Early Reading Intervention: Increasing Personnel Involvement with Paraeducators


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Presentation from the 2011 National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals Conference by Claudia Reinfelds.

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Early Reading Intervention: Increasing Personnel Involvement with Paraeducators

  2. 2. Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  3. 3. AT-RISK<br />FAILURE OUTCOME<br />
  4. 4. MORE THAN ONE IN EVERY THIRD CHILD EXPERIENCES SIGNIFICANT DIFFICULTIES LEARNING TO READ (JOHNSTON, MCDONNELL, & HAWKEN, 2008)<br />Reading problems elevate a child’s odds of engaging in problem behaviors (Morgan, Farkas, Tufis, & sperling, 2008). <br />Early reading problems strongly predicted later reading problems.<br />Early behavior problems predicted later behavior problems.<br />Early reading problems predicted a general set of behavior problems. <br />One type of early behavior problem (poor self-regulation of learning) strongly predicted later behavior problems (Morgan, Farkas, Tufis, & Sperling, 2008)<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  5. 5. Prediction of <br />Children’s experiences prior to kindergarten correlated with their success later in school. Ramey and Ramey (2004) found that a high-quality preschool program not only reduced special education placement and grade retention numbers, but also improved students’ performance in reading and math in elementary and secondary school. <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  6. 6. Limitation Factors<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  7. 7. Social-Economical Predictor<br />Duncan and Seymour (2000) showed that low socio-economic status (SES) was associated with impairments in letter knowledge, as well as poor foundations in sight vocabulary and decoding strategies in young children (ages 4 to 8). <br />Slavin, Chamberlain, and Daniels (2007) indicated that 43% of disadvantaged students read below the basic level in middle school. <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  8. 8. Anti-social Predictor<br />Antisocial behavior in schools can be influenced by:<br /><ul><li>Media violence,
  9. 9. Nature versus nurture, and
  10. 10. Family, community, and societal conditions (Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004).</li></ul>Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  11. 11. Disabilities as a Predictor<br />Early language development:<br /><ul><li>General developmental disability
  12. 12. Hearing impairment, or
  13. 13. Neurological condition (Strickland, Ganske, & Monroe, 2002). </li></ul>Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  14. 14. Limited Proficiency in English Predictor<br />It has been reported that 83% of teachers believed parents are failing to provide adequate and necessary support for their children’s academic success (Pearator, 2002).<br />Schools that rationalize their failure by blaming parents have failed to evaluate the effective classroom practices that can counter affect these predictors. <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  15. 15. Research Based Early Reading Intervention<br />None of the previously mentioned factors (social-economic, anti-social behavior, disability, and/or English proficiency) are automatic barriers to literacy development (Strickland, 2002)<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  16. 16. Using Emerging Literacy Skills to Identify Students<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  17. 17. Early Identification Predictors (Lyytinen, Erskine, Tolvanen, Torppa, Poikkeus, Lyyinnen, 2006)<br />Common characteristic for students experiencing reading difficulties (Kamp, Abbott, Greenwood, Wills, Veerkamp, & kaufman, 2008<br />Double-Deficit Hypolthesis of Dyslexia <br />(Katzir, Kim, Wolf, Morris, & Lovett, 2008)<br /><ul><li>Phonological Awareness</li></ul>To manipulate the sounds the language is made of (Griffith & Olson, 1992)<br />fan<br />pan<br /><ul><li>Alphabet Knowledge or Naming Speed
  18. 18. Knowledge of names and sounds of visual graphics</li></ul>Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  19. 19. Early Reading Intervention<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  20. 20. Explicit<br />The progress of the students, through an ordered acquisition of skills, needs to be clear and definite.<br />Menzies, Mahdavie, and Lewis (2008) recommended 3 types of instructional groups: phonemic awareness, decoding and fluency, and guided reading techniques. <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  21. 21. Phonemic Awareness<br /><ul><li>Blending and segmenting tasks
  22. 22. Comparing sounds
  23. 23. Rhyming exercises</li></ul>Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  24. 24. Decoding and Fluency<br /><ul><li>Introduction of new words
  25. 25. Review of previously learned words. </li></ul>Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  26. 26. Guided Reading <br /><ul><li>Choral readings
  27. 27. Independent readings
  28. 28. Dictation of words from the text</li></ul>Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  29. 29. Intensive<br />How much and the concentration of the instruction<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br /><ul><li>Uninterrupted work that is scheduled for continuity.
  30. 30. Clear message to pupils as to the importance of becoming readers.
  31. 31. 30 minutes, 3-4 days weekly (Kamps et al, 2008).
  32. 32. 60 minutes (Harn, Linan-Thampson, & Robers, 2008).
  33. 33. First graders with small group instruction combined with one to one tutorial (Vadasy, Sanders, Peyton, & Jenkins, 2002). </li></li></ul><li>Systematic<br />Methodically, organized manner in which early students are taught to read. <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br /><ul><li>Progress monitoring, more than 2-3 times yearly
  34. 34. Home/school communication system
  35. 35. Professional development for all adults involved in ERI.</li></li></ul><li>The Role of Paraeducators<br />No Child Left Behind legislation clearly states that the paraeducators must work “under the direct supervision of a teacher”(NCLB, pg. 6)<br />International Reading Association (IRA) express concern that paraeducators provide instruction to at-risk children despite being untrained and/or unsupervised (Klenk & Kibby, 2000). <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  36. 36. Advantage of Using Paraeducators<br />Cost Effective<br />2-3 can be hired for the price of one teacher<br />Not enough supervised teachers for all situations. <br />Neighborhood Representatives<br />Represent linguistic and cultural diversity <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  37. 37. Evidence of Past Success<br />Specific components of early reading intervention studied used paraeducators as part of the implemental team (see figure). <br />Similarities are evident when these studies are compared. <br />Paraeducators provide a supportive role only<br />Professional development for the specific skills needed (2-16 hours) was provided as a separate activity. <br />Ongoing supervision that includes observations and feedback related to those observations. <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  38. 38. Components of Supervision<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  39. 39. Early Reading Interventional Tasks for Paraeducators<br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  40. 40. One-to-one Intensity<br />Where reading partners are available and can be given appropirate training, partnership approaches can be very effective (Harrison, 2000). <br />Assisting pupils with rereads improves the experience for the pupil. <br />Review high frequency words<br />Phoneic awareness word games<br />Alphabet recognition/fluency review <br />Claudia Reinfelds, Olathe, KS<br />
  41. 41. Collaborative supervision is the key<br />Claudia Reinfelds<br />550 W. Loula <br />Olathe, KS 66061<br />creinfelds@att.net<br />