isolation: What is the first sound in mop? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last sound isolation: What is the last sound in mop? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete: What are all the sounds you hear in mop? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Phonemic Awareness (PA) is important because: <ul><li>It requires readers to notice how letters represent sounds. It primes readers for print. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives readers a way to approach sounding out and reading new words. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps readers understand the alphabetic principle (that the letters in words are systematically represented by sounds). </li></ul>
  17. 18. Phonemic Awareness (PA) is difficult because: <ul><li>Although there are 26 letters in the English language, there are approximately 40 phonemes, or sound units, in the English language. </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds are represented in 250 different spellings (e.g., /f/ as in ph, f, gh, ff). </li></ul><ul><li>The sound units (phonemes) are not inherently obvious and must be taught. The sounds that make up words are &quot;coarticulated;&quot; that is, they are not distinctly separate from each other. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Best Results: Phonemic Awareness instruction should only be 10-15 minutes per day of your reading instruction. Explicitly teach lessons with small groups of children.
  19. 20. Assessing PA <ul><li>Phonemic awareness should be assessed from the beginning of kindergarten through the spring of first grade. </li></ul><ul><li>All students should be assessed a minimum of three times per year to be sure adequate progress toward end of year goals is made. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who are identified as at risk of reading difficulty should be monitored 1 or 2 times per month to ensure effectiveness of intervention and to allow timely instructional changes. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Let’s Practice <ul><li>Look over the packet of Phonemic Awareness Assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>Find one that you have not tried before. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to a partner and practice! </li></ul>
  21. 22. Phonics, Decoding and Alphabetic Principle <ul><li>Alphabetic Principle : The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to read words. </li></ul><ul><li>This principle is composed of two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetic Understanding : Words are composed of letters that represent sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological Recoding : Using systematic relationships between letters and phonemes (letter-sound correspondence) to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell words. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Regular Word Reading <ul><li>Beginning decoding (&quot;phonological recoding&quot;) is the ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>read from left to right, simple, unfamiliar regular words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate the sounds for all letters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blend sounds into recognizable words. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beginning spelling is the ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>translate speech to print using phonemic awareness and knowledge of letter-sounds. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Progression of Regular Word Reading
  24. 25. Phonics Can feel like a Foreign Language <ul><li>Knipe </li></ul><ul><li>Wrat </li></ul><ul><li>Squed </li></ul><ul><li>Phoat </li></ul><ul><li>Throist </li></ul><ul><li>Phude </li></ul><ul><li>Gno </li></ul>
  25. 26. English Language Smorgasbord! <ul><li>English has over 600,000 words </li></ul><ul><li>German has fewer than 200,000 words </li></ul><ul><li>French has fewer than 100,000 words </li></ul>
  26. 27. Best Way to Teach Phonics!
  27. 28. Fluency with Text <ul><li>The effortless, automatic ability to read words in connected text. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to translate letters-to-sounds-to-words fluently, effortlessly. </li></ul><ul><li>LaBerge and Samuels (1974) described the fluent reader as &quot;one whose decoding processes are automatic, requiring no conscious attention&quot; . </li></ul>
  28. 29. Are You a Fluent Reader? Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer In waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a tatol mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mind deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig, huh?
  29. 30. Why is Fluency important? <ul><li>Successful readers... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rely primarily on the letters in the word rather than context or pictures to identify familiar and unfamiliar words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process virtually every letter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use letter-sound correspondences to identify words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a reliable strategy for decoding words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read words for a sufficient number of times for words to become automatic. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Hasbrouck, 1998) </li></ul>
  30. 31. How to Teach Fluency
  31. 32. Other Ideas for Teaching Fluency <ul><li>Repeated Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Assisted Repeated Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Choral Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Echo Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Partner reading </li></ul>
  32. 34. Vocabulary Vocabulary Development : The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning. As a learner begins to read, reading vocabulary is mapped onto the oral vocabulary the learner brings to the task.
  33. 35. Meaningful Differences <ul><li>Children enter school with &quot;meaningful differences&quot; in vocabulary knowledge (Hart & Risley, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>What doesn't matter : race/ethnicity, gender, birth order. </li></ul><ul><li>What does matter : relative economic advantage. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Actual Differences in Quantity of Words Heard In a typical hour, the average child would hear: Welfare: 616 words Working Class: 1,251 words Professional: 2,153 words Actual Differences in Quality of Words Heard Professional: 32 affirmations, 5 prohibitions Working Class: 12 affirmations, 7 prohibitions Welfare: 5 affirmations, 11 prohibitions (Hart & Risley, 1995)
  35. 37. Cumulative Vocabulary Children from professional families: 1100 words Children from working class families: 700 words Children from welfare families: 500 words
  36. 38. Cumulative Vocabulary Experiences Words heard per hour Words heard in a 100-hour week Words heard in a 5,200 hour year 4 years Welfare 616 62,000 3 million 13 million Working Class 1,251 125,000 6 million 26 million Professional 2,153 215,000 11 million 45 million
  37. 39. Variation in the Amount of Independent Reading <ul><li>&quot;Research has shown that children who read even ten minutes a day outside of school experience substantially higher rates of vocabulary growth between second and fifth grade than children who do little or no reading.&quot; (Anderson & Nagy, 1992) </li></ul>
  38. 40. How to Teach Vocabulary
  39. 41. Comprehension <ul><li>The complex cognitive process involving the intentional interaction between reader and text to extract meaning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the essence of reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>active and intentional thinking in which the meaning is constructed through interactions between the test and the reader (Durkin, 1973) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Readers Who Comprehend <ul><li>Know the goal of reading </li></ul><ul><li>Activate prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Use their knowledge of text structure </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Ask themselves questions while reading </li></ul><ul><li>Test their inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate meaning </li></ul>
  41. 43. The National Reading Panel recommends: <ul><li>Question answering </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic/semantic organizers/story maps </li></ul><ul><li>Question generation </li></ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul>
  42. 44. Causes of Reading Comprehension Failure (Kame'enui & Simmons, 1990) <ul><li>Inadequate instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient exposure and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Deficient word recognition skills </li></ul><ul><li>Deficient memory capacity and functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Significant language deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate comprehension monitoring and self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliarity with text features and task demands </li></ul><ul><li>Undeveloped attentional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate cognitive development and reading experiences </li></ul>
  43. 45. Teaching Comprehension
  44. 46. 6 Reading Comprehension Instruction Techniques <ul><li>Comprehension Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Story and Text Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul>Research Based
  45. 48. Kids need books they can read! <ul><li>Success equals achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that students need a high volume of tasks that deliver success to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard tasks produce off-task behaviors and affect classroom management. </li></ul>
  46. 49. Reading Levels Reading Level Word Comprehension Recognition Independent 95% 95% Instructional 90% 80-90% Frustration below 90% below 80%