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Capacity Building of Sustainable Food Value Chains for Enhanced Food Safety and Quality


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National Productivity Council releases souvenir during the National Conference on Capacity Building of Sustainable Food Value Chains for Enhanced Food Safety and Quality on 21st August, 2019

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Capacity Building of Sustainable Food Value Chains for Enhanced Food Safety and Quality

  1. 1. C C Capa Chain   acity B ns for NATI Build Enha Venu NATION Utp IONAL ding o anced 21-22 ue : India Lodhi E O NAL PRO adakta Bhav Lodhi Road EPABX Fax : Email: npc L CON ON of Sus d Foo 2 August a Internat Estate, Ne Organized b ODUCTIV van, 5-6 Ins d, New Delh X Lines : 24 91-11-246 cinfo@npcin NFERE staina od Saf t 2019 tional Ce ew Delhi by VITY CO stitutional A hi – 110003 4690331 15002 ENCE able F fety a entre, i OUNCIL Area, 3 Asian Prod Food and Q ductivity Organizat Valu Qualit ion, Tokyo ue ty
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1 Messages 2 Technical Session – I  Capacity Building of Sustaina ble Food Value Chains for Enhancing Food Safet y and Q uality of Agri- Food Products: Concepts and Principles - Ms. Darunee Edwar ds, President, Food Science and Technology Association of Thailand  Critical Factors in Cold Chai n Systems to Ensure Food Safet y & Quality - Dr. Rodney Wee, CEO, Asia Cold Chain Centre, Singapore  Food Value Chain: Issue and Challenges - Prof (Dr) R.M. Joshi, Chairperson, Internat ional Project Divisio n, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi 1 25 32 3 Technical Session – II  Role of Supply Chain for India Vision - Shri Prem Narayan, IRSS Deputy. Director General UIDAI, Ministry of Electronic &Information Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi  NCCD, a Public Private Kno wledge Partnership – Redefining the Cold-chain - S hri Pa wanexhKohli Chief A dvisor & CE O National Centre for Cold-ch ain Dev elopment, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi  Food Losses & Wastage: Mitigation Strateg y thr ough Valu e Chain Development - Shri Vijay Sardana, International Fo od Security & Agribusiness Exper t, Global Head-Food Security & Agribusiness UPL limited 36 42 52 4 Technical Session – III  Indian Food Safety Issues and Challenges – Role of Private Sector- Dr.R.S.Khanna, Chairman Kwality Dairy (India) Limited, New Delhi  Commercially Su stainable F & V Processing fo r SMEs :holistic Approach - Prof.SmitaLele, Dire ctor at ICT Mumba i Marathwada campus at Jalna  Challenges of Standards and Conformity Assessment faced by Food Industr y – Shri Anil Ja uhri, former CEO, NABCB,Quality Council of India, New Delhi 58 65 68 5 Technical Session – IV  Issues in Promoting Food Safet y Cultur e in an Emerging Food Pro cessing Industr y and possib le solutions - Ms. Darunee Edwards, President, Food Science and Technology Association of Thailand  Building Reliable Safe and Co mpetitive Food Suppl y Chain for Export - Dr. Rodney Wee, CEO, Asia Cold Chain Centre, Singapore 73 80
  3. 3.  Food safet y and quality control for s trengthening food Supply Chain - Prof. Anil Kumar Chauhan, Coor dinator and Professor (Food Technology) at Centre of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Agric ultural Sciences, Banar as Hindu University 83 6 Technical Session – V  Innovative Technolo gies for Pr imary Processing of Agri- food Products for E nhancing the Food Safet y and Quality – Dr. R.K Singh, Director, Centra l Institute of Post Harvest Engineering & Technology, Ludhiana  Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: A Potential source of nutrients for livestock - Dr. Manju Wadhwa, D epartment of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Vete rinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana-141004, India  Changing Paradigm of food safet y - Shri Rakesh Mehra, Head IQF Operations, Mother D airy fruit processing Ltd, Ne w Delhi 94 103 112 7 Technical Session – VI  Importance of Effect ive Management of Dair y Value Suppl y Chain for Sustainable Dair y Business - Dr.Harsev Singh, Former Chief Ex ecutive Officer, Reliance Retail Limited, (Reliance Dairy), New Delhi  Developing Agri-Entrepren eurship: Institutional Convergence of S ynergistic Strengths - Dr. Ras hmi Singh, Principal S cientist, Division of Ag ricultural Extension, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 129 139 8 Technical Session – VII  Milk Production Sector in Indi a Anal ysis of Structure, Profitability and Market Accessibilit y - Dr.S.Mohanakumar, Associate Professor, Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur  Role of Accreditation in Food Sector - Emerging Scenario – Ms. Vani Bhambri Arora, Deputy Director, National Accreditation Board for Certification Bodies, Quality Council of India  Supply Chain Management fo r Enhancing Food Saf ety and Quality of Food Products - Dr. R.P. Sing h, Principal Advisor (Agribusiness), National Productivity Council, New Delhi 147 176 183 9 About NPC 197 10 About APO 202
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  86. 86. Technical Article Food safety and quality control for strengthening food Supply Chain Anil Kumar Chauhan, Prachi Tyagi and Aparna Centre of Food Science and Technology, institute of Agricultural Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005(India) Abstract- The food products for consumption should be safe and of good quality .Therefore it’s a responsibility of authorities and persons who is the part of food supply chain from “farm to fork” to maintain and strengthen food safety and quality control. The food supply chain continues to grow rapidly, with consumers now expecting exotic foods, fresh on their plates, year round. This has extended the supply chain geographically and across many more parties, making the supply chain longer and more complicated than ever.Producers, manufacturers, distributors, logistics providers and other parties are burdened with various issues and challenges to get their products to the market rapidly, with less risk, and in the best quality. Various regulations and standards at national and global level e.g. Food Laws, FSMS ISO 22000:2018,Codex ,BRC ,GFSI ,FSSAI and Export inspection quality Council of India etc are being involve to set out the government’s requirements to be met by food chain operators to ensure the food safety and adequate food quality. Keyword- Food supply chain, Food safety and quality control Food Supply Chain A food supply chain allude to the series of action that elaborate the food system from “ farm to our tables”. The processes include production, processing, distribution, transportation, storage consumption and disposal 83
  87. 87. Important elements of Food Supply Chain • Production • Supplies • Location • Logistic & Transport • Storage • Marketing & Information Risk factors influencing the food safety and quality Evaluation objects Risk evaluation indicators Raw material supply risk Pollution, illegal use of preservative, residual input, contamination, transgenic technology risk Production and processing risk Use of preservative, contamination ,improper hygiene and sanitation, non- standardized equipment and processing Logistics, warehousing, and transportation risk Transport vehicle sanitation, intelligent temperature control facility, logistic road infrastructure, Sales and consumption risk Selling expired food ,false information about food, poor sanitation condition ,improper eating method and waste disposal Common Food Supply Chain Issues 1. Lack of traceability 2. Inability to maintain the safety and quality of products 3. Inadequate communication between parties 4. Rising food supply chain costs 5. Failure to track and control inventory in warehouses and stores 84
  88. 88. 1. Lack of traceability Issue- Ability to track the food product through all stages of the supply chain Solution- Block chain technology  It is a shared, digital platform where users can store and share information across a network  It enables users to look at all transactions simultaneously and in real-time  Once information is stored, it becomes permanent 2. Inability to maintain the safety and quality of products Issue- • Poor storage and warehousing practices • Delays in transportation • Industrial damage • Unpleasent weather Solution- • Selection of quality raw materials and packaging material • Implementing correct and standard production method. 3. Inadequate communication between parties Issues- • Lack of communication and fragmented information  Inefficiency  waste  Mistrust between customer and suppliers Solution- • Cloud based network  Offer quick onboarding and varieties of services.  Light chat and micro blogging solution  Easy communication with suppliers and other partner. 4. Rising food supply chain costs Issue-  Energy and fuel costs  Logistics and freight  Manpower  Investment in new technology Solution-  Gets measured and managed  Food supply chain gap anlysis 5. Failure to track and control Inventory in warehouses and stores Issue- Improper inventory management Solution- 85
  89. 89. • Modern inventory management.  Real time visibility of inventory  Optimal level of inventory  Automated tracking technology such as RFID technologies. Food safety Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness to avoid potential health hazards Hazards in Food Safety • Biological • Physical • Chemical Food safety benefits  Reduced wastage  Increased Profits & productivity  Food quality standards increases  Safe food  Public Health  Customer satisfaction  Job security  Better devolvement  Elimination of poverty  Compliance with the laws “Food Quality” usually refers to all positive attributes of a food, excluding negative attributes such as adulteration, exposure to toxin, anti- nutritional factors, and pesticide residues etc. Food Quality From Consumer/Industry Point of View • Sensory Quality • Shelf life • Freshness • Functional Property • Nutritional Quality • Safety • Value for Money From Public Health Point of View • Hygienic Quality • Nutritional Quality • Compliance with Regulation Food Safety Quality Standards A level of food quality that is necessary to guarantee consistency of composition of any food article and ensuring that it is fit for its purpose. 86
  90. 90. Standards in supply food chain • National food control system in India  FSSAI  Export inspection council of India • Global Standards –  CODEX(WHO+FAO)  FSMS(ISO 22000: 2018)  GFSI(GLOBAL FOOD SAFETY INITATIVE  BRC (BRITISH RETAIL CONSORTIUN) National Food Control System • Food Safety & Standards Authority of India • Export Inspection Council of India The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India FSSAI - Food Safety and Standards Act 2006 for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption. The Act aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards, by moving from multi- level, multi- departmental control to a single line of command. HOW IT INTEGRATES 87
  91. 91. Functions • Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and guidelines in relation to articles of food and specifying appropriate system of enforcing various standards thus notified. • Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certification bodies engaged in certification of food safety management system for food businesses. • Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of laboratories and notification of the accredited laboratories. • To provide scientific advice and technical support to Central Government and State Governments in the matters of framing the policy and rules in areas which have a direct or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition. • Collect and collate data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various, contaminants in foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert system. • Creating an information network across the country so that the public, consumers, Panchayats etc. receive rapid, reliable and objective information about food safety and issues of concern. • Provide training programmes for persons who are involved or intend to get involved in food businesses. • Contribute to the development of international technical standards for food, sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards. • Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards. DART (Detection Adulteration with Rapid Test) • Food adulteration deceive consumer and cause heath risk. • Aware consumer about food safety. • Common quick test for detection of food adulterant at house hold Some Adulterants In Foods Detection 88
  92. 92. Milk adulterated with water will flow immediately without leaving a mark Formation of blue color indicates the presence of starch.(In the case of milk, addition of water and boiling is not required) If the drop of honey disperses in water, it indicates the presence of added sugar Adulterated turmeric appears to be bright and leaves colour immediately in water. Impurities are observed visually in adulterated food grains. The saw dust will float at the surface of water while Chilli powder will settle down in bottom Iodised salt develop blue color with cut piece of potato while no blue color in case of common salt If cotton absorbs colour, then it indicates the usage of rhodamine B for coloring the outer surface of sweet potato. Clear separation of color in water indicates adulteration. Export Inspection Council of India VISION 89
  93. 93. To facilitate worldwide access for Indian exports through a credible and efficient inspection and certification system and earn global recognition as India’s premier organization for certifying quality and safety to meet international norms MISSION  To create an export inspection & certification infrastructure within the country based on International Standards for Certification Authorities in consonance with WTO requirements.  To instill confidence in importers about quality and safety of Indian exports.  To provide accredited state-of-art testing facilities in chosen frontier areas.  To enhance capability of manpower through trainings to meet International requirements.  To obtain recognition for India’s export certification system from our major trading partners.  To participate in international fora and project Indian interest.  To be in sync with the latest technological advancements for capacity building.  (EIC) stands out as the forerunner. Codex Alimantarius Commission • Created in 1963 by FAO and WHO to develop food standards & guidelines • Codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. • To protect health of the consumers and ensuring fair trade practices in the food trade throughout world. • Inter-governmental body of the United Nations 185 member countries and 1 member organization (European Union) • Function – adopt science-based standards, codes of practice, guidelines • Mandate – safety of health of consumers; fair practices in food trade • Process – inclusive, transparent, consensus-based; adheres to Codex Procedural Manual General Subject Committees  Codex Committee on Food Additives(CCFA)  Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues-(CCPR)  Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems-CCFICS  Codex Committee on Food Labelling-CCFL  Codex Committee on General Principles-CCGP  Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods-CCCF  Codex Committee on Food Hygiene-CCFH  Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods- CCRVDFR  Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling-CCMAS 90
  94. 94.  Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses-CCNFSDU Active Commodity Committees  Codex Committee on Cereals, Pulses and Legumes-  Codex Committee on Fats and Oils- CCCPL  Codex Committee on Sugars- CCFO  Codex Committee on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables- CCS  Codex Committee on Processed Fruits and Vegetables- CCFFV  Codex Committee on Spices and Culinary Herbs- CCPFV CCSCH World Health Organization • Committed to achieving better health for all people and recognizes food safety as a global public health priority • Its Member States to recognize food safety as an essential public health function • Promoting efforts to improve food safety, from farm to plate and International food standards based on health considerations WHO - Five keys 1. Keep food surfaces clean and wash utensils as soon as used. 2. Separate raw food from cooked food. 3. Cook food thoroughly to the appropriate temperature. 4. Keep food at safe temperatures both for serving and storage. 5. Use safe water and raw materials. Food Safety Management System -ISO 22000:2018 - THE BENCH MARKS • It is an internationally accepted standard and has become a world benchmark for food safety management practices • It is a system standard and not a product standard • It is a generic standard • It gives ‘What’ an organization should do & leaves ‘How’ to be decided by the organization -Food safety is related to the presence of food safety hazards at the time of consumption. 91
  95. 95. -As introduction of food safety hazards can occur at any stage of the food chain, adequate -control throughout the food chain is essential. -Food safety is ensured through the combined efforts of all the parties in the food chain -ISO 22000:2018specifies requirements - combines the 4 key elements:  Interactive communication  System management  Prerequisite programmes  HACCP principles P-D-C-A (Plan –Do-Check-Act)Cycle. The PDCA cycle enables food establishments to ensure that its processes are adequately resourced and managed and those opportunities for improvement are determined and acted on. - ISO 22000:2018 is structured on the concept of the PDCA cycle applied at two levels: a) Organizational Planning and Control covering clauses 4-10 except clause 8. b) Operational Planning and Control covering operational processes clause 8. -Communication between the two levels is therefore essential. Global Food Safety Initiatives (GFSI) Vision -Safe food for consumers everywhere. Mission- Provide continuous improvement in food safety management systems to ensure confidence in the delivery of safe food to consumers worldwide. Objectives of GFSI  Reduce food safety risks  Manage cost in the supply chain  Develop competencies and capacity building  Facilitate knowledge exchange and networking Functions of GFSI  Recognition of food safety management schemes to defined requirements in its Guidance Document  Brings together food safety experts within a global network  Drives global change through multi-stakeholder projects on strategic issues 92
  96. 96. British Retail Consortium (BRC) • The BRC Global Standard for Food Safety is developed by food industry experts from retailers, manufacturers and food service organizations to ensure it is rigorous and detailed, yet easy to understand • First published in 1998, the Standard is now in its seventh issue and is well- established globally. • It provides a framework to manage product safety, integrity, legality and quality, and the operational controls for these criteria in the food and food ingredient manufacturing, processing and packing industry. BRC- SEVEN SECTION • Senior Management Commitment And Continual Improvement • The Food Safety Plan (HACCP) • Food Safety And Quality Management System • Site Standards • Product Control • Process Control • Personnel Conclusion Food products go through every stage of the supply chain (production, storage and sales) therefore important aim is to convey food products as faster as possible, establish securely the certain position of safety and quality, so as to fulfil the expanding requirements of consumers . Food governed by legislations, standards and norms at national and global level like, for e.g. Food Laws, FSMS ISO 22000:2018,Codex ,BRC ,GFSI ,FSSAI and Export inspection quality Council of India etc. to set out the government’s requirements to be met by food chain operators to ensure the food safety and adequate food quality. To expect the safe and quality food on markets that is Consumer’s right. 93
  97. 97. Innovative Technologies for Primary Processing of Agri-food Products for Enhancing the Food Safety and Quality *R K Singh, Swati Sethi and D N Yadav ICAR-Central Institute of Post-harvest Engineering &Technology, Ludhiana *Director, ICAR-CIPHET, Email: In the post-production system, the agricultural commodities undergo series of postharvest unit operations such as: collection, cleaning, sorting/grading, decortications/shelling, drying, milling, packing, transportation, storage and value addition before reaching the consumer. At all these stages incremental losses occur to the produce. The total postharvest losses to agricultural commodities are estimated to be from 6 to 18% (Nanda et al., 2012). Protecting the agricultural commodities from losses in the post-harvest system will result in an additional availability of 6 to 18% foods for consumption. Furthermore, rapid migration from rural to urban areas in search of better livelihood will lead to an increase in urban population in the coming years. Urban people are always blessed with greater income than their rural counterparts and are on faster lifestyles. This will lead to changing food habits of large chunk of our population and will increase the demand for processed, value added and variety of foods manifolds. India with diverse agro climatic zones produces all kinds of fruits, vegetables and other produce to provide food, feed, fiber and fuel. These diverse and huge productions will help India to become the food basket for the world. To achieve this, the production and processing systems should assure quality and comply with stringent regulatory requirements. This calls for vigorous infusion of engineering and technology inputs in post-harvest handling and processing industries. Primary Processing and Mechanization Mechanization in Food processing segment covers all levels of handling and processing technologies, from simple and basic hand tools to more sophisticated and power-driven equipment. It may be defined as the process of starting to use machines to do work that was previously done by hand. The food processing sector is highly fragmented industry, it widely comprises sub-segments like food grains processing, fruits and vegetables, milk and milk products, beer and alcoholic beverages, meat and poultry etc. Earlier, huge number of entrepreneurs in this industry were small in terms of their production and operations, and were largely concentrated in the unorganized segment. Presently, there are more than 900 flour mills, 5300 fruits and vegetables processing units, 450 fish processing units and 200 meat processing units in the organised sector. The mechanization is largely required at the rural level where processing of agricultural produce is very traditional and highly unorganized. 94
  98. 98. • Grain processing industry: Primary milling of grains is considered to be the most important activity in this industry. Around 65% of rice production is milled in modern rice mills. There are 139208 traditional rice mills and 35088 modern rice mills in India. Dal milling is the third largest in grain processing industry, and have about 11,000 mechanized mills in the organised sector. Oilseed processing is another major segment, there are approx. 50, 000 mechanical oil expellers in the country. • Fruit and vegetable (F&V) industry: F&V processing is mainly dominated by unorganised players, who occupy a share of about 60 per cent of the total market size. Over the last few years, the industry has witnessed rapid growth of Ready to Eat foods, frozen vegetables, processed mushroom etc. Presently, the mechanized processing of fruits and vegetables is estimated to be around 2.2 % of the total production in the country. The major processed items in this segment include pulps and juices, fruit based ready to serve beverages, canned fruits and vegetables, jams, squashes, pickles etc. Mechanization continues to play an increasingly important role in post-harvest processing operations such as shelling, milling, processing, packaging, transportation, storage and marketing. Mechanization in post harvesting sector replace the lengthy and laborious work with more labour saving, quality-improving machinery and process technology to improve postharvest handling and agro-processing. This also improves the efficient use of resources, enhances market access and contributes to mitigating climate related hazards. Mechanization improved the efficiency of the postharvest processing operations by following: • Improved productivity and timeliness of agricultural operations • Enhance income and greater profitability of farmers • Increased safety of the process and operator • Mitigating climate related hazard • Relieves labour shortages • Processing of food items in hygienic conditions. • Improved food quality • Reduced postharvest losses • Reduction in by-product generation • Lower production cost in the long term • Creation and maintenance of brand value through quality product • Reduced fatigue and human labour Primary Processing and Rural Entrepreneurship Postharvest processing has great potential to increase rural entrepreneurship and livelihood by generating employment possibility along the value chain of the 95
  99. 99. production. Post-harvest operations such as storage, processing (cleaning grading, shelling, milling and dehusking) add value at each step of food production which leads to entrepreneurship development in terms of setting up the agro-processing center. Postharvest machinery and equipment transform the farmer from ‘producer’ to ‘producer-cum-processor’ to get more profits by increasing quality through value addition and efficient utilization of by-products in addition to reducing postharvest losses. Establishing small and tiny units of agro-processing centers in rural areas and linking them with urban markets can be one of the alternatives to increase income and employment opportunity for youth. This sector generates the demand for more production of agricultural commodities resulting into more intensive agriculture and ultimately employment generation in rural areas. • An entrepreneur can start processing of agricultural commodities into more refined products including: milling maize and other grains, cooking, curing or drying meat, drying fruits and vegetables, mixing commodities such as nuts and raisins, create handcrafts with commodities such as grasses and flowers etc. Each of these represents a value-adding possibility in which entrepreneurial farmers can become involved to capture value within the value chain. If they can organise the necessary finances, they can establish a business. • Perishables need immediate cold storage facilities within the vicinity of the farms. If the rural farmers are educated about the latest scientific mechanized techniques and cost-effective ways of storage, they can form co-operatives and communities to pool in resources and make the trained youth responsible for setting up basic infrastructure. • Recognizing the importance of rural entrepreneurship and skill development number of initiatives like “Start-up India” and “Stand-up India”, ASPIRE (A Scheme for Promoting Innovation, Rural industry and Entrepreneurship), Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna and Aajeevika are recently launched by Government of India. Indian government has established separate ministry ‘Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship’ for promoting entrepreneurship and skill development. In this way entrepreneurship in mechanised post-harvest processing and value addition is emerging as a solution of rural unemployment, rural poverty & can enhance rural entrepreneurship and livelihood. Automation Requirement in Post-Harvest Segment Being a biological material, agricultural commodities are prone to large variation in size shape texture and other properties that plays important role in its postharvest management. It is high time that machineries are equipped with techniques to adopt to varying nature of agricultural produce. Looking at the technological interventions in 96
  100. 100. postharvest segment so far, it is evident that technologies for labour intensive operation (threshing, milling etc) are readily available whereas mechanisation in skill dependent operations (harvesting of delicate F&V, grading, sorting etc) is scarce and cost intensive. Emphasis on use of artificial intelligence, machine learning, image processing, and robotics in such machinery could boost its widespread adoption in farming as well as industrial community. Further, automation is required in storage (specially controlled atmosphere) and packaging (modified atmosphere) of fresh fruits and vegetables, cold chain management including pre-cooling facilities. Besides, the working condition of agro-processing industries are not very conducive for human being due to lot of air and noise pollution. The sophistication in postharvest machines is required for their precise and safe operation which can be achieved through automation. Scope of Agribusiness Agribusiness denotes the collective business activities that are performed from farm to fork. It covers the supply of agricultural inputs, the production and transformation of agricultural products and their distribution to final consumers. India is largest producer of food grain (284 mT) and 2nd largest producer of fruits and vegetables (290 mT). India is second most populous country with close to 1.3 billon population. Agribusinesses are spread across this wide spectrum of services to be render to different classes of the consumers. Postharvest management of agricultural produce provides different for establishments of agribusiness. Scope for agribusiness: • India is endowed with varied ago-climate conditions, which facilitates production of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical agricultural commodities thereby ensuring different variety of raw materials. • There is growing demand for mechanised agriculture to ensure minimum post- harvest losses in the country which will ensure quality and quantity of raw material. • Export can be harnessed as a source of economic growth. India has vast potential to improve it present position in the World trade of agricultural commodities both in raw and processed form. The products line include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and oils, oil meal, spices and condiments, fruits and vegetables, flowers, medicinal plants and essential oils, agricultural advisory services, agricultural tools and implements, meat, milk and milk products, fish and fish products, ornamental fish, forest by products etc. • At present processing is done at primary level only and the rising standard of living expands opportunities for secondary and tertiary processing of agricultural commodities. 97
  101. 101. • The enhanced agricultural production throws open opportunities for employment in marketing, transport, cold storage and warehousing facilities, credit, insurance and logistic support services. • Establishment of agro-processing center in production catchments. With increase in working class population and with variety of food preference, the scope for agribusiness has great potential and provide opportunity for youth to venture into agro-processing activities and utilize their skill for income and employment generation. Challenges The key challenges associated with the adoption of mechanization in post-harvest operations in India are: • Indian agriculture is characterized by small land holdings and hence small portion of produce owned by large number of farmers/producers which limits the consistent supply of quality raw materials for processing. • About 65-70% of total food grains produced in the country are stored at farm level with intention of immediate sell in market. This is driven by lack of availability of suitable machinery and other accessories at their disposal for handling and processing of farm produce. • Commodity specific design of post-harvest machineries restricts their use for limited period which demotivates the farmers from its wide scale adoption. Other reasons include a) Financial assistance for equipment: Purchase of any equipment is a significant investment for most of the manufacturers in India. Hence, reasonable financing norms are a must for ensuring mechanization in any industry. An issue that has been persistent in financing is the purchase of standalone implements. This seems to discourage the people from investing at large, as they need to shell out a huge amount. b) Standardization and quality control: As the majority of customers are cost conscious; quality of the product takes a major hit. In addition, the inability of local low cost manufacturers to come up to the levels of standard designs of equipment also poses a big challenge in adoption of mechanization in post-harvest operations. c) Education, training and popularization of equipment and machines: Knowledge about selection of machinery is inadequate. Shortage of skilled, semi- skilled and unskilled workers has emerged as a critical factor causing a major hindrance to the growth of mechanization. 98
  102. 102. d) Repair and maintenance of the machinery: The after sales service of farm machinery is the other concern in India as the majority of the manufacturers are cost conscious. There are inadequate service centers for proper upkeep, repair and maintenance of the equipment and the market lacks regulations on Custom Hiring services. e) Low product quality and unreliable assured power supply f) Low capacity utilisation Policy Measures The Indian Government gives considerable importance to the food-processing sector. The Ministry of Food Processing Industries is concerned with the formulation and implementation of various policies and plans for the Food Processing Industries within the overall national priorities and objectives. The government has implemented various programmes that supports post-harvest mechanization in the country through schemes such as: • NABARD created a separate window with a corpus of Rs. 1,000 crore for refinancing loans to the sector, especially for agro-processing infrastructure and market development. • Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme: The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHD&F), GOI launched a pilot scheme titled “Venture Capital Scheme for Dairy and Poultry” in the year 2005-06. The main objective of the scheme was to extend assistance for setting up small dairy farms and other components to bring structural changes in the dairy sector. • Central sector scheme of Cold Chain, Value Addition and Preservation Infrastructure: Under this scheme, government provides grants in aid up to 50% (75% in North East and Hills) of a cold chain project subject to maximum Rs. 10 Crore. Such cold chain projects can be set up by individuals, groups of entrepreneurs, cooperative societies, Self Help Groups (SHGs), Farmer Producer Organizations, NGO, Public Sector Companies etc. • Loan to food & agro-based processing units and cold chain has been classified under Agriculture activities for Priority Sector Lending (PSL) subject to aggregate sanctioned limit of Rs. 100 crore per borrower. Useful Technologies: • Primary Processing Equipment for Post-Harvest Processing: Equipment such as custard apple pulper, basket centrifuge for surface water removal of washed vegetables, castor decorticator, aonla pricking machine, sunflower 99
  103. 103. decorticating machine; roasting and popping unit for makhana; hand tool for pomegranate arils extraction and automatic machine for pomegranate aril extraction; banana comb cutter; coriander splitter; multi fruit grader, ber fruit grader; ber destoner; fruit grader for spherical fruits, fruit and vegetable washing machine; garlic processing machines (garlic bulb breaking machine; clove flaking machine; garlic-peeling machine); turmeric boiler for on-farm use; tender coconut punch and cutter; snow ball tender coconut making machine; solar-cum-biomass-cum-electrical dryer for coconut; steam blancher for fresh cut vegetables; modified design of container for long distance road and rail transport; method of predicting maturity stage and eating quality of mangoes using NIR; guar dehulling machine, evaporatively cooled storage structure; cooling systems for comfort and enhanced production of dairy cows & poultry birds etc have been developed. • Process technologies and value added products: Value added products such as green chilli powder and paste, vegetable blended meat products; groundnut milk, paneer, curd; instant makhana kheer mix; products from guava and papaya; composite dairy based health foods; millet based products; energy bar from flaxseed; reconstituted beetroot powder based drink, value added products from cashew apple, pineapple, stone apple and custard apple, jackfruit, RTS beverage, squash and jam; preservation of milky mushroom, rasper for tuber starch extraction, process and equipment for making Jaggery & Khandsari; value added products from sugarcane juice, Package of practice for MAP for betel leaves, broccoli, carrots and spinach etc. • Agro-processing centre (APC): An agro-processing centre (APC) is an enterprise where the required facilities for primary and secondary processing, storage, handling and drying of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables and spices are made available on rental/ charge basis to rural people. This type of centre is managed by individuals/ co-operatives/ community / organizations/ voluntary organization. The centre meets the processing, preservation, handling and marketing needs of surplus produce available in a village or a cluster of villages. Thus, it is a means of providing income and employment to rural people through agro-processing activities of various produce. The activities of centre can be defined on the basis of available raw materials, processed products, market potential, etc. Such agro-processing centers may be established at cluster of 4-5villages or block level. More than 200 agro- processing centres for employment and income generation in rural areas have also been established. Opportunities Major emphasis has been placed on enhancing production and productivity, reduction of postharvest losses adopting various packages of practices, processing technologies and machinery, but in the changing socio-economic conditions and environment, we 100
  104. 104. need to rethink and prepare a plan of action to achieve sustainable food security and for providing safe foods for all: • Development of commodity and location specific precision postharvest technology packages. • Development of technologies for on-farm drying, dry and cold storages, grading and packing techniques and cottage levels of processing and value addition machines • Mechanization of processes for manufacture of the indigenous technology knowledge based Indian traditional and ethnic food products • Introduction of intelligent and low cost bulk storage structures for agricultural produce. • Development of economically viable pre-cooling and on-farm cold storage systems • Development of complete cold chain including pre-coolers, reefer vans and cold storages for Indian conditions for maintaining the optimum quality of perishable produce from farm to fork. Efficient Technology Transfer and Policy Analysis: Creating new and frontier technologies will not only help in achieving our goals of food security and safety, but these technologies need to be taken to stake holders appropriately for mass adaptation and use. Following are the strategies for technology transfer issues: • Evolve innovative and efficient methodologies to enhance transfer of post- harvest engineering technologies to stake holders • Consultancy for alteration and retrofitting in existing commercial processing lines to handle multiple commodities for enhancing effective utilization of machinery and human power round the year. • IP management with due diligence for commercialization of developed technologies. • Impact analysis of post-harvest technologies Skill Development and Capacity building: Improving upon the skills of producers, food industry workers and other stake holders is an important aspect for adaptation of developed technologies. Huge numbers of technically skilled manpower is required to work at various levels in the food industries: at shop level in the industry, at management levels, as engineers in the industry, for teaching and research are the areas in which this manpower will be required. New entrepreneurs should be offered sufficient skill development hands-on training and hand-holding for creating new food industries: Conclusion 101
  105. 105. The post-harvest processing has many challenges in front of it, ranging from infrastructure to human resources and to technological backwardness. Though, various process/technologies/equipment etc have been developed in the area of post-harvest processing, but more has to be done yet. ICAR (AICRP on Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology, ICAR-CIPHET) has conducted two studies on Assessment of Quantitative Harvest and Post-Harvest Losses of Major Crops and Commodities in India and reports published in 2012 and 2015. In comparison to losses during 2005-07, the losses during 2013-14 reduced significantly for wheat, mustard, groundnut, mango, guava, mushroom, tapioca, arecanut, black pepper and coriander. Averaged range of losses altogether for food grains, oilseeds and fruits and vegetables have gone down by about 2% as compared to study in 2005-07. Post-harvest technological interventions, improvements in infrastructural and transport facilities aided in reducing the post- harvest losses. India can harness all the opportunities present in food processing sector only when its labor force is educated and skilled. The government needs to strengthen its skill development program; new training institutes should be open up, which are in tune with market demand. The development of infrastructure facilities like cold chain, road facilities, and power will strengthen the food processing industry. It will have a very positive sign on perishable food products industry, such as fruit and vegetable, dairy industry, meat and poultry segment. The food processing industry is all set to drive Indian economy to higher growth, only need is to pay due attention on technological development of field, and generation of skilled manpower. 102
  106. 106. Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: A Potential source of nutrients for livestock M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi Department of Animal Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab, India A key to sustainable livestock development is: efficient use of available feed resources including reduction in wastage, and enlargement of the feed resource base through a quest for novel feed resources, particularly those not competing with human food. But, there is acute shortage of feedstuffs in developing countries, in India a shortage of 25, 159 and 117 million tonnes of concentrates, green forages and crop residues, constituting respectively a shortage of 32, 20 and 25 percent of the requirement has been estimated (Ravi Kiran et al., 2012). Under these conditions, to meet the nutrient requirements of livestock and poultry and to sustain their productivity and profitability seem only possible if non-conventional, alternate feed resources are explored. India is the second highest producer of the fruits and vegetables (182mt) in the world at 259mt. Only 2.2% of fruits and vegetables produced in India are processed in the organized sector in comparison to 78-80% small countries like Philippines and Malaysia. In spite of very low quantity of FV being processed, it generates approximately 1.81 million tonnes of fruit and vegetable wastes (Wadhwa and Bakshi, 2013). A large proportion of these wastes end up in landfills or rivers, causing environmental hazards. As per one of the estimates 7.1 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide generated by 3.1 billion tonnes of waste dumped in landfills can be reduced considerably by recycling of these wastes through animal feed. It will lead to remarkable increase in livestock productivity besides cleaning the environment. This talk will provide an insight to processing and utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes in improving feed availability and their impact on animal production. Fruit wastes Amla (Emblica officinalis) pomace: Amla pomace (after extraction of amla juice, the left over material) contains 3.2–5.3% CP, 0.65–0.80% EE, 22.8% cellulose and 2.1–6.0% total ash. It has 15.6 mg% phenolics and 0.96 mg% vitamin C (Kumari et al., 2012; Wadhwa et al., 2018). Addition of amla pomace at 0.25–0.75% level in the iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diet (from day-one till 6 week of age) improved the average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage (Kumari et al., 2012). Apple (Malus domestica) pomace: Apple pomace, a mixture of skin, pulp and seeds left after the extraction of apple juice or after production of jam and sweets by the apple processing industry, constitutes approximately 25% of the apples processed (Ajila et al., 2012). The dried apple pomace contains 7.7% CP and 5.0% EE (NRC, 2001; Wadhwa and Bakshi, 2013). Apple pomace can be utilized in ruminant feed after drying or ensiling. Inclusion of apple pomace at 12 percent in the concentrate mixture of lactating crossbred cattle (300-d lactation trial), showed no change in average milk production (7.56 vs. 7.58 kg/d) or its composition (Tiwari et al., 2008). In broiler ration maize can be replaced by apple pomace @10 percent without affecting production, however replacement level >10% depressed feed efficiency and resulted in wet litter (Zafar et al., 2005). The ME of apple pomace for broilers is 2.6−2.8 Mcal/kg DM. Matoo et al. (2001) have reported better performance of broilers fed on apple pomace diets supplemented with a commercial enzyme preparation compared with the unsupplemented ones. 103
  107. 107. Banana (Musa acuminata) waste: Banana wastes include small-sized bananas, damaged bananas, banana peels, leaves, young stalks and pseudo stems, which can be fed to livestock. Banana leaves contain about 15% DM and 10−17% CP (Chander Datt et al., 2008), and pseudo stems contain 5−8% DM and 3−5% CP. The NDF and ADF vary between 50−70 and 30−40 percent, respectively. Chopped, sundried whole banana plant (after removal of fruit bunch) fed to crossbred bulls without any supplement for 30 d resulted in positive nitrogen and calcium balances, while phosphorus balance was marginally negative. The DCP and TDN contents of whole banana plant were 3.95 and 50.3 percent, respectively (Reddy and Reddy, 1991). Can be ensiled after mixing with either chaffed wheat straw, rice straw or maize stovers in 70:30 or 80:20 ratio. No change in milk production of lactating Friesian cows, fed fresh banana foliage up to 15%,was observed (El- Ghani, 1999). The peels left after processing constitutes 35% of the processed banana (Ajila et al., 2012). Banana peel can be fed to livestock as fresh, green, ripe or dried. Ripe banana peels contain up to 8% CP and 6.2% EE, 13.8% soluble sugars, 5.9% reducing sugars and 4.8% total phenolics (Wadhwa and Bakshi, 2013). Banana peels are rich in trace elements, but Fe, Cu and Zn contents are much higher than the maximum tolerance limit for ruminants (Bakshi and Wadhwa, 2013), suggesting that these should not be fed ad libitum. These could be supplemented in ruminant rations as source of organic minerals. Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L) waste: After extraction of juice from the fresh cashew apple fruit, the left over is cashew apple meal (CAM). The cashew nut (seed) contains kernel and has an outer covering called cashew nut shell (CNS). The leftover after extraction of oil is called cashew nut meal (CNM). Sundried CAM can be incorporated in the concentrate mixture at 10% level without any affect on milk production in lactating Gir cows (Sundaram, 1986). The surplus cashew apple fruit can be ensiled with rice bran, paddy straw, cassava peel or cassava waste in the ratio of 90:10 and fed to cattle (BAPH. 1996). In vitro and in vivo studies in cow have shown that CNS has the potential to mitigate enteric methane (Shinkai et al., 2012). CAM can save 10–15% maize on weight basis without affecting the performance of commercial broilers chicks (Swain et al., 2014) and egg production and egg weight. CAM can replace up to 20% maize in the diet of ‘Vanaraja’ dual purpose birds, without affecting the growth, DM digestibility and retention of protein and fat. Citrus (Citrus sps) waste: Citrus pulp (left after the extraction of juice) contains 60−65% peel, 30−35% internal tissues and up to 10% seeds and constitutes 50% of processed citrus (Ajila et al., 2012; Crawshaw, 2004). The dried pulp contains 5−10% CP and 6.2% EE, 10−40% pectins, 54% water soluble sugars, 1−2% calcium (due to the addition of lime) and 0.1% phosphorus. Citrus pulp is a rich source of trace elements. The wet pulp is highly palatable to ruminants. Dried citrus pulp is used as a cereal substitute in concentrate diets due to its high OM digestibility (85−90 %) and energy availability (2.76−2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM and 1.66−1.76 Mcal NE/kg DM) for lactating dairy cows. The ME availability is 85−90% that of maize and comparable to barley (NRC, 2001). Unlike cereals, its energy is not based on starch but on soluble carbohydrates and digestible fibre (pectin). Dried citrus pulp can replace 20% concentrate in lactating dairy cattle (Assis et al., 2004) and up to 30% in lactating ewes (Fegeros et al., 1995) without affecting DM intake, rumen metabolites, digestibility, milk yield or milk protein and fat contents. Kinnow (Citrus nobilis X Citrus deliciosa) waste (KW) is made up of peels, seeds and residual pulp and constitutes 50% of fresh kinnows. It can be used fresh or after sun drying as a 104
  108. 108. component of TMR. The KW contains about 20% DM and 12% CP on DM basis. Fresh KW and wheat straw are mixed in 80:20 ratio (fresh basis) and ensiled for 42 days ( The KW-wheat straw silage can be incorporated in TMR @ 25% on DM basis. In vitro gas production studies revealed that cereal grains like barley can be substituted up to 50% In the concentrate mixture by finely ground kinnow waste without any adverse impact on the nutrient utilization, ME availability, VFA production and fermentation efficiency (Bakshi et al., 2019). Kinnow peels contain 7% limonin on DM basis and can be incorporated in commercial broiler ration at @ 1%. The performance of broilers improves considerably. The dried citrus pulp @ 12% in laying hen diets has no adverse effect on performance and egg quality of laying hens in early phase of production (Nazok et al., 2010). The level of citrus pulp in the broiler diet should not exceed 5−10% because of the presence of non -starch polysaccharides which impaire growth, lower feed efficiency and reduce carcass yields (Mourão et al., 2008). The fresh citrus pulp can be ensiled for 42 days either with grass, hay, sugarcane bagasse or cereal straw. The nutrients in fruit juice waste, mainly from sweet lime, without peels were preserved by mixing and ensiling with wheat or rice straw in 70:30 ratio (Bakshi et al., 2007). Feeding of ensiled citrus pulp increased fat content, from 5.85 to 6.85% in primiparous dairy ewes in late lactation without affecting milk yield (Volanis et al., 2006). The dried Citrus sinensis peel can be used up to 5% in the broiler diet or it can replace maize in broiler diet up to 15% without affecting broiler performance (Ebrahimi et al., 2013). Guava (Psidium guajava) pomace: After extracting pulp for making beverages, juice, syrup, ice cream, and jams, about 30–35% weight of the fruit remains as waste called pomace (guava grid and seeds) (Madhava Rao et al., 2004), while Ajila et al. (2012) reported only 10% as waste or by-product (pomace). Guava pomace has 61% CF and 12% EE. Guava seeds contain 9.7% protein and 8.9–9.4% oil (Habib, 1986), which is a good source of linoleic acid. Pulp and peel contain high content of dietary fiber (48.6–49.4%). The ME and apparent nitrogen corrected ME (MEn) of guava pomace for broiler chicken was 1401 kcal ME/kg DM and 1336 kcal MEn/kg DM, respectively (Silva et al., 2006) and for layers MEn was 1808 kcal/kg DM (Guimarães, 2007). The sun dried and ground guava pomace incorporated in broiler finisher diet up to 8% adversely affected feed intake, but no significant effect was observed on body weight, body weight gain as compared with the control group, but mortality rate increased significantly beyond 6% level of incorporation (El-Deek et al.,2009). However, Lira et al. (2009) reported that guava pomace can be used in broiler (1–42 d) ration up to 12%, with no effect on the productive performance of the birds or the economic viability of the production. Sun dried guava pomace could be included at 15% in diets of laying hen during 32–48 wks of age without adverse effect on productive performance and egg quality (El-Deek et al., 2009). Mango (Mangifera indica) waste: The left over after the extraction of pulp is called mango waste (peel and seeds), which constitutes 45% of processed mango. The DM digestibility of dried seed kernels in sheep was 70%, but intake was only1.2% of BW. The mango seed kernels had low palatability probably due to the tannin content. The mango seed kernel can be included in the diet of broilers at 5% in starter phase (0–3 weeks), 10% during 4–6 weeks of age and up to 15% during 4–6 weeks of age (Vasantha Kumar et al., 2006). The incorporation of 5% raw mango seed kernel meal in layers decreased laying rate and increased weight loss in layers (Odunsi, 2005). 105
  109. 109. Mango peel waste (MPW) containing 8–10% pulp can be fed fresh, dried or ensiled with rice straw and legume to the ruminants. Due to high sugar content (13.2%) these are palatable and considered as energy feed. Mango peels have the potential to reduce rumen methanogenesis (Geerkens et al., 2013). The napier-bajra hybrid fodder could be ensiled with 10% MPW without affecting the quality of silage or performance of lambs. Pineapple (Ananas comosus) waste: The post-harvest processing of pineapple fruits yields crowns, peels, cores, fresh trimmings and the pomace as pineapple waste, which account for approximately 30–35% of the fresh fruit weight (Ajila et al., 2012). Pineapple waste contains 4−8% CP, 60−72 % NDF, 40−75% soluble sugars (70% sucrose, 20% glucose and 10% fructose) as well as pectin, but it is poor in minerals. Pineapple wastes can replace the roughage portion in the diet partly or completely and is highly palatable and digestible (73−75% OM dig estibility) in cattle, sheep and goats. Pineapple waste mixed with rice straw replaced up to 50% roughage in the TMR for dairy cattle without decreasing milk production. Ensiled pineapple waste with hay, wilted grass or rice straw fed to steers up to 70% of the diet with a protein supplement and 2.5 kg fresh forage resulted in high daily weight gains (1 kg/d) and also decreased the cost of feeding. It could also replace up to 60% of maize silage without affecting daily weight gains (Wadhwa et al., 2015). The ensiled pineapple waste made up of crown and peels (4:1) was evaluated in lactating cows. The animals in control group were offered TMR containing concentrate mixture, hybrid napier and maize stovers in 60:25:15 proportion, while cows in experimental group were fed similar TMR except that the green fodder was replaced with ensiled pineapple waste. The milk yield in ensiled pineapple waste group was increased by 3.1 L/cow/d. There was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders suggesting that pineapple waste silage was effectively utilized. There was no adverse effect on the reproductive performance of animals (Gowda et al., 2015). Vegetable wastes Baby corn (Zea mays L.) by-products: On an average four crops of baby corn are taken per annum in India. After picking 3-4 baby corn ears from baby corn crop, two by-products: baby corn husk with silk, and baby corn fodder, with an average yield of 5-5.5 and 30-35 tonnes/ha respectively are available for feeding to livestock. Both contain 10-12% crude protein (CP) on DM basis and can be fed fresh ad libitum or after ensiling. The ensiled baby corn husk or fodder can be incorporated in the TMR up to 30% on DM basis (Bakshi and Wadhwa, 2012; Bakshi et al., 2017a, b; Wadhwa et al., 2018; Both the byproducts have chemical composition and nutritional value comparable to or superior than, conventional maize fodder. Their feeding increases milk production in dairy animals. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria): The incorporation of sun dried, finely ground bottle gourd pulp (residue after extraction of juice) (0 to 100%) in the iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric concentrate mixtures depressed in vitro digestibility of nutrients, VFA production and ME availability. The fungal population in the rumen had increased significantly, while bacterial and total protozoal population depressed significantly with increasing levels (0–50%) of the pulp in the diet of goat bucks. However, the daily DMI was not affected. The digestibility of CP was reduced, whereas those of ADF and cellulose increased significantly, without affecting the N- retention in bucks. Bottle gourd waste (pulp) can be incorporated up to 50% in the concentrate mixture of adult ruminants (Bakshi et al., 2016). Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Cassava pulp is a by-product of starch industry and contains high moisture content (80%). It contains approximately 60% starch (Sriroth et al., 106
  110. 110. 2000), 20% cellulose (Kosugi et al., 2009) and 1.4–2.8% CP on DM basis (Chauynarong et al., 2015). Feeding cassava pulp (29.8% DM basis) did not affect energy utilization efficiency, methane production, or nutrient digestibility (except for CP digestibility). The TDN and ME contents of cassava pulp were 74.4% and 11.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively (Keaokliang et al., 2018). Empty peapods (Pisum sativum): Empty pea pods (EPPs) constitute 50-55% of intact peas. Fresh empty pea pods contain 16-18% CP on DM basis. These can be fed to ruminants either fresh or as a component of TMR containing EPPs, chopped cull carrots, concentrate mixture and wheat straw in 20:10:35:35 ratio (DM basis); or as sun dried or as silage by mixing with wheat straw in 75:25 ratio (fresh basis). Berseem hay containing 16-18% CP can be replaced up to 50% on CP basis by sundried ground EPPs. TMR is made by mixing the concentrate mixture, EPPs and berseem hay in 50:25:25 on DM basis ( Sundried ground EPPs and berseem hay are mixed with a concentrate mixture in which barley grains are completely replaced with kinnow waste in 25:25:50 ratio on DM basis and can be fed to ruminants (Wadhwa et al., 2006; Bakshi and Wadhwa, 2013; Wadhwa et al., 2017). Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): Potatoes that are unfit for marketing (under or over size and/or do not meet the quality standards or grade, or are damaged) are called cull potatoes. Due to over production, a large quantity of potatoes are disposed of because of low market price. Potatoes have about 81–82% TDN and about 10% CP on DM basis (Bakshi et al., 2016), high ME (3.16 Mcal/kg DM) and NE (1.87 Mcal/kg DM) for lactating dairy cows. As per the general recommendation 4.5–5.0 kg potatoes are equivalent to 1.0 kg barley or corn grains. Potatoes have ME content of 13.3 MJ/kg DM, similar to that of barley. Potatoes should be introduced gradually into diets with increasing amounts over a 2–3 week period. The suggested inclusion rates are: start at 1.5–2.5 kg/day, and gradually increase to 4.5–6.5 kg/day for calves, 10–11 kg/day for yearlings, and 16–18 kg/day for 500 kg cows. Their level should not exceed 30% of dietary DM or the cows should not be allowed to eat cull potatoes more than 10% of their BW. Sarson saag waste: Sarson saag, a vegetarian dish, is prepared by steam cooking of leaves of Brassica campestris (Mustard), Spinacea oleracea (Spinach) and Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) in a 95:4:1 ratio. The waste material left after extracting the pulp (which constitutes about 50 percent of the original leafy vegetables) is called ‘Sarson saag waste’ (SSW). It is dumped on the waste land posing great threat to the environment. SSW contains 14.5 percent CP and is a good source of water-soluble sugars (6 percent). Adult buffalo can consume 50−55 kg fresh SSW/day. The nutrient digestibility of SSW in male Murrah buffaloes was comparable to that of conventional green fodder, Avina sativa, but higher (P<0.05) than that of the isonitrogenous conventional TMR (Bakshi et al., 2005). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) pomace: Tomato pomace (TP) contains tomato peels, seed and residual pulp and constitutes 2-2.5% of the tomatoes used for processing. Fresh TP contains about 40% DM; 19% CP and 11-12% EE on DM basis. It is a rich source of lycopene. TP can be fed fresh, after mixing with green fodder in 50:50 ratio (on DM basis) or after ensiling with maize fodder in 70:30 ratio (on fresh basis) @ 25-30% in TMR on DM basis ( The TP can also be fed to ruminants after sun drying. It can replace concentrate mixture up to 50% on N-basis. The sundried ground TP, KW and EPPs can also be mixed with green fodder in 25:25:25:25 ratio on DM basis and fed to animals as TMR (Bakshi et al., 2016). The methane production potential of tomato pomace was lower than that of conventional (mustard cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal etc.) and non-conventional (spent brewer’s grains and maize oil cake) protein supplements (Lamba et al. (2016). Sundried ground 107
  111. 111. TP can be included in the feed of commercial broilers up to 3% in starters, 5–8% in growers and 9–10% in finishers ration on DM basis. Comparative nutritive value of fruit and vegetable wastes The left over after extraction of juice from kinnow mandarin for human consumption is called kinnow waste (KW), which contains peels, seeds and residual pulp; constitutes 50% of the kinnows used for extraction. Likewise after shelling peasfor human consumption, the left over material is called empty pea pods (EPP) constituting about 55% of intact pea pods. KW and EPP contained 20 and 14% DM. Fresh KW and EPPs were mixed with wheat straw separately in 75:25 and 80:20 ratio on fresh weight basis and ensiled in 10-12 feet long low density polyethylene tubes of 6 feet diameter for 42 days. The in-vitro gas production studies revealed that the true OM digestibility, ME availability, total and individual volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production and relative proportion of propionate were higher (P<0.01); and better acetate:propionate ratio (P<0.01) was observed in KW-WS silage in comparison to EPP-WS silage. The methane production was observed to be lower (P<0.01) in KW-WS silage, which resulted in higher fermentation efficiency in comparison to EPP-WS silage. The low VFA-UI, which indicates the best utilization of VFA, was achieved in KW-WS silage as compared to EPP-WS silage (Wadhwa et al., 2019). The nutritional value assessed on 12 male buffalo calves by feeding total mixed ration (TMR) containing concentrate mixture, green fodder, wheat straw and ensiled KW-WS or ensiled EPP-WS in 35:19.5:20.5:25 ratio on DM basis. The daily DM intake was improved (P<0.05) in animals fed TMR containing EPP-WS silage as compared to those in control group, but comparable with that of KW-WS silage based TMR. The digestibility of ADF was improved (P<0.05) in both the TMRs containing KW-WS or EPP-WS silage as compared to control TMR. The digestibility of all other nutrients was improved considerably (P>0.05) in KW-WS or EPP- WS silage based TMRs as compared to control TMR. The feeding of KW-WS or EPP-WS silage based TMR did not show any impact on blood profile; and excretion of total purine derivatives in the urine. The daily N-intake was improved in animals fed KW-WS silage (P>0.05) or EPP-WS silage (P<0.05) based TMR in comparison to those fed control TMR. The N-retention and apparent biological value was improved (P>0.05) in both the experimental groups fed TMR containing KW-WS or EPP-WS silage as compared to those in control group (Wadhwa et al., 2019). Implications: Fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) and their by-products being good sources of protein, energy, micro- & macro-minerals; and bio-active compounds can add to the feed basket of livestock, if used judiciously and are preserved. These wastes have high moisture content, so are prone to microbial attack, thereby decreasing their quality, shelf life and also could raise safety concerns. Sun drying and ensiling have been widely used to preserve the nutrients in FVW wastes. The farmers in the vicinity of food processing plants or whole sale fruit and vegetable markets have the advantage to feed fresh FVWs like baby corn husk, baby corn fodder, pea pods, citrus pulp, cull potatoes and tomato pomace to the ruminants. Setting up of small scale feed manufacturing/processing units in these areas could be an attractive option for their efficient utilization. Major constraints in the use of FVWs are the presence of heavy metals, pesticides, pesticide residues, mycotoxins, heavy metals, furans and dioxins, so need to monitor regularly, to conduct risk assessment. 108
  112. 112. ReferencesAjila, C.M., Brar, S.K., Verma, M., Tyagi, R.D., Godbout, S. and Valero, J.R. 2012. Bio-processing of agro-byproducts to animal feed. Critical Rev. Biotechnol., 32: 382– 400. Assis, A.J., Campos, J.M.S., Filho, S., Queiroz, A.C., Lana, R., Euclydes, R.F., Neto, J.M., Magalhaes, A.L.R. and Mendonça S. 2004. Citrus pulp in diets for milking cows. 1. Intake of nutrients, milk production and composition. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 33: 242−50. Bakshi, M.P.S. and Wadhwa, M. 2012. Nutritional evaluation of baby corn husk-A new feed resource for livestock. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 82: 1548-1550. Bakshi, M.P.S. and Wadhwa, M. 2013. Nutritional evaluation of cannery and fruit wastes as livestock feed. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 83: 84–89. Bakshi, M.P.S., Kaushal, S., Wadhwa, M. 2005. Potential of sarson saag waste-a cannery waste as ruminant feed. Asian-Austr. J. Anim. Sci., 18: 479-82. Bakshi, M.P.S., Hundal, J.S. and Wadhwa, M. 2019. In vitro evaluation of kinnow waste as substitute of cereal grains in the concentrate mixture and empty pea pods as that of berseem hay in total mixed ration as potential livestock feed. Indian J. Anim. Sci., Submitted. Bakshi, M.P.S., Wadhwa, M. and Balwinder Kumar. 2017a. Nutritional evaluation of baby corn fodder and conventional maize fodder in buffaloes. Livestock Res. Rural Develop., 29: Article #141. baks29141. html Bakshi, M.P.S., Wadhwa, M. and Makkar, H.P.S. 2016. Wastes to worth: vegetable wastes and by-products as animal feed. CAB Reviews, 11: No. 012. Bakshi, M.P.S., Wadhwa, M. and Makkar, H.P.S. 2017b. Utilization of baby corn by-products and waste as livestock feed. Broadening Horizones # 44: 1-4 ( Bakshi, M.P.S., Wadhwa, M., Kaushal, S. and Ameir, A.A. 2007. In vitro evaluation of ensiled fruit and vegetable wastes. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 24: 12−15. BAPH. 1996. Criteria for evaluation of silage quality. In: Trial execution BAPH ed. Bureau of Animal Production and Health. Ministry of Agriculture. Beijing, China: Baph, 1–9. Chander Datt, Aruna Chhabra, Singh, N.P. and Bujarbaruah, K.M. 2008. Nutritional characteristics of horticultural crop residues as ruminant feeds. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 78: 312–16. Chauynarong, N., Bhuiyan, M.M., Kanto, U. and Iji, P.A. 2015. Variation in nutrient composition of cassava pulp and its effects on in vitro digestibility. Asian J. Poult. Sci., 9: 203–212. Crawshaw R. 2004. Co-product feeds: animal feeds from the food and drinks industries. Nothingham University Press. Ebrahimi, A., Qotbi, A.A.A., Seidavi, A.R., Laudadio, V. and Tufarelli, V. 2013. Effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel on broiler chicken growth performance. Arch. Tierzucht – Arch. Anim. Breed., 56:11–17. El-Deek, A.A., Asar, M.A., Hamdy, S.M. and Abdalla, A.A. 2009. Utilization of guava by- products in broiler finisher diets. Egypt. Poult. Sci., 29: 53–75. El-Ghani, A.A.A. 1999. Utilization of banana plant wastes by lactating Friesian cows. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds, 2: 29−37. Fegeros, K., Zervas, G., Stamouli, S. and Apostolaki, E. 1995. Nutritive value of dried citrus pulp and its effect on milk yield and milk composition of lactating ewes. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 1116−21. 109
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  114. 114. Shinkai, T., Enishi, O., Mitsumori, M., Higuchi, K., Kobayashi, K., Takenaka, K., Nagashima, K. 2012. Mochizuki, M. Mitigation of methane production from cattle by feeding cashew nut shell liquid. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 5308–16. Silva, D.A., Silva, E.P., Rabello, C.B. et al. 2007. Características físico-químicas, energéticas e nutricional dos resíduos de goiaba e tomate para frangos de corte de crescimento lento. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 38: 1051–58. Sriroth, K., Chollakup, R., Chotineeranat, S., Piyachomkwan, K. and Oates, C.G. 2000. Processing of cassava waste for improved biomass utilization. Bioresource Technol., 71: 63–69. Sundaram, R.N.S. 1986. Utilization of cashew apple waste in dairy cattle feed. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 3:124–27. Swain, B.K., Naik, P.K. and Singh, N.P. 2014. Unconventional feed resources for efficient poultry production. Technical Bulletin No. 47, ICAR-ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Old Goa 403 402, Goa, India Tiwari, S.P., Narang, M.P. and Dubey, M. 2008. Effect of feeding apple pomace on milk yield and milk composition in crossbred (Red Sindhi x Jersey) cow. Livestock Res. Rural Develop., 20: 4. Vasantha Kumar, P., Ravi, R., Mohan, B. and Purushothaman, M.R. 2006. Effect of feeding mango (Mangifera indica) seed kernel on the performance of broilers. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 76: 644–48. Volanis, M., Zoiopoulos, P., Panagou, E. and Tzerakis, C. 2006. Utilization of an ensiled citrus pulp mixture in the feeding of lactating dairy ewes. Small Rumin. Res. 64: 190–95. Wadhwa, M. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2013. Utilization of fruit andvegetable wastes as livestock feed and as a substrate for generation of other value added products. H.P.S. Makkar editor. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. RAP Publication 2013/04. Page 56. Wadhwa, M., Bakshi, M.P.S. and Makkar, H.P.S. 2015. Waste to worth: fruit wastesand by- products as animal feed. CAB Reviews, 10:031. Wadhwa, M., Bakshi, M.P.S. and Makkar, H.P.S. 2017. Utilization of empty pea (Pisum sativum) pods as livestock feed. Broadening Horizones, October 2017 # 46: 1-4 ( Wadhwa, M., Balwinder Kumar and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2018. Nutritional evaluation of ensiled baby corn fodder as livestock feed. Anim.Nutr. Feed Technol., 18 (In press) Wadhwa, M., Kaushal, S. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2006. Nutritive evaluation of vegetable wastes as complete feed for goat bucks. Small Rumin. Res., 64: 279−84. Wadhwa, M., Neerja Sood and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2018. In vitro nutritional evaluation of fruit and vegetable pulps as livestock feed. Indian J. Anim. Sci. (in press). Wadhwa, M., Hundal, J.S. and Bakshi, M.P.S. 2019. Utilization of ensiled kinnow waste and empty pea pods as feed for buffalo calves. Buffalo Bulletin (Submitted). Zafar, F., Idrees, M. and Ahmed, Z. 2005. Use of apple by-products in poultry rations of broiler chicks in Karachi. Pakistan J. Physiol., 1: 1–2. ********** 111
  115. 115. 8/19/2019 1 Changing Paradigm of food safety Need of Food Safety in Fruits and Vegetable Industry Food Safety • Concept of creating and maintaining hygienic and healthful conditions so that food should not cause harm to consumer when prepared and consumed. •This concept consists of making food Physically, Chemically and biologically safe for consumption. 112
  116. 116. 8/19/2019 2 Food Hazards • These are biological, chemical and physical agent That have potential to cause harm or an adverse health affect when the food is eaten. • Physical :Such as timber, glass, packaging material, dust, hair and metal. • Chemical: Pesticides, cleaning agents, additives and allergens. • Biological: Microorganisms, Bacteria and Viruses. Food Borne Diseases(FBD) •Common food borne infections caused by bacteria Campylobacter, salmonella and E.coli and by viruses like calicivirus known as Norwalk. •They Cause Fever, Diarrhea, abdominal cramps and allergies. •Use of fertilizers and pesticides also promotes FBD so organic agriculture should be promoted. 113
  117. 117. 8/19/2019 3 Safety measures by food industries •Food safety program outlines the systems in place to keep food safe and procedures which reduce the risk of the hazards which may occur in the food production and service business. •Specially for Fresh and processed food industries Food plant sanitization Plays a very important role. Significance of food safety • Increase shelf life of product. • Improve product acceptability. • Reduce public heath risks. • Decrease wastage in food industries. • Prevent contamination through microorganisms, water and workers 114
  118. 118. 8/19/2019 4 Safety measures Taken by Food handlers •They are potential source of microorganisms that causes illness and food spoilage. •Effective management program can eliminate these potential sources. •There are various practices that are implemented by food industries these days •Hand washing is the #1 line of defense against the spread of germs. 115
  119. 119. 8/19/2019 5 Hygienic measures •Hand Washing and use of sanitizers . •Use of plastic gloves, face masks and hair cap. •Fingernails should be cut short and no jeweleries, watches should be wear while in processing line. •Proper maintenance of physical health and if not well should be reported immediately. •Control of personal contact with food and food surfaces. •Use of deodorants and any other cosmetic should not be done in processing hall. Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after cutting of fresh vegetables and before us for another one. Your apron is NOT a towel! 116
  120. 120. 8/19/2019 6 Do NOT handle food if you have:  diarrhea  an upset stomach  coughing  sneezing  other signs of illness Safety measures in processing room • A changing room where clothing and shoes that are not worn should be stored. • Separate hand washing facilities for staff with clean soap, water and hot air hand driers. • Clean washrooms facilities should be available for staff but away from processing halls. • Aprons, coats, hair nets and gloves should be stored at proper allocations. 117
  121. 121. 8/19/2019 7 Cleaning of equipments • Cleaning in place (CIP) and Cleaning Out of Place (COP) are two standard procedures using sanitation system. • These systems are provided to sanitize surfaces of equipments that comes in contact fresh and processed foods. C.I.P • Cleaning in place is a method of cleaning interior surfaces of equipments which are used for processing of fresh and processed food products. • This process allows cleaning of equipments without dismantling the equipments. • This consists of making chemical solutions to circulate through the equipments to achieve maximum cleaning. • It removes solids and bacteria from the surfaces. 118
  122. 122. 8/19/2019 8 CIP Procedures It depends on nature of solids to be removed. •Pre-rinsing •Caustic treatment •Intermediate rinsing •Acid treatment •Disinfection •Final rinsing Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: •Reduce labor requirements. •More Consistent and effective cleaning • optimal use of water and cleaner. •Cleans difficult to access areas like Corners, edges, narrow openings and pipes etc. 119
  123. 123. 8/19/2019 9 Disadvantages •Higher maintenance cost. •Not all equipments can CIP. •Routine monitoring is required. •More water is required for cleaning. Chemicals • Should be approve by FDA for food contact surface. • Have wide range of scope and activity. • Destroy microorganism rapidly. • Non reactive and stable under all environmental conditions. • Low toxic and corrosively. 120
  124. 124. 8/19/2019 10 Chemical Used • Chlorine base: Chlorine compounds, Chlorine dioxide. • Iodine based • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds(QACs) • Fatty Acid Sanitizers • Peroxyacetic Acid(PAA) • Hydrogen Peroxide COP •COP is a cleaning procedure use for cleaning equipments when they are partially or totally disassembled. •A washer tank is used which contains chemicals solution and water fitted with circulating pumps. •Disassemble parts of equipments are put inside the Tank and soapy water is circulated followed by hand washing. 121
  125. 125. 8/19/2019 11 Advantages and Disadvantages Advantage: •Minimal labor is used. •Longer time of cleaner to act. Disadvantage: •Requires disassembling. •Incorrect cleaner can damage the equipment due to longer contact time. Safety measures Against Pest and Mites •Pest and mites depends wholly on human food for their nutrition and cause food spoilage in fresh and processed foods. RODENTS: Rat and Mice's CRAWLING: Cockroaches, Ants and silverfish. FLYING: Houseflies, wasps and fruit flies. Commodity Insects: Booklice, mites, beetles 122
  126. 126. 8/19/2019 12 Methods to control Mites and pest Activities • This can be done by Chemical as well as Non Chemical methods. • It is very essential to eliminate the pest by either of two methods as they are responsible for 8% to 25% post harvest loss in developed countries and 70% to 75% in under developed countries. Non Chemical methods • Exclusion: Prevent Insects from getting inside by providing Door and window locks, Air doors. • Lighting and trapping: Light attracts insects so it can be use as a tool for trapping. Mercury vapor bulbs are attractive to insects. Electrocuting traps use black or blue light to attract insects and then provide electric shock to kill them. 123
  127. 127. 8/19/2019 13 • Glue boards: Insects attracted to light can be trapped on glue board when attempting to rest near light. • Here placement of trap plays a critical role. • For flying insects it should be placed 1.5m above the floor away from working area. • Rat traps. Very conventional way of controlling pest activity which requires continuous monitoring. Chemical Methods •Pests and mites activity should be controlled without chemicals if possible due to danger of pesticides, •Insects Poison which are use these days are: Phosphine ,Methyl bromide, ethylene oxide, Carbonyl sulfide. •They are sprayed or applied in spots or cracks, corners and crevices 124
  128. 128. 8/19/2019 14 Water Treatment • For processing of fresh or processed food products water is treated as a safety measure to remove bacteria and other spoilage causing agents. • Water travels over land surface and ground so it very easily take up the impurities so its very important to treat the water before its use. Water Treatment Process • Clarification: Remove Physical Impurities Glass, bottles metal pieces • Sedimentation: Remove Heavy impurities like Dust. Mud and sand • Filtration &Membrane Process :Removes Bacteria, viruses and pathogens. • Deodorization: Removes unwanted taste and odor. • Softening: Removes Cation elements such as calcium , Magnesium , barium and anions such as fluoride, Nitrate, Uranium and chromates • Disinfection : Removes total bacterial concentration and eliminate pathogenic bacteria. Done through UV radiation or chemical disinfection. • Desalination: Removal of salt through ion exchange or electro- dialysis 125
  129. 129. 8/19/2019 15 Training for workers • Now a days proper training is given to workers to educate them about food safety, ISO and HAACP. • Many workshops on Good Manufacturing Practices(GMP), Good hygienic Practices(GHP) and good agriculture practices are carried out by industries or government to educate their workers and employers. • Systems Such as Food Safety Management system (FSMS) are adopted by Food Industries these days. •Training requires time away from the job for both workers and management and should involve training specialist. •Training should include basic information regarding handling, cleanliness and hygienic practices. •All employees should receive training in personal hygiene, GMPs, sanitation procedures, personal safety and their role in HACCP program. 126
  130. 130. 8/19/2019 16 Training • Need to be proactive • Throughout the flow of food: • purchasing • receiving • storage • preparation • holding • delivery • Team effort needed • Make sure staff and volunteers are following food safety practices The Food Safety And Standards Act, 2006 : A Paradigm Shift In Indian Regulatory Scenario 127
  131. 131. 8/19/2019 17 Needs For the act Existence of multiple regulations control Bodies to supplement each other. This approach has lead to incoherence and inconsistency in the food sector regulatory scenario. . The FSSAI integrates eight different existing food laws, and is a major transformation that ensures to bring paradigm shift in the food regulatory scenario of the country. The Indian food industry appreciates the benefits of the Act and look forward to its implementation at the earliest. • The Act integrates eight different food related statutes. The Act also aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food safety and standards, by moving from multi-level, multi- departmental control to a single line of command. • The Act establishes the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) as an apex regulatory authority consisting of a Chairperson and 22 members. • The Act provides the general administrative principles to be followed by the Central Government, State Governments, and FSSAI while implementing the provisions of this Act. • The Act prohibits advertisements which are misleading or deceiving or contravenes the provisions of this Act, and prohibits unfair trade practices. The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 128
  132. 132. India is world's largest milk producer since 1998. It accounts for more than 13% of the world’s total milk production. It is also the world's largest consumer of dairy products, consuming almost 100% of its own milk production. In the year 2017-18 the Milk production raised to 176.3 MMT and per capita availability of milk to 375 grams/day. Dairy activities form an essential part of the rural Indian economy, serving as an important source of employment and income. India also has the largest bovine population in the world. Dairying here is considered as an occupation subsidiary to agriculture and an important source of livelihood for small & marginal farmers and landless labourers. It is aimed to double the farmer's income through dairying in the country in next 3 years. Importance of Effective Management of Dairy Value Supply Chain for Sustatainable Dairy Business Significance of Dairy Value Supply Chain Analysis of Indian Dairy Industry: Efficient dairy supply chain management is a prerequisite for the success of a dairy industry/firm and the supply chain performance of the processing units is a deciding factor. The biggest concern in milk supply chain is to make available good quality milk on consistent basis at affordable prices. The perishable nature of milk and its seasonal production cycle makes it even more difficult. With increased pressures from intense global competition of supply, processing and distribution, high levels of service expectations and competitive pricing, the supply chain management has become even more important. Issues and Challenges of the Indian Dairy Industry with respect to Dairy Value Supply Chain Management: Eventhough India is world’s largest producer of milk but unlike other developed nations, most of the milk produced here is by the small, marginal and landless milk producers who own 1-2 but less than 5 milch animals. The millions of such milk producers who are scattered throughout the length and breadth of the country coupled with poor infrastructure facilities like rural roads, availability of power, cold chain facilities, clean water, fodder and temperate climatic conditions in the country further aggravate the problem of supply chain management. The low productivity of milch animals is a burning issue which is hindering the fast growth of this sector. Almost 45 % of India’s total milk production is consumed by rural households themselves and the remaining 55 % of milk production is sold in the domestic market. Of the share of milk sold in the domestic market, almost 50 % used as fluid milk, 35 percent is consumed as traditional products such fresh milk products and milk based sweets, and remaining 15 percent is consumed for the production of butter, ghee, milk powders, baby foods, dairy creamers, ice cream, whey powder, whey proteins and casein etc. The organized dairy sector in the country handle only about 20% of India’s total milk production which is primarily used for sale of liquid milk, fresh milk products, butter, ghee, cheese, milk powders, ice cream etc. Eventhough some traditional products are 129
  133. 133. also manufactured by the organized sector also but this segment is dominated by the unorganized sector which handle more milk than the organized sector. Supply chain of the unorganized market: About 35% of the dairy market in India is unorganised and still the dudhaiyas and halwais dominate this market. The milk is collected by these middlemen from the farmers door steps and then sold in nearby towns as liquid milk to urban households as loose milk and the surplus is sold to restaurants or halwais for further processing from whom the customers take the processed milk merchandise. Supply chain of the unorganized market: The organized sector consists of milk cooperatives, producer companies and private sector dairies that procure milk from farmers by opening their collection centers in the villages. The pooled milk is either chilled at Bulk Milk Coolers or is transported by the transporters organized by these cooperatives/companies either to their nearby chilling centre or to the factory and immediately chilled to 4°C. This chilled milk is then transported in SS insulated tankers to factory for further processing into various types of packed milk, fresh milk products and other products as per the requirement of market. The processed and packed milk and milk products are then further transported to markets for onward sale to consumers through the distribution network created and set up by these companies/cooperatives. Important aspects of Milk Sourcing in Dairy Value Supply Chain for Sustainable Dairy Business: • QUALITY: To deliver quality products in the market and ensure consumer satisfaction. • TRANSPARENCY: To win confidence of stakeholders at all levels. • TRACEABILITY: To identify any lapses in the course of product manufacture, and take immediate actions for improvement. • COST EFFECTIVENESS: To ensure financial efficiency in low margin industry. • SKILLING: Skilling of manpower for all the existing emerging job roles at all the levels • Quality Measures at different levels- • The Animal should be healthy, free from diseases, well fed, clean. Given adequate movement space, udder care (Free from mastitis and external wounds). Quality at Farm Level • Environment: Clean, hygienic, not stressful (cool place during summers), clean water of wallowing tank. 130
  134. 134. • Feeding: Balanced, mixed, adequate. • Milking: Animal bathing / Udder washing, Animal body free from hanging fodder or dung particles, Clean milking pail with minimum or no joints, Milk free from contagious diseases, hand hygiene, not consuming tobacco or beetle nuts etc., Nails trimmed, head preferably covered. • Milk should be delivered at Collection point as soon as possible. • Collection point should be free from flies, rodents, lizard’s cockroaches and other creatures. Quality at milk collection point • Environment should be hygienic, No open drains nearby. • Doors and windows should be provided with mosquito net. • All cans and collection equipment should be properly cleaned, free from and milk residue and deposits, no foul smell. • Milk should be properly filtered preferably with Stainless steel sieve. Cloth filter and plastic mesh should be avoided. • All farmers should bring milk in Stainless steel utensils – No plastic vessel should be allowed. • Milk should be free from extraneous matter. • All filled in cans should be covered with either cloth or lids (Lids should be tightened only at the time of dispatch). • During summers all filled cans should be covered with wet cloth and fan in the room should be kept ON. • Farmers should be advised to bring the same shift milk. • All collection equipment should be washed after collection is over and kept in the sun. • No plastic cans to be used for milk handling at any stage. • Number of surfaces where milk comes in contact should be minimum possible. • All collection equipment like, liter (if used), dipper, plunger, etc. should be of SS 304. • Milk collection should not be spread over a long period of time. During Milk Transport 131
  135. 135. • Milk transport vehicles should be in good condition properly maintained to minimize chances of breakdown. • Condition of tyres should be good to avoid chances of frequent puncture. Jack, spanners, Spare wheel should be available all the time with proper air pressure. • The vehicle should be covered especially during summer and rainy seasons. • Milk route should be drawn with lifting timings from each point and it should be strictly adhered to. • In case of breakdown priority should be given to milk lifting through alternate vehicle. • Driver should possess medical fitness certificate. • During summer cans should be covered with wet pads (Thick, preferably made of Jute). • A penalty system on late coming vehicles should be in place. • There should be no holding of vehicles before milk reception. At Chilling center / BMC • The staff handling milk should be hygienic, free from any ailments or contagious diseases. Should possess medical fitness certificates. • An efficient fly control system should be in place. Coated sugar bolus should be kept at safe places and Fly catchers should be installed at high fly density places like milk weighment area. • Each can should be subjected to organoleptic tests and any can with abnormal taste, color or flavor should be rejected. • Milk reception at CC/BMC should be over by 9.30 AM PM in summers and 10.00 AM PM in winters. • Samples found doubtful on organoleptic tests should be subject to adulterant tests. Any supplier found supplying adulterated milk should be banned. • Any adulterated milk should be drained off. • Milk chilling should be completed within 15-20 minutes after reception. • CIP should be done as per SOP and immediately after tanker dispatch. • Water for washing should be tested and should have TDS below 300 PPM. 132
  136. 136. • In areas with high TDS water, RO water should be used for cleaning and flushing. • Permanent hot water arrangement should be available at the center. • Tanker must be thoroughly checked for cleaning on arrival. If found un- clean must be cleaned locally. (Negligence on this account creates problems that are difficult to handle). During Tanker transport • Any water remaining in the barrel should be drained before loading. • Temperature of milk should not be more than 4 degrees C. • Tanker should be properly sealed at all the openings. • Tankers should be provided with GPRS and Lid sensors to ascertain the time and place of opening the lid. • Transparency - • Electronic testing and weighment. At village level • Acknowledgement of quantity, quality and cost of milk through printed slip • Milk payment as per acknowledgement given. • Producer wise data transfer to central office / plant. • Milk payment transfer to farmers’ account (latest development). • Milk payment through bank. • Measurement of quantity and quality by transporter and collection agent at the time of dispatch. At transport level • Any shortage on Agents account. • Dispatch note generated. • Data transfer to central office / plant electronically. • Measurement of quantity and quality at Chilling center in the presence of transporter. • Electronic data generated and transferred to Plant / central office. 133