Independence at Work: Why management is dispensable. How complexity is causing a leadership revolution
Independence at Work Niels PflaegingWhy management is dispensable.How complexity is causing a leadership revolutionKeynote at Phaesun Workshop 2012 Memmingen/Germany, 5 October 2012 Illustrations used with kind permission by Jurgen Appelo
?! Typical questions about work & organizations
Most organizations are obsessed with individual performance.But individual performance is a myth, actually.
We know that everyone in an organisation is interconnected.So performance and success are complex things…
Complexity and its consequences forwork and leadership
The impact of complexity on work:Value creation has two parts Dynamic part – solution: man Formal part – solution: machine
high dynamicDynamic part of value creationSolution: man Age of crafts manu- facturing Local markets, high customi- zationFormal part ofvalue creation Solution: machine 1850/1900 t
high dynamic sluggishness/low dynamicDynamic part of value creationSolution: man Age of Age of crafts manu- tayloristic facturing industry Local markets, Spacious markets, high customi- little competition zationFormal part ofvalue creation Solution: machine 1850/1900 1970/80 t
high dynamic sluggishness/low dynamic high dynamicDynamic part of value creationSolution: man Age of Age of Age of crafts manu- tayloristic global facturing industry markets Local markets, Outperformers exercise Spacious markets, market pressure over high customi- little competition conventional companies zationFormal part ofvalue creation Solution: machine 1850/1900 1970/80 today t The dominance of high dynamics and complexity is neither good or bad. It‘s a historical fact.
Guess where in this “Taylor bathtub” timeline independence becomes vital!Dynamic part of value creationSolution: man Age of Age of Age of crafts manu- tayloristic global facturing industry markets Local markets, Outperformers exercise Spacious markets, market pressure over high customi- little competition conventional companies zationFormal part ofvalue creation Solution: machine 1850/1900 1970/80 today t
“Socially dense market organization”. Is that possible? Command, Radical transparency,Problems, control social density,information group pressure Frame: values, Frame: rules, principles, roles, responsibilities, shared objectives job descriptions
Industry RetailIt is possible Services Governments & NGOs
But…We have to build consensus about human nature.What are people like?
McGregors critical distinction Theory X Theory Y Attitude People dislike work, People need to work and want to take an interest find it boring, and will avoid it if they can in it. Under right conditions, they enjoy it Direction People must be forced or bribed People will direct themselves to make the right effort towards a target that they accept ResponsibilityPeople would rather be directed than accept People will seek and accept responsibility, responsibility, (which they avoid) under the right conditions Motivation People are motivated mainly by money Under the right conditions, people are motivated and fears about their job security by the desire to realize their own potential Creativity Most people have little creativity - except Creativity and ingenuity are widely distributed when it comes to getting round rules and grossly underusedSource: Douglas McGregor, ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’, 1960
Behavior Context Human NatureWe have an observation problem.
The dependence model - The in(ter)dependence model:nice illusion Where everyone can think. And everyone has to!
Transparency & ImprovementPeer team comparisonsComparisons w/previous periodsDialogue & dissentPay by market valueResult sharing…Fixed & individual targetsManagement by ObjectivesBudgets & PlansPerformance appraisalsPay by PositionPay for PerformanceIncentives & Bonuses…
The 10.000 hour principleFor mastery and learning.Pretty important
Winning: only together, not individually.Celebrate results. Not meeting targets.
Independence at work:Leadership means working on the system.Not on people.
In complexity, organizing the work requires a new codexLaw The In(ter)dependence The Dependence model – Beta model – Alpha§1 Freedom to act Connectedness not Dependency§2 Responsibility Cells not Departments§3 Governance Leadership not Management§4 Performance climate Result culture not Duty fulfillment§5 Success Fit not Maximization§6 Transparency Intelligence flow not Power accumulation§7 Orientation Relative Targets not Top-down prescription§8 Recognition Sharing not Incentives§9 Mental presence Preparedness not Planning§10 Decision-making Consequence not Bureaucracy§11 Resource usage Purpose-driven not Status-oriented§12 Coordination Market dynamics not Commands
.! Let´s take people and work off the grid. Let´s bring independence to work. It works.