THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
revolution started in
England in the last
decades of the
and it spread ou to
countries very soon.
It had huge
IN XIX CENTURY
In XIX century Poland was
divided into three parts
between Russia, Austria
so the industrial revolution
was not as strong as in
other parts of Europe.
The industry developed the
best in German part then in
Russian and finally in
- Śląsk – mining and steel
industry (mines of iron,
stone coal and zinc ores)
- Łódź and Żyrardów –
- Dąbrowa Górnicza –
There were used modern
methods and equipment.
In this time many great Polish scientists left
the country, because of difficult political
situation, so a lot of inventions were
–he built Trans-Andean Railways; it is the
second highest in the world.
Kazimierz Gzowski – he built the
bridge between Canada and USA
above Niagara Falls.
Gabriel Narutowicz – he built
hydroelectric power station in
Switzerland and other
Ignacy Mościcki – he invented a method
of getting synthetic fertilizer.
Michał Doliwo-Dobrowolski – he worked
on electricity and he invented many
In Poland it is worth to mention:
- Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski –
they condensed oxygen and nitrogen in low
- Ignacy Łukasiewicz – he founded first oil
mine in the world and created oil lamp.
Wróblewski and Olszewski
INDUSTRY IN FRANCE
Iron and steel industry
Main industrial town
The main French industrial
areas are located in
- Northen France
France ( Motte-
Iron and steel industry in
Coal pit on
were very hard:
-children from 6
years old worked in
the mines and cloth
- women and childre
were very poorly
paid, half of what
- 15 hours work a day
- no safe working
-- hard rules in the
By the end of the XIXth century,
after many strikes, laws had
improved the working condition
• 1813 : employing children under 10 in the
pits is forbidden
• 1841 : rules about childre working time
• 1874 : creation of Labour inspectors;
children’s work forbidden under 12.
• 1893 : law about safety and healthyness at
work; workday for children mustn’t excess 10
• 1914: some jobs are forbidden for women
Lyon and Saint-
1831 First locomotive
between Lyon and Saint-
1837: first train for
passengers between Paris
Towns change: they grow,
they are more modern:
48% of French inhabitants
live in towns
Development in the 19th and
beginning of the 20th century
Norway in the beginning
of the 19th century
• Norway was a peasant society.
• There were about 883 000 Norwegians and about
80% of these lived on agriculture.
• Other important sections of the economy were
fisheries and forestry.
• Industry consisted of small businesses manufacturing
soap, bricks, glass, iron furnaces and beer.
• Production was small and the majority of operations
performed by hand.
First development of industry
from the mid 19th century
• New, manufacturing industries
arrived in Norway from Great
Britain in the 1840s.
• Knowledge and machines imported
• The first textile mills built in
Christiania (later called Oslo) and
near Trondheim and Bergen.
• Engineering workshops came
around the same date.
• Cellulose factories came in the
1860s and 1870s.
Several new industries
• Development in iron and metal industry.
• Norway started producing its own machines.
• Companies that used Norwegian ingredients (fish and
timber) in production for a foreign market appeared in
• Canning and pulp industry date from this period.
• The power of waterfalls harnessed, factories began
• The exploitation of hydroelectric power lead to
construction of electrochemical factories producing
e.g. aluminium, zinc, nitrate, carbide.
Development of new industrial towns
Høyanger 1917, one year after
the work on establishing
The aluminium factory today
Development in infrastructure
• New roads built.
• New railways made it much easier to travel and send mail and
• The steamer, the postal and telegraphic services linked the
different parts of the country.
• The urban population increased from 15% to 30% of the total
population between 1865 and 1900.