Capacity Building of Sustainable Food Value Chains for Enhanced Food Safety and Quality
ue : India
van, 5-6 Ins
d, New Delh
X Lines : 24
hi – 110003
2 Technical Session – I
Capacity Building of Sustaina ble Food Value Chains for
Enhancing Food Safet y and Q uality of Agri- Food Products:
Concepts and Principles - Ms. Darunee Edwar ds, President,
Food Science and Technology Association of Thailand
Critical Factors in Cold Chai n Systems to Ensure Food Safet y
& Quality - Dr. Rodney Wee, CEO, Asia Cold Chain Centre,
Food Value Chain: Issue and Challenges - Prof (Dr) R.M. Joshi,
Chairperson, Internat ional Project Divisio n, Indian Institute of
Foreign Trade, New Delhi
3 Technical Session – II
Role of Supply Chain for India Vision - Shri Prem Narayan, IRSS
Deputy. Director General UIDAI, Ministry of Electronic &Information
Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi
NCCD, a Public Private Kno wledge Partnership – Redefining
the Cold-chain - S hri Pa wanexhKohli Chief A dvisor & CE O
National Centre for Cold-ch ain Dev elopment, Ministry of
Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Govt. of India, New Delhi
Food Losses & Wastage: Mitigation Strateg y thr ough Valu e
Chain Development - Shri Vijay Sardana, International Fo od
Security & Agribusiness Exper t, Global Head-Food Security &
Agribusiness UPL limited
4 Technical Session – III
Indian Food Safety Issues and Challenges – Role of Private
Sector- Dr.R.S.Khanna, Chairman Kwality Dairy (India) Limited,
Commercially Su stainable F & V Processing fo r SMEs
:holistic Approach - Prof.SmitaLele, Dire ctor at ICT Mumba i
Marathwada campus at Jalna
Challenges of Standards and Conformity Assessment faced
by Food Industr y – Shri Anil Ja uhri, former CEO,
NABCB,Quality Council of India, New Delhi
5 Technical Session – IV
Issues in Promoting Food Safet y Cultur e in an Emerging
Food Pro cessing Industr y and possib le solutions - Ms.
Darunee Edwards, President, Food Science and Technology
Association of Thailand
Building Reliable Safe and Co mpetitive Food Suppl y Chain
for Export - Dr. Rodney Wee, CEO, Asia Cold Chain Centre,
Food safet y and quality control for s trengthening food
Supply Chain - Prof. Anil Kumar Chauhan, Coor dinator and
Professor (Food Technology) at Centre of Food Science and
Technology, Institute of Agric ultural Sciences, Banar as Hindu
6 Technical Session – V
Innovative Technolo gies for Pr imary Processing of Agri-
food Products for E nhancing the Food Safet y and Quality –
Dr. R.K Singh, Director, Centra l Institute of Post Harvest
Engineering & Technology, Ludhiana
Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: A Potential source of nutrients
for livestock - Dr. Manju Wadhwa, D epartment of Animal
Nutrition Guru Angad Dev Vete rinary and Animal Science
University, Ludhiana-141004, India
Changing Paradigm of food safet y - Shri Rakesh Mehra,
Head IQF Operations, Mother D airy fruit processing Ltd, Ne w
7 Technical Session – VI
Importance of Effect ive Management of Dair y Value Suppl y
Chain for Sustainable Dair y Business - Dr.Harsev Singh,
Former Chief Ex ecutive Officer, Reliance Retail Limited,
(Reliance Dairy), New Delhi
Developing Agri-Entrepren eurship: Institutional
Convergence of S ynergistic Strengths - Dr. Ras hmi Singh,
Principal S cientist, Division of Ag ricultural Extension, Indian
Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
8 Technical Session – VII
Milk Production Sector in Indi a Anal ysis of Structure,
Profitability and Market Accessibilit y - Dr.S.Mohanakumar,
Associate Professor, Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur
Role of Accreditation in Food Sector - Emerging Scenario –
Ms. Vani Bhambri Arora, Deputy Director, National Accreditation
Board for Certification Bodies, Quality Council of India
Supply Chain Management fo r Enhancing Food Saf ety and
Quality of Food Products - Dr. R.P. Sing h, Principal Advisor
(Agribusiness), National Productivity Council, New Delhi
9 About NPC 197
10 About APO 202
Food safety and quality control for
strengthening food Supply Chain
Anil Kumar Chauhan, Prachi Tyagi and Aparna
Centre of Food Science and Technology,
institute of Agricultural Sciences
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005(India)
The food products for consumption should be safe and of good quality .Therefore it’s a
responsibility of authorities and persons who is the part of food supply chain from
“farm to fork” to maintain and strengthen food safety and quality control. The food
supply chain continues to grow rapidly, with consumers now expecting exotic foods,
fresh on their plates, year round. This has extended the supply chain geographically and
across many more parties, making the supply chain longer and more complicated than
ever.Producers, manufacturers, distributors, logistics providers and other parties are
burdened with various issues and challenges to get their products to the market rapidly,
with less risk, and in the best quality. Various regulations and standards at national and
global level e.g. Food Laws, FSMS ISO 22000:2018,Codex ,BRC ,GFSI ,FSSAI and
Export inspection quality Council of India etc are being involve to set out the
government’s requirements to be met by food chain operators to ensure the food safety
and adequate food quality.
Keyword- Food supply chain, Food safety and quality control
Food Supply Chain
A food supply chain allude to the series of action that elaborate the food system from “
farm to our tables”. The processes include production, processing, distribution,
transportation, storage consumption and disposal
Important elements of Food Supply Chain
• Logistic & Transport
• Marketing & Information
Risk factors influencing the food safety and quality
Evaluation objects Risk evaluation indicators
Raw material supply risk Pollution, illegal use of preservative,
residual input, contamination, transgenic
Production and processing risk Use of preservative, contamination
,improper hygiene and sanitation, non-
standardized equipment and processing
Logistics, warehousing, and transportation
Transport vehicle sanitation, intelligent
temperature control facility, logistic road
Sales and consumption risk Selling expired food ,false information
about food, poor sanitation condition
,improper eating method and waste
Common Food Supply Chain Issues
1. Lack of traceability
2. Inability to maintain the safety and quality of products
3. Inadequate communication between parties
4. Rising food supply chain costs
5. Failure to track and control inventory in warehouses and stores
1. Lack of traceability
Ability to track the food product through all stages of the supply chain
Solution- Block chain technology
It is a shared, digital platform where users can store and share information
across a network
It enables users to look at all transactions simultaneously and in real-time
Once information is stored, it becomes permanent
2. Inability to maintain the safety and quality of products
• Poor storage and warehousing practices
• Delays in transportation
• Industrial damage
• Unpleasent weather
• Selection of quality raw materials and packaging material
• Implementing correct and standard production method.
3. Inadequate communication between parties
• Lack of communication and fragmented information
Mistrust between customer and suppliers
• Cloud based network
Offer quick onboarding and varieties of services.
Light chat and micro blogging solution
Easy communication with suppliers and other partner.
4. Rising food supply chain costs
Energy and fuel costs
Logistics and freight
Investment in new technology
Gets measured and managed
Food supply chain gap anlysis
5. Failure to track and control Inventory in warehouses and stores
Improper inventory management
• Modern inventory management.
Real time visibility of inventory
Optimal level of inventory
Automated tracking technology such as RFID technologies.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage
of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness to avoid potential health hazards
Hazards in Food Safety
Food safety benefits
Increased Profits & productivity
Food quality standards increases
Elimination of poverty
Compliance with the laws
“Food Quality” usually refers to all positive attributes of a food, excluding negative
attributes such as adulteration, exposure to toxin, anti- nutritional factors, and pesticide
From Consumer/Industry Point of View
• Sensory Quality
• Shelf life
• Functional Property
• Nutritional Quality
• Value for Money
From Public Health Point of View
• Hygienic Quality
• Nutritional Quality
• Compliance with Regulation
Food Safety Quality Standards
A level of food quality that is necessary to guarantee consistency of composition of any
food article and ensuring that it is fit for its purpose.
Standards in supply food chain
• National food control system in India
Export inspection council of India
• Global Standards –
FSMS(ISO 22000: 2018)
GFSI(GLOBAL FOOD SAFETY INITATIVE
BRC (BRITISH RETAIL CONSORTIUN)
National Food Control System
• Food Safety & Standards Authority of India
• Export Inspection Council of India
The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
FSSAI - Food Safety and Standards Act 2006 for laying down science based standards
for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and
import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
The Act aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to food
safety and standards, by moving from multi- level, multi- departmental control to a
single line of command.
HOW IT INTEGRATES
• Framing of Regulations to lay down the Standards and guidelines in relation to
articles of food and specifying appropriate system of enforcing various
standards thus notified.
• Laying down mechanisms and guidelines for accreditation of certification
bodies engaged in certification of food safety management system for food
• Laying down procedure and guidelines for accreditation of laboratories and
notification of the accredited laboratories.
• To provide scientific advice and technical support to Central Government and
State Governments in the matters of framing the policy and rules in areas which
have a direct or indirect bearing of food safety and nutrition.
• Collect and collate data regarding food consumption, incidence and prevalence
of biological risk, contaminants in food, residues of various, contaminants in
foods products, identification of emerging risks and introduction of rapid alert
• Creating an information network across the country so that the public,
consumers, Panchayats etc. receive rapid, reliable and objective information
about food safety and issues of concern.
• Provide training programmes for persons who are involved or intend to get
involved in food businesses.
• Contribute to the development of international technical standards for food,
sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards.
• Promote general awareness about food safety and food standards.
DART (Detection Adulteration with Rapid Test)
• Food adulteration deceive consumer and cause heath risk.
• Aware consumer about food safety.
• Common quick test for detection of food adulterant at house hold
Some Adulterants In Foods Detection
Milk adulterated with
water will flow
leaving a mark
Formation of blue color
indicates the presence of
starch.(In the case of milk,
addition of water and boiling
is not required)
If the drop of honey
disperses in water, it
indicates the presence of
appears to be bright
and leaves colour
immediately in water.
Impurities are observed
visually in adulterated food
The saw dust will float at the
surface of water while Chilli
powder will settle down in
Iodised salt develop blue
color with cut piece of
potato while no blue color
in case of common salt
If cotton absorbs
colour, then it
indicates the usage of
rhodamine B for
coloring the outer
surface of sweet
Clear separation of color
in water indicates
Export Inspection Council of India
To facilitate worldwide access for Indian exports through a credible and efficient
inspection and certification system and earn global recognition as India’s premier
organization for certifying quality and safety to meet international norms
To create an export inspection & certification infrastructure within the country
based on International Standards for Certification Authorities in consonance
with WTO requirements.
To instill confidence in importers about quality and safety of Indian exports.
To provide accredited state-of-art testing facilities in chosen frontier areas.
To enhance capability of manpower through trainings to meet International
To obtain recognition for India’s export certification system from our major
To participate in international fora and project Indian interest.
To be in sync with the latest technological advancements for capacity building.
(EIC) stands out as the forerunner.
Codex Alimantarius Commission
• Created in 1963 by FAO and WHO to develop food standards & guidelines
• Codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
• To protect health of the consumers and ensuring fair trade practices in the food
trade throughout world.
• Inter-governmental body of the United Nations 185 member countries and 1
member organization (European Union)
• Function – adopt science-based standards, codes of practice, guidelines
• Mandate – safety of health of consumers; fair practices in food trade
• Process – inclusive, transparent, consensus-based; adheres to Codex Procedural
General Subject Committees
Codex Committee on Food Additives(CCFA)
Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues-(CCPR)
Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification
Codex Committee on Food Labelling-CCFL
Codex Committee on General Principles-CCGP
Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods-CCCF
Codex Committee on Food Hygiene-CCFH
Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods- CCRVDFR
Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling-CCMAS
Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses-CCNFSDU
Active Commodity Committees
Codex Committee on Cereals, Pulses and Legumes-
Codex Committee on Fats and Oils-
Codex Committee on Sugars-
Codex Committee on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables-
Codex Committee on Processed Fruits and Vegetables-
Codex Committee on Spices and Culinary Herbs-
World Health Organization
• Committed to achieving better health for all people and recognizes food safety
as a global public health priority
• Its Member States to recognize food safety as an essential public health function
• Promoting efforts to improve food safety, from farm to plate and International
food standards based on health considerations
WHO - Five keys
1. Keep food surfaces clean and wash utensils as soon
2. Separate raw food from cooked food.
3. Cook food thoroughly to the appropriate
4. Keep food at safe temperatures both for serving
5. Use safe water and raw materials.
Food Safety Management System -ISO 22000:2018 - THE BENCH
• It is an internationally accepted standard and has become a world
benchmark for food safety management practices
• It is a system standard and not a product standard
• It is a generic standard
• It gives ‘What’ an organization should do & leaves ‘How’ to be
decided by the organization
-Food safety is related to the presence of food safety hazards at the time of
-As introduction of food safety hazards can occur at any stage of the food chain,
adequate -control throughout the food chain is essential.
-Food safety is ensured through the combined efforts of all the parties in the food chain
-ISO 22000:2018specifies requirements - combines the 4 key elements:
P-D-C-A (Plan –Do-Check-Act)Cycle.
The PDCA cycle enables food establishments to ensure that its processes are
adequately resourced and managed and those opportunities for improvement are
determined and acted on.
- ISO 22000:2018 is structured on the concept of the PDCA cycle applied at
a) Organizational Planning and Control covering clauses 4-10 except clause 8.
b) Operational Planning and Control covering operational processes clause 8.
-Communication between the two levels is therefore essential.
Global Food Safety Initiatives (GFSI)
Vision -Safe food for consumers everywhere.
Mission- Provide continuous improvement in food safety management systems to
ensure confidence in the delivery of safe food to consumers worldwide.
Objectives of GFSI
Reduce food safety risks
Manage cost in the supply chain
Develop competencies and capacity building
Facilitate knowledge exchange and networking
Functions of GFSI
Recognition of food safety management schemes to defined requirements in its
Brings together food safety experts within a global network
Drives global change through multi-stakeholder projects on strategic issues
British Retail Consortium (BRC)
• The BRC Global Standard for Food Safety is developed by food industry
experts from retailers, manufacturers and food service organizations to ensure it
is rigorous and detailed, yet easy to understand
• First published in 1998, the Standard is now in its seventh issue and is well-
• It provides a framework to manage product safety, integrity, legality and
quality, and the operational controls for these criteria in the food and food
ingredient manufacturing, processing and packing industry.
BRC- SEVEN SECTION
• Senior Management Commitment And Continual Improvement
• The Food Safety Plan (HACCP)
• Food Safety And Quality Management System
• Site Standards
• Product Control
• Process Control
Food products go through every stage of the supply chain (production, storage and
sales) therefore important aim is to convey food products as faster as possible, establish
securely the certain position of safety and quality, so as to fulfil the expanding
requirements of consumers . Food governed by legislations, standards and norms at
national and global level like, for e.g. Food Laws, FSMS ISO 22000:2018,Codex ,BRC
,GFSI ,FSSAI and Export inspection quality Council of India etc. to set out the
government’s requirements to be met by food chain operators to ensure the food safety
and adequate food quality. To expect the safe and quality food on markets that is
Innovative Technologies for Primary Processing of Agri-food Products for
Enhancing the Food Safety and Quality
*R K Singh, Swati Sethi and D N Yadav
ICAR-Central Institute of Post-harvest Engineering &Technology, Ludhiana
*Director, ICAR-CIPHET, Email: email@example.com
In the post-production system, the agricultural commodities undergo series of
postharvest unit operations such as: collection, cleaning, sorting/grading,
decortications/shelling, drying, milling, packing, transportation, storage and value
addition before reaching the consumer. At all these stages incremental losses occur to
the produce. The total postharvest losses to agricultural commodities are estimated to
be from 6 to 18% (Nanda et al., 2012). Protecting the agricultural commodities from
losses in the post-harvest system will result in an additional availability of 6 to 18%
foods for consumption. Furthermore, rapid migration from rural to urban areas in
search of better livelihood will lead to an increase in urban population in the coming
years. Urban people are always blessed with greater income than their rural
counterparts and are on faster lifestyles. This will lead to changing food habits of large
chunk of our population and will increase the demand for processed, value added and
variety of foods manifolds. India with diverse agro climatic zones produces all kinds of
fruits, vegetables and other produce to provide food, feed, fiber and fuel. These diverse
and huge productions will help India to become the food basket for the world. To
achieve this, the production and processing systems should assure quality and comply
with stringent regulatory requirements. This calls for vigorous infusion of engineering
and technology inputs in post-harvest handling and processing industries.
Primary Processing and Mechanization
Mechanization in Food processing segment covers all levels of handling and processing
technologies, from simple and basic hand tools to more sophisticated and power-driven
equipment. It may be defined as the process of starting to use machines to do work that
was previously done by hand. The food processing sector is highly fragmented
industry, it widely comprises sub-segments like food grains processing, fruits and
vegetables, milk and milk products, beer and alcoholic beverages, meat and poultry etc.
Earlier, huge number of entrepreneurs in this industry were small in terms of their
production and operations, and were largely concentrated in the unorganized segment.
Presently, there are more than 900 flour mills, 5300 fruits and vegetables processing
units, 450 fish processing units and 200 meat processing units in the organised sector.
The mechanization is largely required at the rural level where processing of agricultural
produce is very traditional and highly unorganized.
• Grain processing industry: Primary milling of grains is considered to be the most
important activity in this industry. Around 65% of rice production is milled in
modern rice mills. There are 139208 traditional rice mills and 35088 modern rice
mills in India. Dal milling is the third largest in grain processing industry, and have
about 11,000 mechanized mills in the organised sector. Oilseed processing is
another major segment, there are approx. 50, 000 mechanical oil expellers in the
• Fruit and vegetable (F&V) industry: F&V processing is mainly dominated by
unorganised players, who occupy a share of about 60 per cent of the total market
size. Over the last few years, the industry has witnessed rapid growth of Ready to
Eat foods, frozen vegetables, processed mushroom etc. Presently, the mechanized
processing of fruits and vegetables is estimated to be around 2.2 % of the total
production in the country. The major processed items in this segment include pulps
and juices, fruit based ready to serve beverages, canned fruits and vegetables, jams,
squashes, pickles etc.
Mechanization continues to play an increasingly important role in post-harvest
processing operations such as shelling, milling, processing, packaging, transportation,
storage and marketing. Mechanization in post harvesting sector replace the lengthy and
laborious work with more labour saving, quality-improving machinery and process
technology to improve postharvest handling and agro-processing. This also improves
the efficient use of resources, enhances market access and contributes to mitigating
climate related hazards. Mechanization improved the efficiency of the postharvest
processing operations by following:
• Improved productivity and timeliness of agricultural operations
• Enhance income and greater profitability of farmers
• Increased safety of the process and operator
• Mitigating climate related hazard
• Relieves labour shortages
• Processing of food items in hygienic conditions.
• Improved food quality
• Reduced postharvest losses
• Reduction in by-product generation
• Lower production cost in the long term
• Creation and maintenance of brand value through quality product
• Reduced fatigue and human labour
Primary Processing and Rural Entrepreneurship
Postharvest processing has great potential to increase rural entrepreneurship and
livelihood by generating employment possibility along the value chain of the
production. Post-harvest operations such as storage, processing (cleaning grading,
shelling, milling and dehusking) add value at each step of food production which leads
to entrepreneurship development in terms of setting up the agro-processing center.
Postharvest machinery and equipment transform the farmer from ‘producer’ to
‘producer-cum-processor’ to get more profits by increasing quality through value
addition and efficient utilization of by-products in addition to reducing postharvest
losses. Establishing small and tiny units of agro-processing centers in rural areas and
linking them with urban markets can be one of the alternatives to increase income and
employment opportunity for youth. This sector generates the demand for more
production of agricultural commodities resulting into more intensive agriculture and
ultimately employment generation in rural areas.
• An entrepreneur can start processing of agricultural commodities into more refined
products including: milling maize and other grains, cooking, curing or drying meat,
drying fruits and vegetables, mixing commodities such as nuts and raisins, create
handcrafts with commodities such as grasses and flowers etc. Each of these
represents a value-adding possibility in which entrepreneurial farmers can become
involved to capture value within the value chain. If they can organise the necessary
finances, they can establish a business.
• Perishables need immediate cold storage facilities within the vicinity of the farms.
If the rural farmers are educated about the latest scientific mechanized techniques
and cost-effective ways of storage, they can form co-operatives and communities to
pool in resources and make the trained youth responsible for setting up basic
• Recognizing the importance of rural entrepreneurship and skill development
number of initiatives like “Start-up India” and “Stand-up India”, ASPIRE (A
Scheme for Promoting Innovation, Rural industry and Entrepreneurship), Pradhan
Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna and Aajeevika are recently launched by Government
of India. Indian government has established separate ministry ‘Ministry of Skill
Development and Entrepreneurship’ for promoting entrepreneurship and skill
In this way entrepreneurship in mechanised post-harvest processing and value addition
is emerging as a solution of rural unemployment, rural poverty & can enhance rural
entrepreneurship and livelihood.
Automation Requirement in Post-Harvest Segment
Being a biological material, agricultural commodities are prone to large variation in
size shape texture and other properties that plays important role in its postharvest
management. It is high time that machineries are equipped with techniques to adopt to
varying nature of agricultural produce. Looking at the technological interventions in
postharvest segment so far, it is evident that technologies for labour intensive operation
(threshing, milling etc) are readily available whereas mechanisation in skill dependent
operations (harvesting of delicate F&V, grading, sorting etc) is scarce and cost
intensive. Emphasis on use of artificial intelligence, machine learning, image
processing, and robotics in such machinery could boost its widespread adoption in
farming as well as industrial community. Further, automation is required in storage
(specially controlled atmosphere) and packaging (modified atmosphere) of fresh fruits
and vegetables, cold chain management including pre-cooling facilities. Besides, the
working condition of agro-processing industries are not very conducive for human
being due to lot of air and noise pollution. The sophistication in postharvest machines is
required for their precise and safe operation which can be achieved through automation.
Scope of Agribusiness
Agribusiness denotes the collective business activities that are performed from farm to
fork. It covers the supply of agricultural inputs, the production and transformation of
agricultural products and their distribution to final consumers. India is largest producer
of food grain (284 mT) and 2nd
largest producer of fruits and vegetables (290 mT).
India is second most populous country with close to 1.3 billon population.
Agribusinesses are spread across this wide spectrum of services to be render to
different classes of the consumers. Postharvest management of agricultural produce
provides different for establishments of agribusiness.
Scope for agribusiness:
• India is endowed with varied ago-climate conditions, which facilitates
production of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical agricultural commodities
thereby ensuring different variety of raw materials.
• There is growing demand for mechanised agriculture to ensure minimum post-
harvest losses in the country which will ensure quality and quantity of raw
• Export can be harnessed as a source of economic growth. India has vast
potential to improve it present position in the World trade of agricultural
commodities both in raw and processed form. The products line include cereals,
pulses, oilseeds and oils, oil meal, spices and condiments, fruits and vegetables,
flowers, medicinal plants and essential oils, agricultural advisory services,
agricultural tools and implements, meat, milk and milk products, fish and fish
products, ornamental fish, forest by products etc.
• At present processing is done at primary level only and the rising standard of
living expands opportunities for secondary and tertiary processing of
• The enhanced agricultural production throws open opportunities for
employment in marketing, transport, cold storage and warehousing facilities,
credit, insurance and logistic support services.
• Establishment of agro-processing center in production catchments.
With increase in working class population and with variety of food preference, the
scope for agribusiness has great potential and provide opportunity for youth to venture
into agro-processing activities and utilize their skill for income and employment
The key challenges associated with the adoption of mechanization in post-harvest
operations in India are:
• Indian agriculture is characterized by small land holdings and hence small
portion of produce owned by large number of farmers/producers which limits
the consistent supply of quality raw materials for processing.
• About 65-70% of total food grains produced in the country are stored at farm
level with intention of immediate sell in market. This is driven by lack of
availability of suitable machinery and other accessories at their disposal for
handling and processing of farm produce.
• Commodity specific design of post-harvest machineries restricts their use for
limited period which demotivates the farmers from its wide scale adoption.
Other reasons include
a) Financial assistance for equipment: Purchase of any equipment is a significant
investment for most of the manufacturers in India. Hence, reasonable financing
norms are a must for ensuring mechanization in any industry. An issue that has
been persistent in financing is the purchase of standalone implements. This seems
to discourage the people from investing at large, as they need to shell out a huge
b) Standardization and quality control: As the majority of customers are cost
conscious; quality of the product takes a major hit. In addition, the inability of local
low cost manufacturers to come up to the levels of standard designs of equipment
also poses a big challenge in adoption of mechanization in post-harvest operations.
c) Education, training and popularization of equipment and machines:
Knowledge about selection of machinery is inadequate. Shortage of skilled, semi-
skilled and unskilled workers has emerged as a critical factor causing a major
hindrance to the growth of mechanization.
d) Repair and maintenance of the machinery: The after sales service of farm
machinery is the other concern in India as the majority of the manufacturers are
cost conscious. There are inadequate service centers for proper upkeep, repair and
maintenance of the equipment and the market lacks regulations on Custom Hiring
e) Low product quality and unreliable assured power supply
f) Low capacity utilisation
The Indian Government gives considerable importance to the food-processing sector.
The Ministry of Food Processing Industries is concerned with the formulation and
implementation of various policies and plans for the Food Processing Industries within
the overall national priorities and objectives. The government has implemented various
programmes that supports post-harvest mechanization in the country through schemes
• NABARD created a separate window with a corpus of Rs. 1,000 crore for
refinancing loans to the sector, especially for agro-processing infrastructure and
• Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme: The Department of Animal
Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DAHD&F), GOI launched a pilot scheme titled
“Venture Capital Scheme for Dairy and Poultry” in the year 2005-06. The main
objective of the scheme was to extend assistance for setting up small dairy farms
and other components to bring structural changes in the dairy sector.
• Central sector scheme of Cold Chain, Value Addition and Preservation
Infrastructure: Under this scheme, government provides grants in aid up to 50%
(75% in North East and Hills) of a cold chain project subject to maximum Rs. 10
Crore. Such cold chain projects can be set up by individuals, groups of
entrepreneurs, cooperative societies, Self Help Groups (SHGs), Farmer Producer
Organizations, NGO, Public Sector Companies etc.
• Loan to food & agro-based processing units and cold chain has been classified
under Agriculture activities for Priority Sector Lending (PSL) subject to aggregate
sanctioned limit of Rs. 100 crore per borrower.
• Primary Processing Equipment for Post-Harvest Processing: Equipment
such as custard apple pulper, basket centrifuge for surface water removal of
washed vegetables, castor decorticator, aonla pricking machine, sunflower
decorticating machine; roasting and popping unit for makhana; hand tool for
pomegranate arils extraction and automatic machine for pomegranate aril
extraction; banana comb cutter; coriander splitter; multi fruit grader, ber fruit
grader; ber destoner; fruit grader for spherical fruits, fruit and vegetable
washing machine; garlic processing machines (garlic bulb breaking machine;
clove flaking machine; garlic-peeling machine); turmeric boiler for on-farm use;
tender coconut punch and cutter; snow ball tender coconut making machine;
solar-cum-biomass-cum-electrical dryer for coconut; steam blancher for fresh
cut vegetables; modified design of container for long distance road and rail
transport; method of predicting maturity stage and eating quality of mangoes
using NIR; guar dehulling machine, evaporatively cooled storage structure;
cooling systems for comfort and enhanced production of dairy cows & poultry
birds etc have been developed.
• Process technologies and value added products: Value added products such
as green chilli powder and paste, vegetable blended meat products; groundnut
milk, paneer, curd; instant makhana kheer mix; products from guava and
papaya; composite dairy based health foods; millet based products; energy bar
from flaxseed; reconstituted beetroot powder based drink, value added products
from cashew apple, pineapple, stone apple and custard apple, jackfruit, RTS
beverage, squash and jam; preservation of milky mushroom, rasper for tuber
starch extraction, process and equipment for making Jaggery & Khandsari;
value added products from sugarcane juice, Package of practice for MAP for
betel leaves, broccoli, carrots and spinach etc.
• Agro-processing centre (APC): An agro-processing centre (APC) is an
enterprise where the required facilities for primary and secondary processing,
storage, handling and drying of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables and
spices are made available on rental/ charge basis to rural people. This type of
centre is managed by individuals/ co-operatives/ community / organizations/
voluntary organization. The centre meets the processing, preservation, handling
and marketing needs of surplus produce available in a village or a cluster of
villages. Thus, it is a means of providing income and employment to rural
people through agro-processing activities of various produce. The activities of
centre can be defined on the basis of available raw materials, processed
products, market potential, etc. Such agro-processing centers may be
established at cluster of 4-5villages or block level. More than 200 agro-
processing centres for employment and income generation in rural areas have
also been established.
Major emphasis has been placed on enhancing production and productivity, reduction
of postharvest losses adopting various packages of practices, processing technologies
and machinery, but in the changing socio-economic conditions and environment, we
need to rethink and prepare a plan of action to achieve sustainable food security and for
providing safe foods for all:
• Development of commodity and location specific precision postharvest
• Development of technologies for on-farm drying, dry and cold storages, grading
and packing techniques and cottage levels of processing and value addition
• Mechanization of processes for manufacture of the indigenous technology
knowledge based Indian traditional and ethnic food products
• Introduction of intelligent and low cost bulk storage structures for agricultural
• Development of economically viable pre-cooling and on-farm cold storage
• Development of complete cold chain including pre-coolers, reefer vans and cold
storages for Indian conditions for maintaining the optimum quality of perishable
produce from farm to fork.
Efficient Technology Transfer and Policy Analysis: Creating new and frontier
technologies will not only help in achieving our goals of food security and safety, but
these technologies need to be taken to stake holders appropriately for mass adaptation
and use. Following are the strategies for technology transfer issues:
• Evolve innovative and efficient methodologies to enhance transfer of post-
harvest engineering technologies to stake holders
• Consultancy for alteration and retrofitting in existing commercial processing
lines to handle multiple commodities for enhancing effective utilization of
machinery and human power round the year.
• IP management with due diligence for commercialization of developed
• Impact analysis of post-harvest technologies
Skill Development and Capacity building: Improving upon the skills of producers,
food industry workers and other stake holders is an important aspect for adaptation of
developed technologies. Huge numbers of technically skilled manpower is required to
work at various levels in the food industries: at shop level in the industry, at
management levels, as engineers in the industry, for teaching and research are the areas
in which this manpower will be required. New entrepreneurs should be offered
sufficient skill development hands-on training and hand-holding for creating new food
The post-harvest processing has many challenges in front of it, ranging from
infrastructure to human resources and to technological backwardness. Though, various
process/technologies/equipment etc have been developed in the area of post-harvest
processing, but more has to be done yet. ICAR (AICRP on Post-Harvest Engineering
and Technology, ICAR-CIPHET) has conducted two studies on Assessment of
Quantitative Harvest and Post-Harvest Losses of Major Crops and Commodities in
India and reports published in 2012 and 2015. In comparison to losses during 2005-07,
the losses during 2013-14 reduced significantly for wheat, mustard, groundnut, mango,
guava, mushroom, tapioca, arecanut, black pepper and coriander. Averaged range of
losses altogether for food grains, oilseeds and fruits and vegetables have gone down by
about 2% as compared to study in 2005-07. Post-harvest technological interventions,
improvements in infrastructural and transport facilities aided in reducing the post-
harvest losses. India can harness all the opportunities present in food processing sector
only when its labor force is educated and skilled. The government needs to strengthen
its skill development program; new training institutes should be open up, which are in
tune with market demand. The development of infrastructure facilities like cold chain,
road facilities, and power will strengthen the food processing industry. It will have a
very positive sign on perishable food products industry, such as fruit and vegetable,
dairy industry, meat and poultry segment. The food processing industry is all set to
drive Indian economy to higher growth, only need is to pay due attention on
technological development of field, and generation of skilled manpower.
Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: A Potential source of nutrients for livestock
M. Wadhwa and M.P.S. Bakshi
Department of Animal Nutrition
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab, India
A key to sustainable livestock development is: efficient use of available feed resources
including reduction in wastage, and enlargement of the feed resource base through a quest for
novel feed resources, particularly those not competing with human food. But, there is acute
shortage of feedstuffs in developing countries, in India a shortage of 25, 159 and 117 million
tonnes of concentrates, green forages and crop residues, constituting respectively a shortage of
32, 20 and 25 percent of the requirement has been estimated (Ravi Kiran et al., 2012). Under
these conditions, to meet the nutrient requirements of livestock and poultry and to sustain their
productivity and profitability seem only possible if non-conventional, alternate feed resources are
India is the second highest producer of the fruits and vegetables (182mt) in the world at
259mt. Only 2.2% of fruits and vegetables produced in India are processed in the organized
sector in comparison to 78-80% small countries like Philippines and Malaysia. In spite of very
low quantity of FV being processed, it generates approximately 1.81 million tonnes of fruit and
vegetable wastes (Wadhwa and Bakshi, 2013). A large proportion of these wastes end up in
landfills or rivers, causing environmental hazards. As per one of the estimates 7.1 billion tonnes
of carbon dioxide generated by 3.1 billion tonnes of waste dumped in landfills can be reduced
considerably by recycling of these wastes through animal feed. It will lead to remarkable
increase in livestock productivity besides cleaning the environment. This talk will provide an
insight to processing and utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes in improving feed availability
and their impact on animal production.
Amla (Emblica officinalis) pomace: Amla pomace (after extraction of amla juice, the left over
material) contains 3.2–5.3% CP, 0.65–0.80% EE, 22.8% cellulose and 2.1–6.0% total ash. It has
15.6 mg% phenolics and 0.96 mg% vitamin C (Kumari et al., 2012; Wadhwa et al., 2018).
Addition of amla pomace at 0.25–0.75% level in the iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diet (from
day-one till 6 week of age) improved the average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and
dressing percentage (Kumari et al., 2012).
Apple (Malus domestica) pomace: Apple pomace, a mixture of skin, pulp and seeds left after
the extraction of apple juice or after production of jam and sweets by the apple processing
industry, constitutes approximately 25% of the apples processed (Ajila et al., 2012). The dried
apple pomace contains 7.7% CP and 5.0% EE (NRC, 2001; Wadhwa and Bakshi, 2013). Apple
pomace can be utilized in ruminant feed after drying or ensiling. Inclusion of apple pomace at 12
percent in the concentrate mixture of lactating crossbred cattle (300-d lactation trial), showed no
change in average milk production (7.56 vs. 7.58 kg/d) or its composition (Tiwari et al., 2008).
In broiler ration maize can be replaced by apple pomace @10 percent without affecting
production, however replacement level >10% depressed feed efficiency and resulted in wet litter
(Zafar et al., 2005). The ME of apple pomace for broilers is 2.6−2.8 Mcal/kg DM. Matoo et al.
(2001) have reported better performance of broilers fed on apple pomace diets supplemented
with a commercial enzyme preparation compared with the unsupplemented ones.
Banana (Musa acuminata) waste: Banana wastes include small-sized bananas, damaged
bananas, banana peels, leaves, young stalks and pseudo stems, which can be fed to livestock.
Banana leaves contain about 15% DM and 10−17% CP (Chander Datt et al., 2008), and
pseudo stems contain 5−8% DM and 3−5% CP. The NDF and ADF vary between 50−70 and
30−40 percent, respectively.
Chopped, sundried whole banana plant (after removal of fruit bunch) fed to crossbred
bulls without any supplement for 30 d resulted in positive nitrogen and calcium balances, while
phosphorus balance was marginally negative. The DCP and TDN contents of whole banana plant
were 3.95 and 50.3 percent, respectively (Reddy and Reddy, 1991). Can be ensiled after mixing
with either chaffed wheat straw, rice straw or maize stovers in 70:30 or 80:20 ratio. No change in
milk production of lactating Friesian cows, fed fresh banana foliage up to 15%,was observed (El-
The peels left after processing constitutes 35% of the processed banana (Ajila et al.,
2012). Banana peel can be fed to livestock as fresh, green, ripe or dried. Ripe banana peels
contain up to 8% CP and 6.2% EE, 13.8% soluble sugars, 5.9% reducing sugars and 4.8% total
phenolics (Wadhwa and Bakshi, 2013). Banana peels are rich in trace elements, but Fe, Cu and
Zn contents are much higher than the maximum tolerance limit for ruminants (Bakshi and
Wadhwa, 2013), suggesting that these should not be fed ad libitum. These could be
supplemented in ruminant rations as source of organic minerals.
Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L) waste: After extraction of juice from the fresh
cashew apple fruit, the left over is cashew apple meal (CAM). The cashew nut (seed) contains
kernel and has an outer covering called cashew nut shell (CNS). The leftover after extraction of
oil is called cashew nut meal (CNM). Sundried CAM can be incorporated in the concentrate
mixture at 10% level without any affect on milk production in lactating Gir cows (Sundaram,
1986). The surplus cashew apple fruit can be ensiled with rice bran, paddy straw, cassava peel or
cassava waste in the ratio of 90:10 and fed to cattle (BAPH. 1996). In vitro and in vivo studies in
cow have shown that CNS has the potential to mitigate enteric methane (Shinkai et al., 2012).
CAM can save 10–15% maize on weight basis without affecting the performance of
commercial broilers chicks (Swain et al., 2014) and egg production and egg weight. CAM can
replace up to 20% maize in the diet of ‘Vanaraja’ dual purpose birds, without affecting the
growth, DM digestibility and retention of protein and fat.
Citrus (Citrus sps) waste: Citrus pulp (left after the extraction of juice) contains 60−65% peel,
30−35% internal tissues and up to 10% seeds and constitutes 50% of processed citrus (Ajila et
al., 2012; Crawshaw, 2004). The dried pulp contains 5−10% CP and 6.2% EE, 10−40% pectins,
54% water soluble sugars, 1−2% calcium (due to the addition of lime) and 0.1% phosphorus.
Citrus pulp is a rich source of trace elements.
The wet pulp is highly palatable to ruminants. Dried citrus pulp is used as a cereal
substitute in concentrate diets due to its high OM digestibility (85−90 %) and energy availability
(2.76−2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM and 1.66−1.76 Mcal NE/kg DM) for lactating dairy cows. The ME
availability is 85−90% that of maize and comparable to barley (NRC, 2001). Unlike cereals, its
energy is not based on starch but on soluble carbohydrates and digestible fibre (pectin). Dried
citrus pulp can replace 20% concentrate in lactating dairy cattle (Assis et al., 2004) and up to
30% in lactating ewes (Fegeros et al., 1995) without affecting DM intake, rumen metabolites,
digestibility, milk yield or milk protein and fat contents.
Kinnow (Citrus nobilis X Citrus deliciosa) waste (KW) is made up of peels, seeds and
residual pulp and constitutes 50% of fresh kinnows. It can be used fresh or after sun drying as a
component of TMR. The KW contains about 20% DM and 12% CP on DM basis. Fresh KW and
wheat straw are mixed in 80:20 ratio (fresh basis) and ensiled for 42 days
(https://youtu.be/L4dyMPWUgzE). The KW-wheat straw silage can be incorporated in TMR @
25% on DM basis. In vitro gas production studies revealed that cereal grains like barley can be
substituted up to 50% In the concentrate mixture by finely ground kinnow waste without any
adverse impact on the nutrient utilization, ME availability, VFA production and fermentation
efficiency (Bakshi et al., 2019). Kinnow peels contain 7% limonin on DM basis and can be
incorporated in commercial broiler ration at @ 1%. The performance of broilers improves
The dried citrus pulp @ 12% in laying hen diets has no adverse effect on performance
and egg quality of laying hens in early phase of production (Nazok et al., 2010). The level of
citrus pulp in the broiler diet should not exceed 5−10% because of the presence of non -starch
polysaccharides which impaire growth, lower feed efficiency and reduce carcass yields (Mourão
et al., 2008).
The fresh citrus pulp can be ensiled for 42 days either with grass, hay, sugarcane bagasse
or cereal straw. The nutrients in fruit juice waste, mainly from sweet lime, without peels were
preserved by mixing and ensiling with wheat or rice straw in 70:30 ratio (Bakshi et al., 2007).
Feeding of ensiled citrus pulp increased fat content, from 5.85 to 6.85% in primiparous dairy
ewes in late lactation without affecting milk yield (Volanis et al., 2006).
The dried Citrus sinensis peel can be used up to 5% in the broiler diet or it can replace
maize in broiler diet up to 15% without affecting broiler performance (Ebrahimi et al., 2013).
Guava (Psidium guajava) pomace: After extracting pulp for making beverages, juice, syrup, ice
cream, and jams, about 30–35% weight of the fruit remains as waste called pomace (guava grid
and seeds) (Madhava Rao et al., 2004), while Ajila et al. (2012) reported only 10% as waste or
by-product (pomace). Guava pomace has 61% CF and 12% EE. Guava seeds contain 9.7%
protein and 8.9–9.4% oil (Habib, 1986), which is a good source of linoleic acid. Pulp and peel
contain high content of dietary fiber (48.6–49.4%).
The ME and apparent nitrogen corrected ME (MEn) of guava pomace for broiler chicken
was 1401 kcal ME/kg DM and 1336 kcal MEn/kg DM, respectively (Silva et al., 2006) and for
layers MEn was 1808 kcal/kg DM (Guimarães, 2007). The sun dried and ground guava pomace
incorporated in broiler finisher diet up to 8% adversely affected feed intake, but no significant
effect was observed on body weight, body weight gain as compared with the control group, but
mortality rate increased significantly beyond 6% level of incorporation (El-Deek et al.,2009).
However, Lira et al. (2009) reported that guava pomace can be used in broiler (1–42 d) ration up
to 12%, with no effect on the productive performance of the birds or the economic viability of
the production. Sun dried guava pomace could be included at 15% in diets of laying hen during
32–48 wks of age without adverse effect on productive performance and egg quality (El-Deek et
Mango (Mangifera indica) waste: The left over after the extraction of pulp is called mango
waste (peel and seeds), which constitutes 45% of processed mango. The DM digestibility of
dried seed kernels in sheep was 70%, but intake was only1.2% of BW. The mango seed kernels
had low palatability probably due to the tannin content.
The mango seed kernel can be included in the diet of broilers at 5% in starter phase (0–3
weeks), 10% during 4–6 weeks of age and up to 15% during 4–6 weeks of age (Vasantha Kumar
et al., 2006). The incorporation of 5% raw mango seed kernel meal in layers decreased laying
rate and increased weight loss in layers (Odunsi, 2005).
Mango peel waste (MPW) containing 8–10% pulp can be fed fresh, dried or ensiled with
rice straw and legume to the ruminants. Due to high sugar content (13.2%) these are palatable
and considered as energy feed. Mango peels have the potential to reduce rumen methanogenesis
(Geerkens et al., 2013). The napier-bajra hybrid fodder could be ensiled with 10% MPW without
affecting the quality of silage or performance of lambs.
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) waste: The post-harvest processing of pineapple fruits yields
crowns, peels, cores, fresh trimmings and the pomace as pineapple waste, which account for
approximately 30–35% of the fresh fruit weight (Ajila et al., 2012).
Pineapple waste contains 4−8% CP, 60−72 % NDF, 40−75% soluble sugars
(70% sucrose, 20% glucose and 10% fructose) as well as pectin, but it is poor in
minerals. Pineapple wastes can replace the roughage portion in the diet partly or completely and
is highly palatable and digestible (73−75% OM dig estibility) in cattle, sheep and goats.
Pineapple waste mixed with rice straw replaced up to 50% roughage in the TMR for dairy cattle
without decreasing milk production. Ensiled pineapple waste with hay, wilted grass or rice straw
fed to steers up to 70% of the diet with a protein supplement and 2.5 kg fresh forage resulted in
high daily weight gains (1 kg/d) and also decreased the cost of feeding. It could also replace up
to 60% of maize silage without affecting daily weight gains (Wadhwa et al., 2015).
The ensiled pineapple waste made up of crown and peels (4:1) was evaluated in lactating
cows. The animals in control group were offered TMR containing concentrate mixture, hybrid
napier and maize stovers in 60:25:15 proportion, while cows in experimental group were fed
similar TMR except that the green fodder was replaced with ensiled pineapple waste. The milk
yield in ensiled pineapple waste group was increased by 3.1 L/cow/d. There was no evidence of
metabolic or health-related disorders suggesting that pineapple waste silage was effectively
utilized. There was no adverse effect on the reproductive performance of animals (Gowda et al.,
Baby corn (Zea mays L.) by-products: On an average four crops of baby corn are taken per
annum in India. After picking 3-4 baby corn ears from baby corn crop, two by-products: baby
corn husk with silk, and baby corn fodder, with an average yield of 5-5.5 and 30-35 tonnes/ha
respectively are available for feeding to livestock. Both contain 10-12% crude protein (CP) on
DM basis and can be fed fresh ad libitum or after ensiling. The ensiled baby corn husk or fodder
can be incorporated in the TMR up to 30% on DM basis (Bakshi and Wadhwa, 2012; Bakshi et
al., 2017a, b; Wadhwa et al., 2018; https://youtu.be/2d__B2zWa-c). Both the byproducts have
chemical composition and nutritional value comparable to or superior than, conventional maize
fodder. Their feeding increases milk production in dairy animals.
Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria): The incorporation of sun dried, finely ground bottle gourd
pulp (residue after extraction of juice) (0 to 100%) in the iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric
concentrate mixtures depressed in vitro digestibility of nutrients, VFA production and ME
availability. The fungal population in the rumen had increased significantly, while bacterial and
total protozoal population depressed significantly with increasing levels (0–50%) of the pulp in
the diet of goat bucks. However, the daily DMI was not affected. The digestibility of CP was
reduced, whereas those of ADF and cellulose increased significantly, without affecting the N-
retention in bucks. Bottle gourd waste (pulp) can be incorporated up to 50% in the concentrate
mixture of adult ruminants (Bakshi et al., 2016).
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Cassava pulp is a by-product of starch industry and
contains high moisture content (80%). It contains approximately 60% starch (Sriroth et al.,
2000), 20% cellulose (Kosugi et al., 2009) and 1.4–2.8% CP on DM basis (Chauynarong et al.,
2015). Feeding cassava pulp (29.8% DM basis) did not affect energy utilization efficiency,
methane production, or nutrient digestibility (except for CP digestibility). The TDN and ME
contents of cassava pulp were 74.4% and 11.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively (Keaokliang et al., 2018).
Empty peapods (Pisum sativum): Empty pea pods (EPPs) constitute 50-55% of intact peas.
Fresh empty pea pods contain 16-18% CP on DM basis. These can be fed to ruminants either
fresh or as a component of TMR containing EPPs, chopped cull carrots, concentrate mixture and
wheat straw in 20:10:35:35 ratio (DM basis); or as sun dried or as silage by mixing with wheat
straw in 75:25 ratio (fresh basis). Berseem hay containing 16-18% CP can be replaced up to 50%
on CP basis by sundried ground EPPs. TMR is made by mixing the concentrate mixture, EPPs
and berseem hay in 50:25:25 on DM basis (https://youtu.be/JGj1CDLMlu4). Sundried ground
EPPs and berseem hay are mixed with a concentrate mixture in which barley grains are
completely replaced with kinnow waste in 25:25:50 ratio on DM basis and can be fed to
ruminants (Wadhwa et al., 2006; Bakshi and Wadhwa, 2013; Wadhwa et al., 2017).
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): Potatoes that are unfit for marketing (under or over size and/or
do not meet the quality standards or grade, or are damaged) are called cull potatoes. Due to over
production, a large quantity of potatoes are disposed of because of low market price. Potatoes
have about 81–82% TDN and about 10% CP on DM basis (Bakshi et al., 2016), high ME (3.16
Mcal/kg DM) and NE (1.87 Mcal/kg DM) for lactating dairy cows. As per the general
recommendation 4.5–5.0 kg potatoes are equivalent to 1.0 kg barley or corn grains. Potatoes
have ME content of 13.3 MJ/kg DM, similar to that of barley. Potatoes should be introduced
gradually into diets with increasing amounts over a 2–3 week period. The suggested inclusion
rates are: start at 1.5–2.5 kg/day, and gradually increase to 4.5–6.5 kg/day for calves, 10–11
kg/day for yearlings, and 16–18 kg/day for 500 kg cows. Their level should not exceed 30% of
dietary DM or the cows should not be allowed to eat cull potatoes more than 10% of their BW.
Sarson saag waste: Sarson saag, a vegetarian dish, is prepared by steam cooking of leaves of
Brassica campestris (Mustard), Spinacea oleracea (Spinach) and Trigonella foenum-graecum
(Fenugreek) in a 95:4:1 ratio. The waste material left after extracting the pulp (which constitutes
about 50 percent of the original leafy vegetables) is called ‘Sarson saag waste’ (SSW). It is
dumped on the waste land posing great threat to the environment. SSW contains 14.5 percent CP
and is a good source of water-soluble sugars (6 percent). Adult buffalo can consume 50−55 kg
fresh SSW/day. The nutrient digestibility of SSW in male Murrah buffaloes was comparable to
that of conventional green fodder, Avina sativa, but higher (P<0.05) than that of the
isonitrogenous conventional TMR (Bakshi et al., 2005).
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) pomace: Tomato pomace (TP) contains tomato peels, seed and
residual pulp and constitutes 2-2.5% of the tomatoes used for processing. Fresh TP contains
about 40% DM; 19% CP and 11-12% EE on DM basis. It is a rich source of lycopene. TP can be
fed fresh, after mixing with green fodder in 50:50 ratio (on DM basis) or after ensiling with
maize fodder in 70:30 ratio (on fresh basis) @ 25-30% in TMR on DM basis
(https://youtu.be/wfk6XkdlnqE). The TP can also be fed to ruminants after sun drying. It can
replace concentrate mixture up to 50% on N-basis. The sundried ground TP, KW and EPPs can
also be mixed with green fodder in 25:25:25:25 ratio on DM basis and fed to animals as TMR
(Bakshi et al., 2016). The methane production potential of tomato pomace was lower than that of
conventional (mustard cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal etc.) and non-conventional (spent
brewer’s grains and maize oil cake) protein supplements (Lamba et al. (2016). Sundried ground
TP can be included in the feed of commercial broilers up to 3% in starters, 5–8% in growers and
9–10% in finishers ration on DM basis.
Comparative nutritive value of fruit and vegetable wastes
The left over after extraction of juice from kinnow mandarin for human consumption is
called kinnow waste (KW), which contains peels, seeds and residual pulp; constitutes 50% of the
kinnows used for extraction. Likewise after shelling peasfor human consumption, the left over
material is called empty pea pods (EPP) constituting about 55% of intact pea pods. KW and EPP
contained 20 and 14% DM. Fresh KW and EPPs were mixed with wheat straw separately in
75:25 and 80:20 ratio on fresh weight basis and ensiled in 10-12 feet long low density
polyethylene tubes of 6 feet diameter for 42 days.
The in-vitro gas production studies revealed that the true OM digestibility, ME
availability, total and individual volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production and relative proportion of
propionate were higher (P<0.01); and better acetate:propionate ratio (P<0.01) was observed in
KW-WS silage in comparison to EPP-WS silage. The methane production was observed to be
lower (P<0.01) in KW-WS silage, which resulted in higher fermentation efficiency in
comparison to EPP-WS silage. The low VFA-UI, which indicates the best utilization of VFA,
was achieved in KW-WS silage as compared to EPP-WS silage (Wadhwa et al., 2019).
The nutritional value assessed on 12 male buffalo calves by feeding total mixed ration
(TMR) containing concentrate mixture, green fodder, wheat straw and ensiled KW-WS or
ensiled EPP-WS in 35:19.5:20.5:25 ratio on DM basis. The daily DM intake was improved
(P<0.05) in animals fed TMR containing EPP-WS silage as compared to those in control group,
but comparable with that of KW-WS silage based TMR. The digestibility of ADF was improved
(P<0.05) in both the TMRs containing KW-WS or EPP-WS silage as compared to control TMR.
The digestibility of all other nutrients was improved considerably (P>0.05) in KW-WS or EPP-
WS silage based TMRs as compared to control TMR. The feeding of KW-WS or EPP-WS silage
based TMR did not show any impact on blood profile; and excretion of total purine derivatives in
the urine. The daily N-intake was improved in animals fed KW-WS silage (P>0.05) or EPP-WS
silage (P<0.05) based TMR in comparison to those fed control TMR. The N-retention and
apparent biological value was improved (P>0.05) in both the experimental groups fed TMR
containing KW-WS or EPP-WS silage as compared to those in control group (Wadhwa et al.,
Implications: Fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) and their by-products being good sources of
protein, energy, micro- & macro-minerals; and bio-active compounds can add to the feed basket
of livestock, if used judiciously and are preserved. These wastes have high moisture content, so
are prone to microbial attack, thereby decreasing their quality, shelf life and also could raise
safety concerns. Sun drying and ensiling have been widely used to preserve the nutrients in FVW
wastes. The farmers in the vicinity of food processing plants or whole sale fruit and vegetable
markets have the advantage to feed fresh FVWs like baby corn husk, baby corn fodder, pea pods,
citrus pulp, cull potatoes and tomato pomace to the ruminants. Setting up of small scale feed
manufacturing/processing units in these areas could be an attractive option for their efficient
utilization. Major constraints in the use of FVWs are the presence of heavy metals, pesticides,
pesticide residues, mycotoxins, heavy metals, furans and dioxins, so need to monitor regularly, to
conduct risk assessment.
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Changing Paradigm of food
Need of Food Safety in Fruits and Vegetable
• Concept of creating and maintaining
hygienic and healthful conditions so that
food should not cause harm to consumer
when prepared and consumed.
•This concept consists of making food
Physically, Chemically and biologically safe for
• These are biological, chemical and physical
agent That have potential to cause harm or an
adverse health affect when the food is eaten.
• Physical :Such as timber, glass, packaging
material, dust, hair and metal.
• Chemical: Pesticides, cleaning agents,
additives and allergens.
• Biological: Microorganisms, Bacteria and
Food Borne Diseases(FBD)
•Common food borne infections caused by
bacteria Campylobacter, salmonella and E.coli
and by viruses like calicivirus known as
•They Cause Fever, Diarrhea, abdominal
cramps and allergies.
•Use of fertilizers and pesticides also
promotes FBD so organic agriculture should
Safety measures by food
•Food safety program outlines the systems in
place to keep food safe and procedures which
reduce the risk of the hazards which may occur
in the food production and service business.
•Specially for Fresh and processed food
industries Food plant sanitization Plays a very
Significance of food safety
• Increase shelf life of product.
• Improve product acceptability.
• Reduce public heath risks.
• Decrease wastage in food industries.
• Prevent contamination through microorganisms,
water and workers
Safety measures Taken by Food
•They are potential source of microorganisms that causes illness and
•Effective management program can eliminate these potential
•There are various practices that are implemented by food industries
•Hand washing is the #1 line of defense
against the spread of germs.
•Hand Washing and use of sanitizers .
•Use of plastic gloves, face masks and hair cap.
•Fingernails should be cut short and no jeweleries, watches should be
wear while in processing line.
•Proper maintenance of physical health and if not well should be
•Control of personal contact with food and food surfaces.
•Use of deodorants and any other cosmetic should not be done in
Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter
tops in hot soapy water after cutting of fresh
vegetables and before us for another one.
Your apron is NOT a towel!
Do NOT handle food if you
other signs of
Safety measures in processing room
• A changing room where clothing and shoes
that are not worn should be stored.
• Separate hand washing facilities for staff with
clean soap, water and hot air hand driers.
• Clean washrooms facilities should be available
for staff but away from processing halls.
• Aprons, coats, hair nets and gloves should be
stored at proper allocations.
Cleaning of equipments
• Cleaning in place (CIP) and Cleaning Out of
Place (COP) are two standard procedures
using sanitation system.
• These systems are provided to sanitize
surfaces of equipments that comes in contact
fresh and processed foods.
• Cleaning in place is a method of cleaning interior
surfaces of equipments which are used for
processing of fresh and processed food products.
• This process allows cleaning of equipments
without dismantling the equipments.
• This consists of making chemical solutions to
circulate through the equipments to achieve
• It removes solids and bacteria from the surfaces.
It depends on nature of solids to be
Advantages and Disadvantages
•Reduce labor requirements.
•More Consistent and effective cleaning
• optimal use of water and cleaner.
•Cleans difficult to access areas like Corners,
edges, narrow openings and pipes etc.
•Higher maintenance cost.
•Not all equipments can CIP.
•Routine monitoring is required.
•More water is required for cleaning.
• Should be approve by FDA for food contact
• Have wide range of scope and activity.
• Destroy microorganism rapidly.
• Non reactive and stable under all
• Low toxic and corrosively.
• Chlorine base: Chlorine compounds, Chlorine
• Iodine based
• Quaternary Ammonium Compounds(QACs)
• Fatty Acid Sanitizers
• Peroxyacetic Acid(PAA)
• Hydrogen Peroxide
•COP is a cleaning procedure use for cleaning
equipments when they are partially or totally
•A washer tank is used which contains
chemicals solution and water fitted with
•Disassemble parts of equipments are put
inside the Tank and soapy water is circulated
followed by hand washing.
Advantages and Disadvantages
•Minimal labor is used.
•Longer time of cleaner to act.
•Incorrect cleaner can damage the equipment
due to longer contact time.
Safety measures Against Pest and
•Pest and mites depends wholly on human food
for their nutrition and cause food spoilage in
fresh and processed foods.
RODENTS: Rat and Mice's
CRAWLING: Cockroaches, Ants and silverfish.
FLYING: Houseflies, wasps and fruit flies.
Commodity Insects: Booklice, mites, beetles
Methods to control Mites and pest
• This can be done by Chemical as well as Non
• It is very essential to eliminate the pest by
either of two methods as they are responsible
for 8% to 25% post harvest loss in developed
countries and 70% to 75% in under developed
Non Chemical methods
• Exclusion: Prevent Insects from getting inside
by providing Door and window locks, Air
• Lighting and trapping: Light attracts insects so
it can be use as a tool for trapping. Mercury
vapor bulbs are attractive to insects.
Electrocuting traps use black or blue light to
attract insects and then provide electric shock
to kill them.
• Glue boards: Insects attracted to light can be
trapped on glue board when attempting to
rest near light.
• Here placement of trap plays a critical role.
• For flying insects it should be placed 1.5m
above the floor away from working area.
• Rat traps. Very conventional way of controlling
pest activity which requires continuous
•Pests and mites activity should be controlled
without chemicals if possible due to danger of
•Insects Poison which are use these days are:
Phosphine ,Methyl bromide, ethylene oxide,
•They are sprayed or applied in spots or cracks,
corners and crevices
• For processing of fresh or processed food
products water is treated as a safety measure to
remove bacteria and other spoilage causing
• Water travels over land surface and ground so it
very easily take up the impurities so its very
important to treat the water before its use.
Water Treatment Process
• Clarification: Remove Physical Impurities Glass, bottles metal pieces
• Sedimentation: Remove Heavy impurities like Dust. Mud and sand
• Filtration &Membrane Process :Removes Bacteria, viruses and pathogens.
• Deodorization: Removes unwanted taste and odor.
• Softening: Removes Cation elements such as calcium , Magnesium , barium and
anions such as fluoride, Nitrate, Uranium and chromates
• Disinfection : Removes total bacterial concentration and eliminate pathogenic
bacteria. Done through UV radiation or chemical disinfection.
• Desalination: Removal of salt through ion exchange or electro- dialysis
Training for workers
• Now a days proper training is given to workers to
educate them about food safety, ISO and HAACP.
• Many workshops on Good Manufacturing
Practices(GMP), Good hygienic Practices(GHP)
and good agriculture practices are carried out by
industries or government to educate their
workers and employers.
• Systems Such as Food Safety Management system
(FSMS) are adopted by Food Industries these
•Training requires time away from the job for both
workers and management and should involve
•Training should include basic information regarding
handling, cleanliness and hygienic practices.
•All employees should receive training in personal
hygiene, GMPs, sanitation procedures, personal
safety and their role in HACCP program.
• Need to be proactive
• Throughout the flow of food:
• Team effort needed
• Make sure staff and volunteers are following food safety
The Food Safety And Standards Act,
2006 : A Paradigm Shift In Indian
Needs For the act
Existence of multiple regulations control Bodies to
supplement each other.
This approach has lead to incoherence and inconsistency in
the food sector regulatory scenario.
. The FSSAI integrates eight different existing food laws,
and is a major transformation that ensures to bring
paradigm shift in the food regulatory scenario of the
The Indian food industry appreciates the benefits of the
Act and look forward to its implementation at the
• The Act integrates eight different food related statutes. The Act also
aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to
food safety and standards, by moving from multi-level, multi-
departmental control to a single line of command.
• The Act establishes the Food Safety and Standards Authority of
India (FSSAI) as an apex regulatory authority consisting of a
Chairperson and 22 members.
• The Act provides the general administrative principles to be
followed by the Central Government, State Governments, and
FSSAI while implementing the provisions of this Act.
• The Act prohibits advertisements which are misleading or deceiving
or contravenes the provisions of this Act, and prohibits unfair trade
The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006
India is world's largest milk producer since 1998. It accounts for more than 13% of the
world’s total milk production. It is also the world's largest consumer of dairy products,
consuming almost 100% of its own milk production. In the year 2017-18 the Milk
production raised to 176.3 MMT and per capita availability of milk to 375 grams/day.
Dairy activities form an essential part of the rural Indian economy, serving as an
important source of employment and income. India also has the largest bovine
population in the world. Dairying here is considered as an occupation subsidiary to
agriculture and an important source of livelihood for small & marginal farmers and
landless labourers. It is aimed to double the farmer's income through dairying in the
country in next 3 years.
Importance of Effective Management of Dairy Value Supply Chain for
Sustatainable Dairy Business
Significance of Dairy Value Supply Chain Analysis of Indian Dairy Industry:
Efficient dairy supply chain management is a prerequisite for the success of a dairy
industry/firm and the supply chain performance of the processing units is a deciding
factor. The biggest concern in milk supply chain is to make available good quality milk
on consistent basis at affordable prices. The perishable nature of milk and its seasonal
production cycle makes it even more difficult. With increased pressures from intense
global competition of supply, processing and distribution, high levels of service
expectations and competitive pricing, the supply chain management has become even
Issues and Challenges of the Indian Dairy Industry with respect to Dairy Value
Supply Chain Management:
Eventhough India is world’s largest producer of milk but unlike other developed
nations, most of the milk produced here is by the small, marginal and landless milk
producers who own 1-2 but less than 5 milch animals. The millions of such milk
producers who are scattered throughout the length and breadth of the country coupled
with poor infrastructure facilities like rural roads, availability of power, cold chain
facilities, clean water, fodder and temperate climatic conditions in the country further
aggravate the problem of supply chain management. The low productivity of milch
animals is a burning issue which is hindering the fast growth of this sector. Almost 45
% of India’s total milk production is consumed by rural households themselves and the
remaining 55 % of milk production is sold in the domestic market. Of the share of milk
sold in the domestic market, almost 50 % used as fluid milk, 35 percent is consumed as
traditional products such fresh milk products and milk based sweets, and remaining 15
percent is consumed for the production of butter, ghee, milk powders, baby foods,
dairy creamers, ice cream, whey powder, whey proteins and casein etc.
The organized dairy sector in the country handle only about 20% of India’s total milk
production which is primarily used for sale of liquid milk, fresh milk products, butter,
ghee, cheese, milk powders, ice cream etc. Eventhough some traditional products are
also manufactured by the organized sector also but this segment is dominated by the
unorganized sector which handle more milk than the organized sector.
Supply chain of the unorganized market: About 35% of the dairy market in India is
unorganised and still the dudhaiyas and halwais dominate this market. The milk is
collected by these middlemen from the farmers door steps and then sold in nearby
towns as liquid milk to urban households as loose milk and the surplus is sold to
restaurants or halwais for further processing from whom the customers take the
processed milk merchandise.
Supply chain of the unorganized market: The organized sector consists
of milk cooperatives, producer companies and private sector dairies that procure milk
from farmers by opening their collection centers in the villages. The pooled milk is
either chilled at Bulk Milk Coolers or is transported by the transporters organized by
these cooperatives/companies either to their nearby chilling centre or to the factory and
immediately chilled to 4°C. This chilled milk is then transported in SS insulated tankers
to factory for further processing into various types of packed milk, fresh milk products
and other products as per the requirement of market. The processed and packed milk
and milk products are then further transported to markets for onward sale to consumers
through the distribution network created and set up by these companies/cooperatives.
Important aspects of Milk Sourcing in Dairy Value Supply Chain for Sustainable
• QUALITY: To deliver quality products in the market and ensure consumer
• TRANSPARENCY: To win confidence of stakeholders at all levels.
• TRACEABILITY: To identify any lapses in the course of product
manufacture, and take immediate actions for improvement.
• COST EFFECTIVENESS: To ensure financial efficiency in low margin
• SKILLING: Skilling of manpower for all the existing emerging job roles at all
• Quality Measures at different levels-
• The Animal should be healthy, free from diseases, well fed, clean. Given
adequate movement space, udder care (Free from mastitis and external
Quality at Farm Level
• Environment: Clean, hygienic, not stressful (cool place during summers),
clean water of wallowing tank.
• Feeding: Balanced, mixed, adequate.
• Milking: Animal bathing / Udder washing, Animal body free from hanging
fodder or dung particles, Clean milking pail with minimum or no joints,
Milk free from contagious diseases, hand hygiene, not consuming tobacco
or beetle nuts etc., Nails trimmed, head preferably covered.
• Milk should be delivered at Collection point as soon as possible.
• Collection point should be free from flies, rodents, lizard’s cockroaches and
Quality at milk collection point
• Environment should be hygienic, No open drains nearby.
• Doors and windows should be provided with mosquito net.
• All cans and collection equipment should be properly cleaned, free from and
milk residue and deposits, no foul smell.
• Milk should be properly filtered preferably with Stainless steel sieve. Cloth
filter and plastic mesh should be avoided.
• All farmers should bring milk in Stainless steel utensils – No plastic vessel
should be allowed.
• Milk should be free from extraneous matter.
• All filled in cans should be covered with either cloth or lids (Lids should be
tightened only at the time of dispatch).
• During summers all filled cans should be covered with wet cloth and fan in
the room should be kept ON.
• Farmers should be advised to bring the same shift milk.
• All collection equipment should be washed after collection is over and kept
in the sun.
• No plastic cans to be used for milk handling at any stage.
• Number of surfaces where milk comes in contact should be minimum
• All collection equipment like, liter (if used), dipper, plunger, etc. should be
of SS 304.
• Milk collection should not be spread over a long period of time.
During Milk Transport
• Milk transport vehicles should be in good condition properly maintained to
minimize chances of breakdown.
• Condition of tyres should be good to avoid chances of frequent puncture.
Jack, spanners, Spare wheel should be available all the time with proper air
• The vehicle should be covered especially during summer and rainy seasons.
• Milk route should be drawn with lifting timings from each point and it
should be strictly adhered to.
• In case of breakdown priority should be given to milk lifting through
• Driver should possess medical fitness certificate.
• During summer cans should be covered with wet pads (Thick, preferably
made of Jute).
• A penalty system on late coming vehicles should be in place.
• There should be no holding of vehicles before milk reception.
At Chilling center / BMC
• The staff handling milk should be hygienic, free from any ailments or
contagious diseases. Should possess medical fitness certificates.
• An efficient fly control system should be in place. Coated sugar bolus
should be kept at safe places and Fly catchers should be installed at high fly
density places like milk weighment area.
• Each can should be subjected to organoleptic tests and any can with
abnormal taste, color or flavor should be rejected.
• Milk reception at CC/BMC should be over by 9.30 AM PM in summers and
10.00 AM PM in winters.
• Samples found doubtful on organoleptic tests should be subject to adulterant
tests. Any supplier found supplying adulterated milk should be banned.
• Any adulterated milk should be drained off.
• Milk chilling should be completed within 15-20 minutes after reception.
• CIP should be done as per SOP and immediately after tanker dispatch.
• Water for washing should be tested and should have TDS below 300 PPM.
• In areas with high TDS water, RO water should be used for cleaning and
• Permanent hot water arrangement should be available at the center.
• Tanker must be thoroughly checked for cleaning on arrival. If found un-
clean must be cleaned locally. (Negligence on this account creates problems
that are difficult to handle).
During Tanker transport
• Any water remaining in the barrel should be drained before loading.
• Temperature of milk should not be more than 4 degrees C.
• Tanker should be properly sealed at all the openings.
• Tankers should be provided with GPRS and Lid sensors to ascertain the
time and place of opening the lid.
• Transparency -
• Electronic testing and weighment.
At village level
• Acknowledgement of quantity, quality and cost of milk through printed slip
• Milk payment as per acknowledgement given.
• Producer wise data transfer to central office / plant.
• Milk payment transfer to farmers’ account (latest development).
• Milk payment through bank.
• Measurement of quantity and quality by transporter and collection agent at
the time of dispatch.
At transport level
• Any shortage on Agents account.
• Dispatch note generated.
• Data transfer to central office / plant electronically.
• Measurement of quantity and quality at Chilling center in the presence of
• Electronic data generated and transferred to Plant / central office.