Himachal

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Himachal

  1. 1. REFLECTION OF CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH PAVITHRA.M RAMYA BHARATHI PRAVEEN KUMAR.M SYED ABUBAKER SIDDIQ SAKTHIVEL.S
  2. 2. CONTENT • Introduction • Why Vernacular Architecture Of Himachal Pradesh? • Construction Techniques Adopted To Mitigate Seismic Tremors • Factors Influencing Vernacular Architecture – Climate – Culture – Materials – Kath kuni Architecture • Conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION What is vernacular architecture?? It is based on : • localized need, • construction materials, and • local traditions. It is an epitome of place to which it belongs. It cannot be imported from elsewhere. “The architecture of the people, By the people and for the people.“ - OLIVER
  4. 4. WHY VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF HIMACHAL PRADESH? • Seismic tremors are frequent. • Layout plans and construction of buildings is complicated in hills than in plains. • Extreme example of sustained vernacular architecture.
  5. 5. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES ADOPTED TO MITIGATE SEISMIC TREMORS Kath Khuni Style
  6. 6. FACTORS INFLUENCING VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE  Climate  Culture  Materials
  7. 7. CLIMATE • Cold and cloudy climate • southern slopes are preferred for orientation of the houses so as to maximize penetration of the sun rays. • The height of building varies at different altitudes and are designed in accordance with the sun path.
  8. 8. Climate • The structure is a two storey building with an Attic. • Low Height of the rooms (2.1 – 2.4 m) • low surface to volume ratio reducing heat loss from surfaces. Attic two storey 2.1 to 2.4 m
  9. 9. Climate • Small window sizes and low ceiling height • Roof of buildings possess proper slope for efficient drainage. slope for efficient drainage Small windows low ceiling height
  10. 10. Culture • Major Occupation – agriculture • House with many stores - for storage of grains. • Service Area forms a separate unit away from the living quarters.
  11. 11. Culture • Baisakh, Poh, Magh and Phalgun are regarded as auspicious for the start of construction • House should face east and the rising sun. • Houses do not have a boundary wall.
  12. 12. Material • Deodar Wood – imparts stability to tall structures – insect and termite resistant – even when untreated, can withstand long periods of weather corrosion. – It is used in making posts, beams, window and door frames, shutters, roofs etc.
  13. 13. Material • Mud – good insulator and binder – Either mud is filled into the wooden forms and rammed – Alternatively, sun dried mud blocks are used for walls
  14. 14. Material • Hard Stone - used in building foundation and walls supporting the roof. • Slate Tiles - These have high quartz content, frost resistant - Low maintenance - Invulnerable to rot and insects - provide a moisture barrier to the structure.
  15. 15. The Attic • A multifunctional space • It is used to store grain • Also served as abode of the god • Windows on the sides ventilate and dry the grain, also protecting from the rain. • Insulate the house, it serves as an excellent storage space storage space Window on sides
  16. 16. kathkuni The indigenous form of architecture of himachal Pradesh is known as kathkuni style of architecture They are still seen in the districts of Shimla, kinnaur, kullu
  17. 17. Conclusion • Vernacular structures - by empirical builders without the intervention of professional architects • In vernacular architecture - culture and climate play a vital role • Local culture Local material stability
  18. 18. Conclusion • Principles of vernacular architecture can be applied to modern architecture and offer improved adaptation to A particular climate. • Sensitive to social needs of the users - provision of outdoor areas (verandas and balconies) • Window hoods provide adequate ventilation and rain protection for the openings • Buildings provide a good solution by introducing attic – a multifunctional space • Facilities which are already in use prove their positive qualities on a daily basis
  19. 19. Thank You

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