1<br />Paraeducators in Secondary TransitionalSettings<br />Their Knowledge, Responsibilities & Training Needs<br />Michel...
"The task of the excellent … (paraeducator) is to stimulate 'apparently ordinary' people to unusual effort. The tough prob...
STANDARDSROLES <br />3<br />Literature Review<br /><ul><li>Paraeducators have expanded roles
CEC Knowledge and Skill Set – revision fall 2011
 State standards
 Training is directed – school setting
 Little training – transitional / community</li></ul>   employment settings<br />Sources:  utahparas.org (2010), Pickett (...
Traditional vs. Transitional?<br />Four Major Differences<br />Autonomy/adapting instructional 	strategies<br /> Active me...
PURPOSE<br /> Paraeducator strengths & weaknesses 	concerning responsibilities in transition 	settings <br /> Identify kno...
Educators – Parents – ResearchersExpectations<br /> Quality education for children with 	exceptionalities<br /> Paraeducat...
Participants<br /> 336 transitional paraeducators <br /> 34 secondary school/17 transitional 	programs<br /> Ethnicity- 94...
Instrument<br />Replication of knowledge & task survey<br /> Carter, O’Rourke, Sisco & Pelsue, 2009<br /> 3 parts<br />Dem...
Knowledge Survey<br />9<br />Sources:  Carter, O’Rourke, Sisco, & Pelsue (2009). <br />
Instrument Components<br />10<br />Demographics<br /> Knowledge Topics<br /> Paraprofessional Tasks<br />
Demographics Section<br />11<br />Years experience, gender, ethnicity, teacher      	certification, job description <br />...
Knowledge Section<br />12<br />15 items<br /> job training skill, educational terms, effects of 	disability <br /> ethical...
Paraprofessional Task Section<br />13<br />19 Tasks<br /> small group & one-on-one instruction, preparing 	materials & stu...
Procedures <br /> 41 Utah School District<br /> 2 urban declined participation<br /> 8 rural stated no pertinent programs<...
Data Analysis<br />15<br />Descriptive statistics<br /> Job description<br /> Knowledge<br /> Job-related tasks <br /> Ana...
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />With Whom Do Paraprofessionals Report?<br />16<br />Sources:  Google Images:  presentationpictu...
Paraprofessional Settings<br />17<br />
Disability Categories<br />18<br />
Data Focus<br />19<br />Low-incidence disabilities<br /> Moderate/Severe Range<br /> 72% <br />  High-incidence disabiliti...
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />How do Paraprofessionals<br />Evaluate Their<br />Knowledge?<br />20<br />Sources:  Google Imag...
High Levels of Knowledge<br />21<br />
Low Levels of Knowledge<br />22<br />
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Factors Are Associated<br />with High Levels<br />of Knowledge?<br />23<br />Sources:  Goo...
Overall Knowledge<br />24<br />
Predicted Knowledge <br /> Paraprofessionals/low-incidence<br /> Higher levels of knowledge<br /> Holding years experience...
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Types of Training<br />Have <br />Paraprofessionals<br />Received?<br />26<br />Sources:  ...
Types of Training<br />27<br />
High Levels Training / On-The Job<br />28<br />
Low Levels Training / On-The Job<br />29<br />
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />How do Paraprofessionals<br />Evaluate Their Need<br />For Additional<br />Training?<br />30<br...
Substantial Need for Training<br />31<br />
 Least Need for Training<br />32<br />
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Tasks Do Paraprofessionals<br />Report Performing?<br />33<br />Sources:  Google Images:  ...
 Most/Least Frequently Performed Tasks<br />34<br />
 Tasks with Missing Data<br />35<br />
 Task/Disability Incidence Associations<br />36<br />
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Tasks Do Paraprofessionals<br />Feel Most Prepared<br />To Perform?<br />37<br />Sources: ...
 Tasks Most Confident In<br />38<br />
 Tasks Least Confident In<br />39<br />
RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Are Paraprofessional<br />Additional Training<br />Needs?<br />40<br />Sources:  Google Im...
 Training Needs<br />41<br />
Additional Training Considerations<br />42<br />Supervision<br /> Substantial amount of time or more 50.3%<br /> Moderate ...
Discussion<br />43<br />Source:  muslimah.femagination.com<br />
Discussion<br />44<br /> Responsibilities<br /> Knowledge Level Perception<br /> Transitional Paraeducator 			 	Training<b...
Responsibilities<br />45<br />Disability Focus/broad range<br /> Mean 7.9<br /> 12 disabilities <br /> Settings<br /> Tran...
Responsibilities continued<br />46<br /> Urban <br /> Population 2008-09/81,017 to 5,960<br /> Transitional programs 6/9 (...
Responsibilities continued<br />47<br /> Tasks performed<br /> One-on-instruction, behavior management, independence 	skil...
Responsibilities continued<br /> Missing Data<br /> Over 20% (N=336) <br /> Over 67 respondents did not answer these quest...
Knowledge Levels<br />Substantial levels of perceived knowledge<br />13 of 14 knowledge levels were above the 	mean (confi...
Knowledge Levels<br />Knowledge/Effect of instruction<br /> Dominant training on-the-job (69.91%)<br /> Informal training<...
Knowledge Levels<br />51<br />Low Levels of Knowledge/student services<br /> IEP, technology, assessment, rights of famili...
Transitional Paraeducator Training <br />Training appearances for transitional    	paraeducators<br />Low-incidence disabi...
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Paraeducators in Secondary Transitional Settings Their Knowledge, Responsibilities & Training Needs

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Presentation from the 2011 National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals Conference by Michelle Holbrook and Betty Ashbaker.

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Paraeducators in Secondary Transitional Settings Their Knowledge, Responsibilities & Training Needs

  1. 1. 1<br />Paraeducators in Secondary TransitionalSettings<br />Their Knowledge, Responsibilities & Training Needs<br />Michelle Holbrook - Graduate Student<br /> Betty AshbakerPh.D., Educational Psychology<br />Brigham Young University<br />
  2. 2. "The task of the excellent … (paraeducator) is to stimulate 'apparently ordinary' people to unusual effort. The tough problem is not in identifying winners: it is in making winners out of ordinary people." (K. Patricia Cross)<br />2<br />
  3. 3. STANDARDSROLES <br />3<br />Literature Review<br /><ul><li>Paraeducators have expanded roles
  4. 4. CEC Knowledge and Skill Set – revision fall 2011
  5. 5. State standards
  6. 6. Training is directed – school setting
  7. 7. Little training – transitional / community</li></ul> employment settings<br />Sources: utahparas.org (2010), Pickett (1999), Downing, Ryndak & Clark, (2000)<br />
  8. 8. Traditional vs. Transitional?<br />Four Major Differences<br />Autonomy/adapting instructional strategies<br /> Active members of IEP teams<br /> Communicate information and provide assistance to parents<br /> Liaison between school/employer/service providers<br />4<br />Source: Pickett, Faison, Formanek & Woods (1999)<br />
  9. 9. PURPOSE<br /> Paraeducator strengths & weaknesses concerning responsibilities in transition settings <br /> Identify knowledge they have or may need to perform these responsibilities<br /> How they received that knowledge<br />5<br />
  10. 10. Educators – Parents – ResearchersExpectations<br /> Quality education for children with exceptionalities<br /> Paraeducator we are entrusting/ resides in their abilities, qualifications, competencies<br /> Many are not certified or trained<br />6<br />Sources: Carter, O’Rourke, Sisco & Pelsue (2009), Riggs & Mueller, (2001).<br />
  11. 11. Participants<br /> 336 transitional paraeducators <br /> 34 secondary school/17 transitional programs<br /> Ethnicity- 94% Caucasian, 14.4% Hispanic<br /> Gender - 89% Female, 11% Male<br />7<br />
  12. 12. Instrument<br />Replication of knowledge & task survey<br /> Carter, O’Rourke, Sisco & Pelsue, 2009<br /> 3 parts<br />Demographics<br />knowledge standards <br />job-related tasks<br />8<br />
  13. 13. Knowledge Survey<br />9<br />Sources: Carter, O’Rourke, Sisco, & Pelsue (2009). <br />
  14. 14. Instrument Components<br />10<br />Demographics<br /> Knowledge Topics<br /> Paraprofessional Tasks<br />
  15. 15. Demographics Section<br />11<br />Years experience, gender, ethnicity, teacher certification, job description <br /> Community based/school setting<br /> 11-12 grades<br /> Work-supported employment/community<br /> Work-supported/sheltered workshop<br /> Life skills ages 18-22<br /> Transition program classroom ages 18-22<br />
  16. 16. Knowledge Section<br />12<br />15 items<br /> job training skill, educational terms, effects of disability <br /> ethical, cultural biases, rights of families<br /> abuse indicators, teaching strategies, technology, <br /> procedural safeguards, environmental impacts,<br /> communication, assessment, role of paraeducator in IEP<br />
  17. 17. Paraprofessional Task Section<br />13<br />19 Tasks<br /> small group & one-on-one instruction, preparing materials & student transition plans<br /> communication/parents, paperwork, meeting teachers, collecting data<br /> health care, behavior management & plans, technology, assessments<br /> job task & independence teaching, clerical, assist IEP planning<br /> facilitating social relationships, personal care<br />
  18. 18. Procedures <br /> 41 Utah School District<br /> 2 urban declined participation<br /> 8 rural stated no pertinent programs<br /> Participation<br />Urban 81%<br /> Suburban 100%<br /> Rural 68%<br /> Survey Packets via US mail<br />14<br />
  19. 19. Data Analysis<br />15<br />Descriptive statistics<br /> Job description<br /> Knowledge<br /> Job-related tasks <br /> Analyses<br /> Multi-regression<br /> Years of experience & disability incidence<br /> Predicted overall knowledge<br /> Chi Squared<br /> Job-related tasks<br /> Associated with disability focus<br />
  20. 20. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />With Whom Do Paraprofessionals Report?<br />16<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  21. 21. Paraprofessional Settings<br />17<br />
  22. 22. Disability Categories<br />18<br />
  23. 23. Data Focus<br />19<br />Low-incidence disabilities<br /> Moderate/Severe Range<br /> 72% <br /> High-incidence disabilities<br /> Mild range<br /> 28%<br />
  24. 24. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />How do Paraprofessionals<br />Evaluate Their<br />Knowledge?<br />20<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  25. 25. High Levels of Knowledge<br />21<br />
  26. 26. Low Levels of Knowledge<br />22<br />
  27. 27. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Factors Are Associated<br />with High Levels<br />of Knowledge?<br />23<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  28. 28. Overall Knowledge<br />24<br />
  29. 29. Predicted Knowledge <br /> Paraprofessionals/low-incidence<br /> Higher levels of knowledge<br /> Holding years experience constant<br /> Each year of experience <br /> Adds .015 knowledge units<br /> Working with low-incidence<br /> Holding years of experience constant<br />25<br />
  30. 30. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Types of Training<br />Have <br />Paraprofessionals<br />Received?<br />26<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  31. 31. Types of Training<br />27<br />
  32. 32. High Levels Training / On-The Job<br />28<br />
  33. 33. Low Levels Training / On-The Job<br />29<br />
  34. 34. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />How do Paraprofessionals<br />Evaluate Their Need<br />For Additional<br />Training?<br />30<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  35. 35. Substantial Need for Training<br />31<br />
  36. 36. Least Need for Training<br />32<br />
  37. 37. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Tasks Do Paraprofessionals<br />Report Performing?<br />33<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  38. 38. Most/Least Frequently Performed Tasks<br />34<br />
  39. 39. Tasks with Missing Data<br />35<br />
  40. 40. Task/Disability Incidence Associations<br />36<br />
  41. 41. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Tasks Do Paraprofessionals<br />Feel Most Prepared<br />To Perform?<br />37<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  42. 42. Tasks Most Confident In<br />38<br />
  43. 43. Tasks Least Confident In<br />39<br />
  44. 44. RESULTS<br />QUESTION<br />What Are Paraprofessional<br />Additional Training<br />Needs?<br />40<br />Sources: Google Images: presentationpictures.wordpress.com (2011)<br />
  45. 45. Training Needs<br />41<br />
  46. 46. Additional Training Considerations<br />42<br />Supervision<br /> Substantial amount of time or more 50.3%<br /> Moderate 19%<br /> Some 23.2 %<br /> None 5.7% <br />
  47. 47. Discussion<br />43<br />Source: muslimah.femagination.com<br />
  48. 48. Discussion<br />44<br /> Responsibilities<br /> Knowledge Level Perception<br /> Transitional Paraeducator Training<br />
  49. 49. Responsibilities<br />45<br />Disability Focus/broad range<br /> Mean 7.9<br /> 12 disabilities <br /> Settings<br /> Transitional classroom/community training (34%)<br /> Transitional classroom (23%)<br /> Location<br /> 34 schools<br /> 17 transitional centers/programs<br />
  50. 50. Responsibilities continued<br />46<br /> Urban <br /> Population 2008-09/81,017 to 5,960<br /> Transitional programs 6/9 (2 non-participants) <br />Suburban<br /> Population 2008-09/65,014 to 3,502<br /> Transitional program 5/8 (100% participation)<br /> Rural<br /> Population 2008-09/13,406 to 988<br /> Transitional programs 4/24 ( 8 no paraeducators)<br />Services and educational opportunity effected by geographic factors<br />Source: USOE, Pubic School Enrollment (2008-09)<br />
  51. 51. Responsibilities continued<br />47<br /> Tasks performed<br /> One-on-instruction, behavior management, independence skills, social relationship over 90% daily or weekly<br /> Non transition related<br /> Bottom of the list preparation IEP (8.1%) factor - annually) <br /> Transition related tasks<br /> Not participating in/low levels of confidence<br /> IEP planning, informal assessment, communication with parents<br /> Directly involved with student involved in transition<br /> Minimal to no supervision (47.9%)<br />
  52. 52. Responsibilities continued<br /> Missing Data<br /> Over 20% (N=336) <br /> Over 67 respondents did not answer these questions<br /> Missing data tasks/task performed %<br /> Planning IEP (8.1%)<br /> Parent communication (22.9%)<br /> Preparing transition plan (40.2%)<br /> Completing job or disability related paper work (46.4%)<br />48<br />Was missing information related to ignorance or non-performance?<br />
  53. 53. Knowledge Levels<br />Substantial levels of perceived knowledge<br />13 of 14 knowledge levels were above the mean (confident)<br /> Training on-the-job (69.91%)<br /> Split classroom/community (44%)<br /> Lack of supervision in community setting?<br /> Moderate – no supervision (47.9%)<br />49<br />When formal training is lacking, adequacy of delivering supporting instructional services is in question. Are those services delivered in the community without supervision?<br />
  54. 54. Knowledge Levels<br />Knowledge/Effect of instruction<br /> Dominant training on-the-job (69.91%)<br /> Informal training<br /> Training<br /> Teaching<br /> Supporting<br /> Meeting needs of students<br />50<br />Formal training should be included at the forefront for paraeducators in transitional settings.<br />
  55. 55. Knowledge Levels<br />51<br />Low Levels of Knowledge/student services<br /> IEP, technology, assessment, rights of families and students<br /> Congruent with Carter study<br /> Technology<br /> %<br /> Training influenced<br /> Financially, hourly pay, irrelevancy, little job enhancement<br />Source: Carter, O’Rourke, Sisco & Pelsue (2009)<br />
  56. 56. Transitional Paraeducator Training <br />Training appearances for transitional paraeducators<br />Low-incidence disabilities (72%)<br /> Low-incidence/more knowledgeable <br /> Not certified nor formally trained<br /> Formal training being replaced by on-the-job training<br /> Knowledge predicted by years experience<br />52<br />Years experience is a predictor of knowledge. Extensive specific task driven training should factor into knowledge. Formal training should be provided for transitional paraeducators.<br />Source: Riggs & Muellar (2001)<br />
  57. 57. Limitations<br />53<br />Source: Google Images (2011).<br />
  58. 58. Limitations<br />54<br />Survey mailed – no verbal contact<br /> Survey relied on national <br /> knowledge standards<br /> State standards established<br /> Survey administered<br /> Transitional paraeducators<br /> Results should only be <br /> interpreted for that group<br />
  59. 59. Paraeducators Rock!<br />55<br />In the classroom!<br />In the community!<br />
  60. 60. References<br />Agosta, J., Brown, L., & Melda, K., (1993). Job coaching in supported employment: Present condition and emerging directions. Salem, OR: Human Services Research Institute.<br />Ashbaker, B.Y. & Minney, R.B. (2007). Planning your paraprofessionals’ path: an administrator’s legal compliance and training guide. Horsham, PA: LRP.<br />Carter, E., O'Rourke, L., Sisco, L. G., & Pelsue, D. (2009). Knowledge, responsibilities, and training needs of paraprofessionals in elementary and secondary schools. Remedial and Special Education, 30(6), 344-359. <br />Etscheidt, S. (2005). Paraprofessional services for students with disabilities: a legal analysis of issues. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 30(2), 60-80.<br />Morgan, R., Merrill, Z., Ames, N., Feng, J., Looslie, T.S., & Salzberg, C.L. (1996). ASSET Advancing Skills of Specialists in Employment Training. Logan, UT: TRI-SPED, University of Utah.<br />Pickett, A. L., Faison, K., Formanek, J., Woods, J., (1999). A core curriculum & training program to prepare paraeducators to work in transitional services and supported employment programs (2nd ed.). New York, New York City University of New York, NY Center for Advanced Study in Education.<br />Riggs, C. G., & Mueller, P. H. (2001). Employment and utilization of paraeducators in inclusive settings. Journal of Special Education, 35(1), 54-62. <br />Utah State Office of Education (2009). Utah paraeducator handbook. Salt Lake City, UT: USOE. <br /> <br />

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