REFLECTION OF CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF
SYED ABUBAKER SIDDIQ
• Why Vernacular Architecture Of Himachal Pradesh?
• Construction Techniques Adopted To Mitigate Seismic
• Factors Influencing Vernacular Architecture
– Kath kuni Architecture
What is vernacular architecture??
It is based on :
• localized need,
• construction materials, and
• local traditions.
It is an epitome of place to which it belongs. It cannot
be imported from elsewhere.
“The architecture of the people, By the people and for the people.“
ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH?
• Seismic tremors are frequent.
• Layout plans and construction of buildings is
complicated in hills than in plains.
• Extreme example of sustained vernacular architecture.
ADOPTED TO MITIGATE SEISMIC TREMORS
Kath Khuni Style
• Cold and cloudy climate
• southern slopes are preferred for orientation of the houses so
as to maximize penetration of the sun rays.
• The height of building varies at different altitudes and are
designed in accordance with the sun path.
• The structure is a two storey building with an Attic.
• Low Height of the rooms (2.1 – 2.4 m)
• low surface to volume ratio reducing heat loss from surfaces.
• Small window sizes and low ceiling height
• Roof of buildings possess proper slope for efficient drainage.
slope for efficient
low ceiling height
• Major Occupation – agriculture
• House with many stores - for storage of grains.
• Service Area forms a separate unit away from the living quarters.
• Baisakh, Poh, Magh and Phalgun are regarded as
auspicious for the start of construction
• House should face east and the rising sun.
• Houses do not have a boundary wall.
• Deodar Wood
– imparts stability to tall structures
– insect and termite resistant
withstand long periods of weather
– It is used in making posts, beams,
window and door frames, shutters,
– good insulator and binder
– Either mud is filled into the
wooden forms and rammed
– Alternatively, sun dried mud blocks
are used for walls
• Hard Stone
- used in building foundation and
walls supporting the roof.
• Slate Tiles
- These have high quartz content, frost
- Low maintenance
- Invulnerable to rot and insects
- provide a moisture barrier to the structure.
• A multifunctional space
• It is used to store grain
• Also served as abode of the god
• Windows on the sides ventilate and dry the grain, also protecting
from the rain.
• Insulate the house, it serves as an excellent storage space
Window on sides
The indigenous form of architecture of himachal
Pradesh is known as kathkuni style of architecture
They are still seen in the districts of Shimla,
• Vernacular structures - by empirical builders without the
intervention of professional architects
• In vernacular architecture - culture and climate play a vital role
• Principles of vernacular architecture can be applied to modern
architecture and offer improved adaptation to A particular climate.
• Sensitive to social needs of the users - provision of outdoor areas
(verandas and balconies)
• Window hoods provide adequate ventilation and rain protection for
• Buildings provide a good solution by introducing attic – a
• Facilities which are already in use prove their positive qualities on a