Tracy Knickerbocker, Ed.D.


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Fluency: Achieving True Mastery in the Learning Process

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Tracy Knickerbocker, Ed.D.

  1. 1. A Presentation for: The 30th National Conference forParaeducators & Related Service Providers Presented by: Tracy Knickerbocker, Ed.D. The E2 Group, Inc. 7714 Silent Forest Drive Houston. TX 77479 • 800.282.5491
  2. 2. Workshop Objectives! !  Todescribe the rational behind using fluency building;! !  Tolist the five implementation steps for constructing fluency sheets; and! !  Toapply fluency building to one content area in your classroom.! Rationale and Definition ! !Fluency (True Mastery: accuracy AND speed)! ! ! !Practice makes the difference!! ! !100 % accuracy (traditional “mastery”)! ! !Beginnerʼs level (inaccurate and slow)! ! !Incompetence (no measurable performance)!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 1
  3. 3. Why is Fluency Important?! !  Retention & Maintenance! -the ability to perform a skill or recall knowledge long after formal programs have ended.! !  Endurance! -the ability to maintain performance levels and attention to task for extended periods.! !  Application! -the ability to combine and apply what is learned to perform more complex skills and to generalize the information to new situations.! A Successful Learner! When students lack! fluency in foundation! skills, performance! requiring application ! of those skills is likely! to be painfully slow,! difficult, and full of! errors.! Foundational Concepts! !  Fluency building can be used with any teaching method and material.! !  It is based on continuous measurement of a childʼs progress.! !  It may be used for feedback, assessment, motivation, and instructional decision making.!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 2
  4. 4. Foundational Concepts ! !  Fluency building assists students in retaining and organizing information.! !  Keeps students actively involved.! !  Helps students perform better on tests.! !  Students can develop their own practice sheets for other classes.! !  Students like using them.! Five Implementation Steps Implementation Steps! !  Step 1: Pinpoint! !  Step 2: Practice! !  Step 3: Chart! !  Step 4: Decide! !  Step 5: Manage!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 3
  5. 5. Step 1: Pinpoint! !  Describe behavior.! -What is it that you want the students to learn?! !  Determine placement.! -Students must be placed within the curriculum in accord with instructional objectives.! !  Set aim.! -What should the students shoot for?! Characteristics of a Pinpoint! !  Precise.! !-Specific target behavior.! !-Describes specific action & outcome: learning channel! !-Is consistent.! !  Countable.! !-Has an observable beginning & end.! !-Is repeatable within the length of the timing.! !  Fair Pair.! !-Collect both correct and incorrect responses.! !  Relevant part of Curriculum.! Step 2: Practice! !  Timeframe.! -Determine an appropriate time for the skill (e.g. minute, minutes, etc.).! !  Select practice method.! -How do you want students to practice (practice sheets, SAFMEDS, paired practice, etc.)! !  Conduct daily timings.! -Conduct timings on pinpoint skill to monitor progress and give practice.!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 4
  6. 6. Creating Practice Sheets! 1.  Select content material (subject, unit);! 2.  Determine the objective (what do you want to measure?);! 3.  Choose key items or vocabulary;! 4.  Select 5-8 items for repeated practice;! 5.  Prepare student practice sheets.! Practice Sheet Tips! !  Label the sheet. Include the objective.! !  Include only 5-8 different items. Repeat two or three times in random order.! !  Determine the length of your timing.! !  Donʼt overcrowd - leave space to write answers.! !  Provide more items than the students can complete during the timing period.! !  Develop an answer key.! !  Provide prompts if necessary.! !  Check the readability level.! Partner Practice! !  Pair students with a partner for oral timed drill.! !  One student reads one from one column and the other student supplies the missing element.! !  Remind partners to provide immediate feedback to the other student (when correct, praise; if incorrect or hesitant, provide the answer immediately).! !  After two minutes, partners switch roles. The practice session is started again for two minutes to allow the other student timed practice.! !  If the page is finished before the two minutes are up, then the student should start over from the top.! !  Conduct timed practices on previous practice sheets for review.!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 5
  7. 7. Other Uses of 
 Practice Sheets! !  Homework! !  Pre & Post Tests! !  Group Games! !  Independent Practice at Centers! Step 3: Chart! !  Count responses.! -Count both corrects and incorrects.! !  Record.! -Record responses per minute.! !  Display.! -Display responses on academic chart for student.! Purpose of Charting! "  To obtain an accurate measure of the rate of movement you have pinpointed;! "  To display the rate obtained graphically so that both the general trends and smallest change in rates will be easily observed.!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 6
  8. 8. Step 4: Decide! !  Determine when to move on or scale back.! !  Decision tools:! 1.  At aim for two out of three days.! 2.  Three day days of flat data.! 3.  Less than x1.25 growth per week.! 4.  Corrects decelerating.! 5.  Celeration turn down.! Acquisition Level! !  Low frequency: !  More direct teaching correct < 20 minutes! and/or instruction! !  Modeling & feedback! !  Error, no pattern !  Emphasize tool skills (slice back)! !  More bounce or !  Assess learning variability in data! channels! !  Still learning the !  More immediate basic concepts!! reinforcement on items.! Fluency Building Level! !  Middle frequency: !  Instruct to errors! correct > 20/minute! !  Practice has effect! !  Middle frequency: !  Keep learning errors <5/minute! channel and format !  Less bounce! consistent! !  Refining the !  Less instruction is concepts! necessary! !  Feedback to total task!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 7
  9. 9. Proficiency Level! !  High frequencies - at !  Add on! or near aim! !  Change learning !  Few, if any, errors! channels! !  Little bounce! !  Change format! !  Smooth, easy, !  Feedback through rhythmic responding! natural consequences! Step 5: Manage! !  Preparation.! !  Teach students to chart.! !  Classroom management.! Weekly Preparation! !  Week 1: Preparation! -Get materials ready! -Organizational decisions made! !  Week 2: Teaching the Process! -Discuss terms and purpose! -Model & practice management! !  Week 3: Charting! -Decide who will chart! -Teach charting to students & practice! !  Week 4: Decision Making! -Decide how often charts are analyzed! -Decide how & when to provide feedback!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 8
  10. 10. Management Tips! !  Organize directions & materials well.! !  Assign all possible tasks to students.! !  Establish a routine.! !  Establish partners.! !  Designate a place for all materials.! !  Practice, practice, practice.! !  Establish a time to check charts.! !  Have a backup for uncooperative students.! !  Use positive reinforcement.! !  Have students use pencils to chart.! !  Select initial pinpoints that will be likely to ensure success.! In Summary . . .! !  Using fluency allows us to help children learn faster than ever before;! !  By including the time dimension in our measurement methods we can systematically make changes in teaching with fluency as our goal;! !  We can help students achieve levels of truly masterful performance, in the same way that excellent coaches develop athletes.!© 2011, The E2 Group, Inc. 9