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Teoria Ecológica Desenvolvimento Humano- Brofenbrenner

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Apresentação das ideas, pressupostos e implicações centrais da teoria ecológica do desenvolvimento humano (Urie Brofenbrenner)

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Teoria Ecológica Desenvolvimento Humano- Brofenbrenner

  1. 1. Teoria Ecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano Urie Bronfenbrenner (1974) Neuza Pedro DE- FCUL 2007
  2. 2. Teoria Ecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano <ul><li>Define-se como uma nova perspectiva teórica para a investigação sobre o comportamento humano. </li></ul><ul><li>2 novas concepções </li></ul><ul><li>Da pessoa (em desenvolvimento) Do ambiente </li></ul>Processo que se refere à estabilidade e mudanças nas interacções que o sujeito estabelece com o meio, no curso da sua vida (e através de gerações). “ O que importa para a compreensão do comportamento é o ambiente como ele é percebido ” (Bronfenbrenner, 1996, p.6) Neuza Pedro DE- FCUL 2007
  3. 3. Teoria Ecológica do Desenvolvimento Humano <ul><li>A ecologia do desenvolvimento humano envolve o estudo científico da acomodação progressiva e mútua entre : </li></ul><ul><li>- o ser humano (activo e em desenvolvimento) </li></ul><ul><li>- as propriedades mutantes dos ambientes em que este se move, e dos contextos mais amplos em que esses ambientes estão inseridos. </li></ul>Relação bidireccional, alicerçada na reciprocidade. Neuza Pedro DE- FCUL 2007
  4. 4. Ambiente… <ul><li>O ambiente ecológico é concebido como uma série de estruturas concêntrica, contendo no seu interior o sujeito (em desenvolvimento). </li></ul>Sendo o sujeito influenciado directamente e indirectamente pelos diferentes níveis do ambiente que o circunda, o seu comportamento só tem sentido quando analisando de forma congregada nesses contextos… A análise das influências a longo prazo dos fenómenos sociais, só é possível se se utilizar o modelo teórico que permita e integre a sua observação. Neuza Pedro DE- FCUL 2007
  5. 5. Microssistema: padrão de actividades, papeis e relações interpessoais experienciados pela pessoa em desenvolvimento num dado ambiente dotado de características específicas, que permite ou inibe o “engajamento/Envolvimento” em cada vez mais complexas interacções . Ambiente imediato. Mesossistema: O complexo das ligações e processos estabelecidos entre 2 ou + ambientes que contêm quotidianamente o suj. em desenvolvimento. Exossistema: Contem as ligações e processos estabelecidos entre 2 ou + ambientes, em que pelo menos 1 destes não envolve o sujeito como participante activo, mas no qual ocorrem eventos que afectam e são afectados por aquilo que acontece nos microssistemas. Macrossistema : Padrões globais de micro, meso e exossistemas que compõem uma dada (???? sub-)cultura , com referência à ideologia, sistema de crenças e formas de organização institucionais comuns. Dimensão societal.   Cronossistema: estende o desenvolvimento a uma 3º Dimensão. Contêm mudanças e consistências ao longo do tempo, não apenas no sujeito mas também no ambiente
  6. 6. Transições Ecológicas <ul><li>Ocorre sempre que se dá a Integração num novo ambiente, alteração do papel social , ou ambos. </li></ul>Conjunto de comportamentos e atitudes associados a uma determinada posição na sociedade. Alicerçado nas expectativas sociais e na amplitude de poder. Processos Proximais Formas de interacção entre o suj. e o meio (imediato e remoto), que operam ao longo do tempo e compreendem os mecanismos que produzem o desenvolvimento humano
  7. 7. Unidade básica de análise <ul><li>Diade: sujeito e ambiente, nas relações recíprocas entre estes. </li></ul>- 4 aspectos interelacionados: Pessoa, Processo, Contexto e Tempo (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998) Algumas conclusões… - Paradigma teórico sobre as relações ambientais e do seu impacto sobre as forças que afectam o crescimento psico-sociológico do indivíduo. Neuza Pedro DE- FCUL 2007
  8. 8. Implicações… <ul><li>- Reconhecimento de que aspectos contextuais mesmo além do ambiente imediato exercem uma profunda influência sobre o comportamento do sujeito. </li></ul> - Importância dada à política publica (no desenvolvimento cognitivo, emocional, social do ser humano). Como se delimita hoje os vários sistemas? Há possibilidade de delimitar os sistemas? - “process and product of making human beings” (p.41) Neuza Pedro DE- FCUL 2007

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