Software Sustainability:<br />Neil Chue Hong<br />Director, OMII-UK<br />e-Science Institute,<br />Edinburgh, 29 October 2...
The challenges of enduring<br />
Why do myths begin?<br />Miscommunication<br />Uncertainty<br />Misunderstanding<br />Doubt<br />Misinformation<br />Fear<...
“one Spartan was worth several men of any other state”<br />
Collecting software in repositories sustains it<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Preserving something …<br />
… is not the <br />same as sustaining it<br />
Comparing Apples and Oranges?<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Comparing Apples and Oranges?<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Comparing Apples and Books!<br />Storage lifespan: <br />~12 months<br />Storage lifespan: <br />~ 50 years<br />Which one...
Reproducible Research<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Research software should be given to software experts to sustain it<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Some things are best kept together<br />
Can we throw things over the wall?<br />“Sustainability is not an issue for researchers, we want others to take the softwa...
Best practice development models<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />Agile<br />Working together<br />Rigid<br />Photo by HamedSaber<...
The Rise and Fall of Netscape<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
CASTEP: keeping up with the community<br />Individual<br />Group<br />Consortium<br />W/ industry<br />Community<br />Acti...
I can program– I can look after it<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
A little knowledge is a dangerous thing<br />
A quick comparison<br />Photo by ZagatBuzz<br />Basic training for kitchen chef: 3-4 years<br />Head chef: 10 years<br />B...
Average training in S/W Dev in UG Geography: 0 hours</li></ul>www.omii.ac.uk<br />
The Bus Factor<br />Photo by express000<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
I’ve maintained software in this domain and it’s just the same in any other<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Requirements for e-Research<br />Embedding e-Infrastructure in the research process<br />There is no single common e-Infra...
Particle Physics<br />The LHC grid<br /><ul><li>Centralised Experiments
Cohesive communities
Write once, read in sequence</li></li></ul><li>Arts and humanities<br />DARIAH<br /><ul><li>Distributed data
Isolated yet multidiscliplinary
Complex data federation</li></li></ul><li>Outsourcing my software will provide me with free effort<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Build it and they won’t always come...<br />
Open Source Software is Free...<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Free as in Puppy...<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />Long term costs<br />Needs love and attention<br />May lose charm after growi...
Business Modelsare confusing<br />Development Model<br />([vendor|community|mixed]/[open source|hybrid])<br />Licensing St...
Open Source Business Models<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
Sustainability Models for Research Software<br />Grant Mosaic<br />Flagship (e.g. CCPs: DL_POLY)<br />Institutional (e.g. ...
Collecting software in repositories sustains it<br />Research software should be given to software experts to sustain it<b...
Rememberyour users<br />
Engaging Research with e-Infrastructure<br />Interviews<br />Wider<br />deployment<br />Projects<br />Dissemination<br />A...
Understand the value<br />
Slide from Jim Austin<br />
Novel reuse of public sector data<br />http://www.mysociety.org<br />
Pick the right team<br />
CPOSS: Crystal Energy Landscapes<br />Understanding polymorphism in drugs<br />E.g. Dosage profile<br />Chemists<br />Comp...
Take difficult tasks…<br />
…and make them easy<br />
www.omii.ac.uk<br />Creating a Community<br /><ul><li>Who are the users of the software?
Why do they use it?
What do they value from it?
What is their relationship between developers and users?
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Software Sustainability: Looking Past the Myths

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A public lecture given at the e-Science Institute and online on 29th October 2009.

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Software Sustainability: Looking Past the Myths

  1. 1. Software Sustainability:<br />Neil Chue Hong<br />Director, OMII-UK<br />e-Science Institute,<br />Edinburgh, 29 October 2009<br />Thanks to: Rob Baxter for the original idea and discussion;<br />Malcolm Atkinson, Jim Austin, David De Roure, Carole Goble, and Jen Schopf for their input and slides I’ve borrowed; and especially Simon Hettrick for the imagery and extra research<br />
  2. 2. The challenges of enduring<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Why do myths begin?<br />Miscommunication<br />Uncertainty<br />Misunderstanding<br />Doubt<br />Misinformation<br />Fear<br />
  5. 5. “one Spartan was worth several men of any other state”<br />
  6. 6. Collecting software in repositories sustains it<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  7. 7. Preserving something …<br />
  8. 8. … is not the <br />same as sustaining it<br />
  9. 9. Comparing Apples and Oranges?<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  10. 10. Comparing Apples and Oranges?<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  11. 11. Comparing Apples and Books!<br />Storage lifespan: <br />~12 months<br />Storage lifespan: <br />~ 50 years<br />Which one is closer to the lifespan of software?<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  12. 12. Reproducible Research<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  13. 13. Research software should be given to software experts to sustain it<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  14. 14. Some things are best kept together<br />
  15. 15. Can we throw things over the wall?<br />“Sustainability is not an issue for researchers, we want others to take the software over subject to IP issues”<br />“Sustainability is a big issue, we are producing complex tools we want to continue to use but it’s not clear how they’ll be sustained”<br />- Quotes taken from ENGAGE interviews<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  16. 16. Best practice development models<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />Agile<br />Working together<br />Rigid<br />Photo by HamedSaber<br />
  17. 17. The Rise and Fall of Netscape<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  18. 18. CASTEP: keeping up with the community<br />Individual<br />Group<br />Consortium<br />W/ industry<br />Community<br />Active<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  19. 19. I can program– I can look after it<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  20. 20. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing<br />
  21. 21. A quick comparison<br />Photo by ZagatBuzz<br />Basic training for kitchen chef: 3-4 years<br />Head chef: 10 years<br />Basic training for s/w engineer: 3-4 years<br />Architect: 10 years<br /><ul><li>Average training in S/W Dev in UG Physics: 140 hours
  22. 22. Average training in S/W Dev in UG Geography: 0 hours</li></ul>www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  23. 23. The Bus Factor<br />Photo by express000<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  24. 24. I’ve maintained software in this domain and it’s just the same in any other<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Requirements for e-Research<br />Embedding e-Infrastructure in the research process<br />There is no single common e-Infrastructure<br />Ease of use is the initial barrier<br />Dealing with complexity is complex<br />Trust is important<br />Open development is necessary<br />Give credit for digital creation<br />Attitudes must be changed<br />~70 attendees (developers, PIs, managers, researchers and funders)<br />http://www.nesc.ac.uk/technical_papers/UKeS-2009-01.pdf<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  29. 29. Particle Physics<br />The LHC grid<br /><ul><li>Centralised Experiments
  30. 30. Cohesive communities
  31. 31. Write once, read in sequence</li></li></ul><li>Arts and humanities<br />DARIAH<br /><ul><li>Distributed data
  32. 32. Isolated yet multidiscliplinary
  33. 33. Complex data federation</li></li></ul><li>Outsourcing my software will provide me with free effort<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  34. 34. Build it and they won’t always come...<br />
  35. 35. Open Source Software is Free...<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  36. 36. Free as in Puppy...<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />Long term costs<br />Needs love and attention<br />May lose charm after growing up<br />Occasional clean-ups required<br />Many left abandoned by their owners<br />
  37. 37. Business Modelsare confusing<br />Development Model<br />([vendor|community|mixed]/[open source|hybrid])<br />Licensing Strategy<br />(Dual | Open-Core | Open and Closed | Single | Assembled | Closed)<br />Revenue Trigger<br />Commercial License, Subscriptions, Service/Support, Embedded Hardware, Embedded Software, Software as a Service (SaaS), Advertising, Custom Development, Other Products and Services <br />http://blogs.the451group.com/opensource/2009/03/12/a-classification-of-open-source-business-strategies/<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  38. 38. Open Source Business Models<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  39. 39. Sustainability Models for Research Software<br />Grant Mosaic<br />Flagship (e.g. CCPs: DL_POLY)<br />Institutional (e.g. Subject repositories, CNX)<br />Fully Costed (e.g. HECTOR CSE Support)<br />Mixed Enterprise / Consultancy (e.g. SugarCRM)<br />Foundation (e.g. Sakai, R)<br />T-shirt<br />UK e-Science Core Programme: Business Models for Sustainability (2007)<br />http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/einfrastructure/day2_breakoutbusinessmodels.pdf<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  40. 40. Collecting software in repositories sustains it<br />Research software should be given to software experts to sustain it<br />I can program – I can look after it<br />I’ve maintained software in this domain and it’s just the same in any other<br />Outsourcing my software will provide me with free effort<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Rememberyour users<br />
  43. 43. Engaging Research with e-Infrastructure<br />Interviews<br />Wider<br />deployment<br />Projects<br />Dissemination<br />Adoption<br />New requirements<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Understand the value<br />
  46. 46. Slide from Jim Austin<br />
  47. 47. Novel reuse of public sector data<br />http://www.mysociety.org<br />
  48. 48. Pick the right team<br />
  49. 49. CPOSS: Crystal Energy Landscapes<br />Understanding polymorphism in drugs<br />E.g. Dosage profile<br />Chemists<br />Computational<br />Experimental<br />Developers<br />Domain<br />S/W Engineers<br />Integrators<br />Research Computing Services<br />Facilitator<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkbRwOWmiwo<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  50. 50. Take difficult tasks…<br />
  51. 51. …and make them easy<br />
  52. 52. www.omii.ac.uk<br />Creating a Community<br /><ul><li>Who are the users of the software?
  53. 53. Why do they use it?
  54. 54. What do they value from it?
  55. 55. What is their relationship between developers and users?
  56. 56. What do people want to do?
  57. 57. not how can they use what we’ve got to do it</li></li></ul><li>www.omii.ac.uk<br />Helping establish communities<br />Communities require more than functional software<br /><ul><li>documentation and training
  58. 58. guaranteed long-term support
  59. 59. stable APIs as well as interoperable standards
  60. 60. sharing of best practice and issues</li></ul>Clear understanding of the requirements that make them a distinct community<br />
  61. 61. The R Project for Statistical Computing<br />1993: First public release; 2 devs<br />1995: Code open sourced; 3 devs<br />1996: r-testers list set up<br />1997: lists split: r-announce, r-help, r-devel; public CVS; 11 devs<br />2000: CRAN split and mirror<br />2001: BioConductor<br />2003: Namespaces<br />2005: I8n, L8n<br />2007: R-Forge<br />Today: BioConductor (33 core devs), R-Forge (532 projects, 1562 devs), CRAN (1400+ packages)<br />http://cran.r-project.org/doc/html/interface98-paper/paper_2.html<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  62. 62. GridSAM: GrowingCommunity<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  63. 63. OGSA-DAI<br />R and OGSA-DAI?<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  64. 64. Nominate your successor<br />
  65. 65. The Trade-Offs of a Larger Community<br />“Connected, distributed systems, from power grids to business firms to even entire economies, are both more fragile and more robust than populations of isolated entities.”<br />Duncan J. Watts<br />Professor of Sociology, Columbia University<br /> Sometimes the thing that kills software is that the community becomes too fragile<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  66. 66. Beat the bus and save your software<br />http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-4216011961522818645#<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  67. 67. Mnemosyne: Remember your Users<br />Zeus: Understand the Value<br />Jason: Pick the right Team<br />Sisyphus: Take difficult tasks and make them Easy<br />Sibilla de Fortia: Nominate your Successor<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  68. 68. Software Sustainability: a new dawn?<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  69. 69. Software Sustainability:<br />Thanks to: Rob Baxter for the original idea and discussion;<br />Malcolm Atkinson, Jim Austin, David De Roure, Carole Goble, and Jen Schopf for their input and slides I’ve borrowed; and especially Simon Hettrick for the imagery and extra research<br />
  70. 70. www.omii.ac.uk<br />Software development comes in stages<br />(and it takes time)<br />
  71. 71. Software development comes in stages<br />Idea<br />Prototype<br />Research<br />Idea<br />Prototype<br />Idea<br />Idea<br />Prototype<br />Research<br />Supported<br />Product<br />Idea<br />Prototype<br />Research<br />Supported<br />An idea to solve a problem<br />Understand the functionality<br />Scaling to work for others<br />Allow othersto participate<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  72. 72. Commissioned Software Programme @ Q1 ‘08<br />Supporting<br />Developing<br />Evaluating<br />AHE<br />GridSAM<br />OGRSH<br />BPEL Designer<br />GridBS Broker<br />Grimoires<br />KNOOGLE<br />SAGA<br />RAPID<br />VIC<br />Open Grid Manager<br />PAG<br />RAVE<br />NGS JSDL App Rep<br />WHIP<br />RAT<br />SCAMP<br />OMII-AuthZ<br />NDG Security<br />WSRF::<br />Lite<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />
  73. 73. Commissioned Software Programme @ Q3 ‘08<br />Supporting<br />Developing<br />Evaluating<br />AHE<br />SAGA<br />GridSAM<br />GridBS Broker<br />RAPID<br />BPEL Designer<br />ICT<br />GridSAM<br />Grimoires<br />KNOOGLE<br />PAG<br />OGRSH<br />VIC<br />Open Grid Manager<br />RAVE<br />NGS JSDL App Rep<br />WHIP<br />RAT<br />SCAMP<br />OMII-AuthZ<br />NDG Security<br />WSRF::<br />Lite<br />Commissioned Software Projects progress through <br />the software lifecycle<br />www.omii.ac.uk<br />

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