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  1. 1. Women’s Health Issues Sexually Transmitted Infections Chapter 15 By: Nicole Paglia
  2. 2. STIS and STDS <ul><li>Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexually transmitted diseases are infections or disease that are passed on from person to person. This mainly happens through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. </li></ul><ul><li>The most known and common infections and diseases are HIV, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis (BV). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ways STIS Can be Transmitted <ul><li>Sexually transmitted infections can be spread by many ways for instance: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal secretions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge from sores or lesions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without using protection between the body and parts involved it can be transmitted through vaginal, oral, and anal sex. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If body fluids from sores or lesions get in contact with razors, needles, or other objects such as sex toys can pass on STIs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even in some cases skin to skin contact can cause transmission of STIs for example like herpes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Symptoms of STIS <ul><li>Common symptoms of STIs to look out for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pain or burning during urination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Itching, discharge, or an unusual smell from the vagina, penis, or anus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For women, sharp pains in the lower stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growths, bumps, sores, or rashes, often around the genitals or anal area. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, some people may not show any symptoms but may still have an STI. This can happen with Chlamydia and gonorrhea. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Contributions to getting an STI <ul><li>Biological Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women are most likely to catch an STI than men are due to the fact that it is easier for germs to get inside our bodies than men’s. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age has an affect for women such as young women’s cervixes is not fully developed so it can more vulnerable to infection. And older women’s linings get thinner and drier which can cause breakage during sex which can cause more vulnerability to infection. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social and Cultural Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being sexually active with more than one partner (ages between 15-24 are at more risk) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violence and rape rates are higher </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Can STIS be Curable? <ul><li>There are some STIs that can be curable if they are caused by bacteria, protozoa, or other microorganisms. These STIs can be cured with antibiotics, creams and lotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Other STIs such as Viral STIs can not be cured just treated for comfort and relives symptoms and to help slow the progression of the infection. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bacterial STIS Example (Can be curable if caught in time and treated with antibiotics) <ul><li>Chlamydia: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread by vaginal, oral and anal sex, mother to baby at birth, or touching hand with infected fluid to eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms can appear 7-14 days after intercourse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms may not appear in 4 out of 5 women. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If symptoms do appear in women: vaginal discharge, painful urination, and bleeding after sex. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms in men: Burning discharge from penis. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Gonorrhea <ul><ul><ul><li>Spread by vaginal, oral and anal sex, mother to baby at birth, or touching hand with infected fluid to eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear 2-30 days after intercourse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No symptoms is common for most women, if causes would appear there would be thick discharge from vagina or bleeding, sore throat, painful urination, and swollen glands. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms for men thick discharge from penis, burning during urination. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Syphilis <ul><li>Spread by sexual or skin contact with infected person. Open rashes or sores anywhere on the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear in primary stage 10-90 days and second stage 1-6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Stage Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painless sores on or around the vagina, penis, mouth or anus. Sores can heal with in 1-5 weeks but bacteria will stay within the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Stage Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non itchy rashes, flu like symptoms, swollen glands, warts, and hair loss. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Viral STIS (Not curable, treatments available for comfort and to slow down progression of infection) <ul><li>Herpes I and II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I: more common to infect the mouth but can appear on gentiles. Spread while having an outbreak and when no symptoms are visible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II: gentile herpes, which is more serious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First outbreak can occur 2-10 days after contact and may recur within 3-12 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms are clusters of ulcerated painful blisters in mouth or gentile areas, painful urination, discharge, swollen glands, fever, and body aches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When infected with Herpes you are infected for life. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) <ul><li>Spread by sexual contact with infected person </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may appear several months to years after infection begins </li></ul><ul><li>The virus is not visible, small painless lesions occur on the cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Causes in increase risk of cervical Cancer </li></ul>
  12. 12. Genital Warts <ul><li>An STI caused by HPV </li></ul><ul><li>Spread by contact with warts </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear 3 weeks to several months after contact with infected person </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include wart like growths with itching, irritation, and bleeding. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hepatitis B <ul><li>Spread by sexual contact and needle sharing, may infect a baby before or at birth </li></ul><ul><li>May appear between 6 weeks-6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include loss of appetite, weakness, muscle pain, headache, fever, and dark urine. Symptoms may be hard to catch. </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to chronic cancers and liver problems </li></ul>
  14. 14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) <ul><li>Spread by sexual contact, blood, body fluids, sharing needles, breast feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Usually will receive positive blood test within 6 weeks to 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>It can take up to ten years or more for AIDS to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms are very mild if any at all. They can include swollen glands, sore throat, night sweats, weight loss, and sores in mouth. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Trichomonas Vaginalis <ul><li>Spread by sexual contact, contact with sexual fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear within 6 months of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms for women: bad smelling greenish-yellow discharge, vaginal itching, irritation or redness. Also, can be painful during intercourse, lower abdominal pain, and sudden urges to urinate. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bacterial Vaginosis/Yeast Infection <ul><li>May or may not involve sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may include vaginal discharge, bas smelling, and itching. </li></ul><ul><li>For yeast infection it will include clumpy discharge, and an odor. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Scabies and Crabs (mites and lice) <ul><li>Spread by sexual and other close contact. Sometimes by clothes or a bed. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear within 2-4weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include severe itching when mites burrow under the skin and crabs and eggs attach to hair. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Places that Provide Care <ul><li>Public health clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning clinics </li></ul><ul><li>Primary care Physician </li></ul><ul><li>The emergency room </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to get checked whether or not you have symptoms because symptoms are not always visible or noticeable. </li></ul>
  19. 19. A quote that struck me: “One thing that helped me to deal with having an STI was to realize that I was part of a mighty big club: 40 million strong. Another thing that helped was telling my dad, a doctor in my hometown of Fargo, ND. The first thing he said was “Hey, its not going to be a big deal. Herpes is one of the least serious medical conditions you are going to have.” he was right.” The reason this quote struck me is after you face the fact that you have herpes and how you are going to deal with it, thinking positive is one of the best things you can do for yourself.
  20. 20. Discussion Questions: Protection for women against STIs and STDs are very important considering the fact we are more likely to get infected than men. Do you believe that there is enough protection out there for women? Do you believe that finding more products that protect women from STIs should be a high priority?
  21. 21. Reference <ul><li>Women, B. (2005). Our bodies, Our selves: A new Edition For A New Era. Touchstone. </li></ul>