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Di 2 hour


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Di 2 hour

  1. 1. 5/13/2011 Differentiated Instruction Kit Giddings Utah Personnel Development Center ObjectivesDefinitionCreating a Differentiated ClassroomDifferentiating Lesson Content 1
  2. 2. 5/13/2011 Definition What is It?Differentiated classrooms provide a varietyof approaches to: Learning content Making sense of ideas Effective learning 2
  3. 3. 5/13/2011 How is it Different?Traditional teaching is more unitary in itsapproach, uses the same content, and processingactivities. For example:1st graders listening to a story then drawing apicture5th graders listening to general instruction aboutfractions then completing the same homeworkassignmentSecondary students sitting through a history orscience lecture then watching a video Is That Wrong? No! Traditional teaching covers about 80-85% of the students in our classrooms. It’s the remaining 15% of struggling students who need more instruction, guidance, and feedback. These 15% learn because of us, not in spite of us. 3
  4. 4. 5/13/2011 What “DI” is notDifferentiated Instruction is NOT: The “individualized instruction” of the 1970’s (assuming a separate level for each student) Chaotic (teachers don’t lose control) Homogeneous grouping (blue group never works with red group) What Is “DI”?Differentiated Instruction is: Proactive (preparing lesson ahead) More qualitative than quantitative (adjusting the nature of an assignment rather than more of the same thing) Rooted in assessment (research-based) Uses multiple approaches Student centered A blend of whole-class, group, & individual instruction 4
  5. 5. 5/13/2011 Keep in Mind... Differentiation doesn’t suggest that a teacher can be all things to all students all of the time. Itdoes, however, mandate that a teacher create a reasonable range of approaches to learning much of the time so that most students find learning a fit much of the time. (Tomlinson, 2001) Psychological NeedsStudent psychological needs must be metbefore learning can occur Physical Safety Acceptance Self-esteem Self -actualization 5
  6. 6. 5/13/2011Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- Actualization Needs To develop our talents and be true to our goals; to realize our potential; to have “peak experiences” Self-esteem and Competence Needs To achieve; to gain approval and recognition from others for our achievements; to trust in our abilities Belonging and Love Needs To love and be loved; to have relationships and be accepted; to know that we are a valued member of a group Safety Needs To feel safe, secure, and out of danger; to feel confident that we will not be harmed either physically or psychologically Physiological Needs To have the food, water, clothing, shelter, sleep, exercise, and comfort we need to surviveCreating a Differentiated Classroom 6
  7. 7. 5/13/2011 Rules of Thumb Be clear on key concepts as you plan your lessons (background knowledge) Think of assessment as a road map for your planning (progress monitoring data) Lessons should emphasize critical & creative thinking (Inferential over literal questions) Make your lessons engaging (present problems, issues, dilemmas, & unknowns) Is your classroom...A welcome, safe place that invites learning?A center for mutual respect?Where students know they will be challenged?Part of a team where students can confidentlycontribute?Supportive towards struggling students? 7
  8. 8. 5/13/2011 Key StrategiesBegin at a pace that is Have a procedure forcomfortable for you. turning in workTime activities to support Minimize “stray” movementstudent success. Have a plan for the “quickUse an “anchor activity” to finishers”free you up to focus yourattention on your students. Give your students as much responsibility forCreate & deliver their learning as possibleinstructions carefullyMake transitions smooth &quick Begin Slowly Choices of books Homework options Reading buddies Journals Work alone or together Flexible seating Whole-to-part Part-to-whole Computer programs Stations Think-Pair-Share Jigsaw activities Multiple level of questions Choice boards Multiple textbooks Alternative assessments 8
  9. 9. 5/13/2011 Graphic Organizer The Curriculum Diamond is a graphic organizer for teachers. Helps us visualize and organize what we area going to teach and in what order Curriculum Diamond Hitler/Nazis Invasion of Poland Isolationism Hitler/Nazis Berlin Pearl Harbor Rationing WarReconstruction Poland of Japan Dates Freedom Axis/Allied Pearl Harbor Battles Powers Key Individuals 9
  10. 10. 5/13/2011Curriculum Diamond, cont. Team up with someone who teaches similar content as you Decide on a concept you teach Create a Curriculum Diamond for your classes Differentiating Lesson Content 10
  11. 11. 5/13/2011 Designing ConceptsFoundational: Basic information presented inways that help build a solid foundation ofunderstanding (ex.: cutting fruit and placing it to showfractions)Transformational: Detailed information whensomething is already clear to students (ex.: writingmeasures of music that represent certain fractions) Concepts, cont.Concrete: Understanding the literal aspect of aconcept (grasping the plot)Abstract: Gleaning meanings and implications(Investigations of a theme) 11
  12. 12. 5/13/2011 Concepts, cont. Simple: Developing a clear framework with resources, research, issues, problems, skills, & goals (Black Holes for Dummies) Complex: Adding to their framework with abstract ideas and questions (Stephen Hawking’s research) What is Scaffolding?Scaffolding is a term taken from the construction industry where a student receives academic support from the teacher. Since the student isn’t able to understand theentire concept or complete the steps by him or herself, he or she is guided through the necessary steps until he orshe can think or perform independently. Scaffolding helpsstudents successfully move from one level of knowledge to a higher level. 12
  13. 13. 5/13/2011 Scaffolding Examples 1. Directions that give more structure 2. Tape record lectures or readings 3. Re-teaching a concept different ways 4. Modeling 5. Clear and concise directions 6. Reading buddies 7. Teaching through multiple modalities 8. Manipulatives 9. Matching reading materials to student reading level10. Study guides11. Graphic organizers Lesson Checklist What do I want the students to know or do? How will I monitor progress with this task or concept? Does the task I assign match what I’m teaching? What do the students already know? Are the students are comfortable asking questions? Do I give the students enough opportunities to respond? Do the students understand the concept enough to work independently? How will I give the students feedback? Is the task slightly beyond the student’s comfort zone but not so demanding that it is frustrating? 13
  14. 14. 5/13/2011 Focus ActivityPick any number from 1-9Multiply it by 9Add the two digitsTake away 5Locate the corresponding number in the alphabetPick a country that begins with that letterPick an animal that begins with the last letter of the countryPick a color that begins with the last letter of your animalDid You Come Up with: An Orange Kangaroo in Denmark? 14
  15. 15. 5/13/2011 Other StrategiesFrom the chapter that you read last night,choose one of the following tasks & work aloneor with a partner: Draw a comic strip to show the events in the chapter In your journal, chronicle the events in the chapter Describe the setting & how it relates to the events in the chapter Rewrite a passage of the chapter in your own words. JigsawPerfect for articles or long readingassignments Divide article into sections Assign one group for each section Ask each group to read a designated section from the article and discuss it Gather the groups back to share what they read 15
  16. 16. 5/13/2011 Think-Pair-Share Students think about a concept by themselves Pair with other students & share ideas Bloom’s Taxonomy1. Knowledge-Recall: What is the story about?2. Comprehension-Understanding: Why did this happen?3. Application-Transfer: Use the information to predict...4. Analysis-Examining: How many elements are present?5. Synthesis-Combining: Change the story to a new setting6. Evaluation-Rating: Rank all the solutions in priority order 16
  17. 17. 5/13/2011 CubingCubing with its many sides, allows students tolook at an issue or topic from a variety ofangles (outside the box!) Side 1: Describe it Side 2: Compare it Side 3: Associate it Side 4: Analyze it Side 5: Apply it Side 6: Argue for or against it Cubing, cont. Levels of Thinking Tell Review Discuss Describe Prepare Diagram Recall Name Cartoon Locate List Compare Explain Propose Suggest Contrast Define Finish Prescribe Example Write Devise Debate Connect Make Formulate Design Produce Choose Support Develop In your opinion... 17
  18. 18. 5/13/2011 Remember... All students need lessons that are coherent, relevant, powerful, transferable, authentic, and meaningful.We shouldn’t consign the struggling students to“drill & practice” and save the rich and engaginglessons for the higher achieversA curriculum that is good for students pushes them a bit beyond what they find easy or comfortable. Design your lessons to stretch all students beyond their comfort zones in knowledge, insight, thinking, basic skills, production, presentation skills, and affective awareness. 18
  19. 19. 5/13/2011Plan to encourage your students to “work up”, or to be ready to match students to tasks that will stretch them. A task is challenging for a given student when it causes the student to reach beyond the information given in a text or from reading class notes. Questions? 19