Topics that will be discussed during the Power Point.
The first slide describes a basic overview on the topic of Bullying. It touches on such aspects as culture, development, adolescence, communication and interventions. This slide prepares the audience to expect some more in depth explanation on each topic.
This slide describes how a bully preys upon those with low self esteem or with no support group to help fend off the aggression and advances of a bully. It is important to point the type of behavior that promotes this type of harassment.
These are just a few of the emotions and perceptions harbored by either the bully, victim or bystander within a school environment. These are all precursors that can follow through adolescence into adulthood to prevent normal development of social interaction and health.
This slide explains the issue of how communication and the internet are used perversely to attack and maintain torment through all types of media.
This slide displays a few of the websites and tools bullies use to find, slander and continuously harass in cyber space. It also shows how permanent information is and how difficult it is to erase.
This slide shows the emotional and behavioral alterations within a adolescence’s life when being pursued by a bully. It is difficult to understand the social standing in our school system and the emphasis of being noticed or recognized by your peers.
This slide provides a few of the examples of psychological behaviors originating from bullying and being shunned by your peers. It is difficult to recover from the notion of being transparent and requires immediate action to resolve before any further emotional harm can be received.
This slide describes the hidden aspect of bullying-the bystander. A student is posed with a choices that dictate how their status is affected, the type of harm that can ensue from stopping a bully or the danger of being labeled a outcast.
This slide shows a more detailed explanation of the roles bystanders play during situations of bullying and what choices are available.
This slide shows how intervention programs are assessed within school and how to better assess these types of behaviors to prevent ongoing violence and psychological damage inflicted on students.
This slide shows a few examples of the programs that can be utilize for both bullies and victims to help address the issues of anger, depression, self esteem and social interaction.
Nowhere To Hide
Nowhere to Hide: Bullying within School and Media Nicholas Ramirez Advanced General Psychology Oct 22, 2011
Table of Contents <ul><li>Brief Overview of Topic-Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying-Power and Persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber-Bullying and Digital Communication </li></ul><ul><li>The Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Victims of Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Bystanders-Contributing or Ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions </li></ul>
Bullying and Society <ul><li>Bullying has been a part of every culture, time period and generation, being used in a variety of manner and within different age groups. The problem with the current assessment of bullying is not only the deep impact it has emotionally and physically toward young adolescents but also how much farther bullying has reached from within the confines of a school environment As society evolves along with media and technology, children are introduced and privy to very aggressive material. Associated with aggressive material is the rise of depression, anxiety and stress among children. Bullying has branched out toward children more abruptly causing suicide among young children to increase due to this topic. Solutions such as school programs and interventions which entail anger management, team building and promoting self esteem are a few of the techniques used to overcome these types of behaviors. </li></ul>
Bullying-Power and Persistence <ul><li>Dooley notes: “Bullying is usually defined as aggression that is intentionally carried out by one or more individuals and repeatedly targeted toward a person who cannot easily defend him- or herself” </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence suggests that bullies develop by parental physical discipline, in which are hostile and rejecting, developing poor problem-solving skills, and teach their children to be the aggressor (Veenstra et. al., 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>When examining the motives of bullying in school, bullies are driven by specific emotions or requiring a response to satisfy or condone this type of behavior. </li></ul>
Cyber bullying and Digital Communication <ul><li>“ Consistent with the Smith et al. (2008) study, almost all cyber bullies were also traditional bullies and nearly all cyber victims were traditional victims. However, traditional victims were not found to be electronic bullies” (Gradinger et. al., 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>As the development of peer relationships is based on aspects such as self worth, group placement, friendships and romantic involvement, with the access of the internet and mobility of technology/communication, these interactions become more personal and less private. </li></ul><ul><li>Dooley notes: that cyber bullying using media was perceived by students as being worse than other forms of cyber bullying based on exposure and being recognized. </li></ul><ul><li>Since electronic access is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, there is no limit to the amount of harassment that can occur in a child’s development creating unhealthy psychological problems. </li></ul>
Tools of Cyber Bullying <ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Texting </li></ul><ul><li>Emailing </li></ul><ul><li>School Internet Forums </li></ul><ul><li>False Identities </li></ul>
The Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Victims of Bullying <ul><li>Veenstra et. al. notes: “bullying might allow children to achieve their immediate goals without learning socially acceptable ways to negotiate with others, resulting in persistent maladaptive patterns” </li></ul><ul><li>Though resilience is instilled in some victims helping them adapt to these situations and promote strength, others have difficulty regaining normal social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Merrell et. al. notes: “A disturbing element of some of the high profile school shootings in the United States during the past few years has been that some of these youthful shooters were repeat victims of bullying and peer harassment, were unpopular, and they ultimately went on a shooting spree as a way of exacting revenge ” </li></ul>
Bystanders-Contributing or Ignorance <ul><li>“ Those students who either witness bullying or those who know students who are being bullied could experience a degree of co victimization that, in turn, may have an impact upon their own mental health and suicide ideation” (Rivers et. al., 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>However, as the pressures of popularity, group acceptance or survival within a school environment is viewed as essential; there are different roles bystanders play to avoid being viewed as an outcast. </li></ul>
Roles of Bystanders <ul><li>“ The role of bystander includes those who join in with perpetrators in bullying another (“ assistants ”) </li></ul><ul><li>Those who provide positive feedback to perpetrators (“ reinforcers ”) </li></ul><ul><li>Those who stay away and watch from a distance (“ outsiders ”) </li></ul><ul><li>Those who attempt to intervene on behalf of the victim (“ defenders ”) </li></ul>
Interventions <ul><li>Intervention programs are assessed to be limited and unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>Merrell argues: “many interventions designed to prevent bullying are implemented with small groups of targeted students, in individual classrooms, or in clusters of selected classrooms, rather than in whole schools </li></ul><ul><li>“ Such predictors can provide a basis for designing interventions to prevent or reduce bullying among children and adolescents, and is consistent with the risk and protective logic embedded within the widely endorsed public health model of prevention” (Cook et. al., pg. 3). </li></ul>